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THE 



PENNY CYCLOPEDIA 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



FOR THE 



DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



VOLUME XXV. 
TITLES OF HONOUR UNGULA. 



^LONDON: " 
CHARLES knight' AND Co., 22, LUDGATE STREET. 

MDCCCXLIIL 



Pric( Seven SuUineit and Sixvence, bovnd in chA. 

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''^t i-^*^. 



OOMIUKXTTBB. 

C^trmon— LORD BROUGHAM. F.RJ3., Member of tbe National Inbtitutc uf France. 

Ftce-CAotnium— EARL SPENCER. 

TVtfOtwffT— JOHN WOOD, Esq. 



WiUiam AUen. Esq.. F.R. and KA.S. 

Captain Beaufort, K.N., F.R. and R.A.S. 

George Buxtowb, M.D.. 

Profeaior Caxey, A.M. 

John Conolly. M.D. 

William Coulson, Esq. 

Lord Campbell. 

Tiie BUhop of St. David's, D.D. 

J.F. Duvia.Esq.,F.R.S. 

Sir Henry De la Beche, F.R.S. 

Lord Denman. 

Samuel Duckworth, Esq. 

The BUhop of Dorham, D.D. 

Profenor De Morj^an. 

T. F Ellis, Esq., A.M.. FJl.A.S. 

John Elllotmn, M.D.. F.R.S. 

Thomas Falconer, Esq. 

John Forbes, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir I. L. Goldsmid. Bart., F.R. and R A.S. 

F. H. Goldsmid, Esq. 



B. Gomperta, Bsq., F.R. and R.A.S. 

Professor Graves, A.M., F.R.S. 

G. B. Greenoogh, Esq.. F.R. and L.S. 

Sir Edmund ^ad. Bart., A.M. 

M. D.Hill. Esq., Q.G. 

Rowland RQl, Bmi., F.1LA,S. 

Right Hon. Sir J. C. Hobbouse, Bart., II.P. 

Thos. Hodgkin. M.D. 

David Jardine, Esq., A.M. 

Henry B. Ker. Esq. 

Professor Key. A.M. 

Sir Denis Le Marchant, Bart 

John Shaw Lefevre, Esq., A.M. 

Sir Chnrles Lemon, fiarC, M«P. 

George C. Lewis, Ssq., A.M. 

James Loch, Esq., M.P.. F.G.S. 

Professor Long, A.M. 

Right Hon..H. Lushington, D.C.L. > 

Professor Maiden, A.M. 

A.T.Malkin, Esq., AM. 



Mr. Sergeant Manning. 

R. L Murchison, Esq., F.R.S., Pres. G.S. 

The Right Hon. Lord Nugent. 

W.S. O'Brien, Esq., M.P. 

John Lewis F^evost, Esq. 

Professor Quain. 

P. M.Roget, M.D.. Sec. R.S., F.R.A.S. 

R. W. Rothman, Esq., A.M. 

SirMarUu Archer Shee, P.R.A, F.R.S. 

Sir George T.Staunton. Bart., M.P. 

John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. 

Professor Thomson, M.D., F.L.S. 

Thomas Vardon, Esq. 

Jacob Waley, Esq.. M.A. 

Jas. Walker, Esq., F.R.S., Pr. InsU Civ. Eng. 

H. Waymouth, 1^. 

Thos. Webster, Esq., A.M. 

Right Hon. Lord Wrottesley, A.M., F.R.A.S. 

J. A. Yates, Esq. 



XiOOAZi COMMXTTBBS. 



Allm, 5(q^diAtr«— Rev. J. P. Jones. 
ifn^toea—Rev. E. Williams. 

Rev. W. Johnson. 

- Miller, Esq. 
BanutapU^ — Bencraft, Esq. 

WiUUm Gribble, E»q. 
Bdjiut — Jas. L. Drummoud. M.D. 
BirmiMgham—'Phxxl Moon James, Esq., Trea- 

turer. 
Bridport—Jamea Williams. Esq. 
Bristol- J. N.Sanders, Esq.. F.G.S.. Chairman. 

3. Reynolds, Esq., Treasurer. 

J. B. Estlin, Esq., F.L.S., Secretary. 
Calcutta — James Young, Esq. 

C. H. Cameron, Esq. 
Cambridge—tLey. Leonard Jenyns, M.A., F.L.S. 

Rev. John I.odge. M.A. 

Rev. Prof. Sedewick, M.A., F.R.S. fc G.S. 
Canterbury— John Brent, Esq , Alderman. 

William Masters, Esq. 
Cnr/is/e— Thomas Barnes, M.D., F.R S.E. 
Carnarvon—^. A. Poola, Esq. 

William Roberts, Esq. 
Chester— Uenry Potts, Esq. 
Chichetter—C. C. Dendy. Esq. 
CocAtfiiRMrtA— Rev. J. Whitridge. 
Curjk— John Crawford, Esq. 

Plato Potrides. Haq. 
Coccntry—C. Bray, Esq. 
Denbigh— Thovaaa Evans. Esq. 
2^{<f--J(»eph Strutt, Esq. 

Edward Strutt, Esq., M.P. 
Detwport and Stonahoute— John Cole, Esq. 

John Norman, Fisq. 

Lt. Col. C. Hamilton Smith, F.R.S. 
Durham — The Very Rev. the Dean. 
£dinburgh-J. S. Trail, M.D. 



£(rwta~ Joeioh Wedgwood, Esq. 
E»eter—J. IVrrell, Esq. 

John Milford, Esq. (Coae^r.) 
aiamorganshire—W. Williams, Esq., Aber- 

pergwm. 
Glasgow -K. Finlay, Esq. 

Alexander McGrigor, Esq. 

James Conpcr, Esq. 

A. J. D. DX)ney, Eh. 
Ouemsey—V. C. Lukiss, Biq. 
Hitcham, SuOUkr-Bev. Professor Henslow, 

M.A., F.L.S. 8e G.S. 
HuU^JtiXaet Bowden, Esq. 
Leedt-^. MkrshaU. Ek|. 
Letees—J. W. Woollgar, Esq. 

Henry Browne, Escl 
lAverpodl Loe. Am.— J. Mulleneux, Esq. 

Rev. Wm. Sbepheid, LL.D. 
IfoMttM^- Clement T. Snylh, Esq. 

John Case, Esq. 
Manehe$ter Loc. As.-G. W. Wood, Esq., 
M.P., Chairman. 

Sir Benjamin Heywood, Bt.. Treasurer. 

Sir Georm Philips. Bart., M.P. 

T. N. Wfnstanlev, Esq., Hon. See. 
Menfwr TydviiSxr'j.J.QntsX, Bart., M.P. 
MindunhampUm — John G. Ball, Esq. 
iVeatA— John Rowland, Esq. 
Newoaide—'R»v, W. Turner. 

T. Sopwith. Esq. 
Newwn, Isle of fT^- Ah. Clarke, Esq. 

T. Cooke, Jun., Esq. 

R.G. Kiikpatrick.Esq. 
Neufport Pagnell—J. Milhir, Esq. 
Norwich — Richard Bacon, Esq. 

Wm. Forster, Esq. 
Orsettt Saes—T>T. Corbett. 



THOMAS COATES, Esq., Secretary, No. 42, Bedford Square. 



Oxford— Ch. Danbeny, M.D., F.R.S., Prof. Ghem. 

Rev. Baden Powell, Say. Prof. 

Rev. John Jordan, BA. 
Pesth, Hmigmy—CauuX Szechenyi. 
PfymoirtA— H. WooUoombe, Esq., F.A.S., Chairn. 

Wm. Snow Harris. Esq., F.R.S. 

E. Moor, M.D., F.L.S., Secretary. 

G. Wightwick, Esq. 
Presteign—Rt. Hon. Sir H. Brydges, Bart. 

A. W. Davis. M.D. 
Aipoa— Rev. H. P. Hamilton, M.A.» F.R.S., G.S. 

Rev. P. Ewart, M.A. 
Ruthin— The Rev. the Warden. 

Humphreys Jones, Esq. 
Ryde, Isle o/fnght—Sa R. D. Simoon, Bt. 
Salisbury— IXav. J. BarGtt. 
Sheffield- J. H. Abraham, Esq. 
Shepton Mallet— O. F. Burrouglis, Es<i. 
ShrewAm^—fL. A. Slaney, Esq. 
South PMAerton-^Joha Nicholetts, Esq. 
Stockport— 11. Marsland, Esq., Treasurer. 

Henry Coppock, Esir., Secretary. 
Sydney, New S. fVales—Yf. M. Manning, lijq. 
Stoansea — Matthew Moggridge, Esq. 
raeirtocA— Rev. W. Evans. 

John Rundle, Esq., M.P. 
TVtrro— Henrv Se well Stokes, Esq. 
Tunbridge /y'elh— Dr. Yeats. 
C7(torete7^-Robort Blurton, Esq. 
Virginia, U. S.—Ptoteuot Tucker. 
^(Orcefler— Chas. Hastings, M.D. 

C. H. Hebb, Esq. 
^r«jrAam— Thomns Edgworth, Esci. 

M^ior Sir William Lloyd. 
FarmotttA— C. E. Rumbold, Esc^. 

Dawson Turner, Esq. 
FyrA— Rev. J. Kenrick, If .A. 

John Phillips. Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. 



London : Printed by William Clowes and Sons, Stamford Street. 



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THE SOCIETY FOR THE DIFFUSION OF 
USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



T I T 

TITLES OP HONOUR are words or phrases which cer- 
tain persons are entitled to claim as their right, in con- 
sequence of certain dignities bein^ inherent in them. 
They var3r in a manner corresponding^ to the variety of 
the dignities, or, in other words, with the rank of the pos- 
sessor. Thus Emperor, King, Czar, Prince, are titles of 
honour, and the possessors of the high dignities represented 
by these words are, by the common consent of the civilized 
world, entitled to be so denominated, and to be addressed 
by such terms as Your Majesty and Your Royal Highness. 
These are the terms used in England, and the phrases in 
use in other countries of Europe do not much difPer from 
them. In fact one European nation seems to have bor- 
rowed from another, or all to have taken their titles of 
honour for this exalted rank from a common original ; so 
that little of the peculiar genius of the European nations 
can be traced in the terms by which they show their 
respect for the persons of highest dignity, oxii it is dif- 
ferent when we come to compare them with the Oriental 
nations. In those seats of antient civilization the most 
extravagant terms of compliment are in use, and a little 
sovereign of a wandering tribe rejoices in titles of honour 
numerous and inflated in the highest degree. In the series 
of Roman emperors, the word Caesar, originally the name 
of a family, became a title of honour ; Augustus was ano- 
ther ; and Pater Patris a third. 

The five orders of nobility in England are distin- 
guished by the titles of honour, Duke, Mari^uis, Earl, 
Viscount, and Baron : and the persons in whom the 
dignity of the peerage inheres are entitled to be de- 
signated bv these words ; and if in any legal proceedings 
they should be otherwise designated, there would be a 
misnomer by which the proceedings would be vitiated, just 
as when a private person is wrongly described in an indict- 
ment ; that is, the law or the custom of the realm 
guarantees to them the possession of these terms of honour, 
as it does of the dignities to which they correspond. They 
are also entitled to be addressed by such phrases as My 
Lord, My Lord Marquis, My Lord Duke, and they have 
usually prefixed to their titles, properly so called, certain 
phrases, as High and Mighty Prince, Most Noble, Ri^ht 
Honourable, var3ring with the kind and degree of the dig- 
nity possessed by them. The other members of the fami- 
lies of peers have also their titles of honour. Thus the 
lady of a peer has rank and titles corresponding with those 
of the husband. All the sons and daughters of peers are 
Honoiutible, but the daughters of * earls and peers of a 
higher dignity are entitled to the distinction of being 
called Lady, and the younger sons of dukes and marquises 
are by custom addressed as My Lord. 

The orders of nobility in other European countries differ 
little from our own. They have their Dukes, Marquises, 
Counts, Viscounts, and Barons. We cannot enter into the 
nice distinctions in the dignities of foreign nations, or in 
the titles of honour which correspond to them. 

Another dignity which brings with it the right to a title 
P. C^No. 1552. 



T I T 

of honour is that of knighthood. This dignity is of very 
antient origin, and, in the form in which we now see it, 
may be traced far into the depths of the middle ages, if it 
be not, as some suppose, a continuation of the Equites of 
Rome. Persons on whom this honour is conferred take 
rank above the gentlemen and esquires, and are entitled 
to the prefix Sir to their former name and surname. Their 
wives also are entitled to prefix the word Dame, and to be 
addressed by the compellation Your Ladyship or My Lady. 
The Knights of particular Oixlers, as of the Garter, the 
Thistle, St. Patrick, the Bath, are a kind of select number 
of the body of the knighthood, and the name of the Order 
to which they belong is ordinarily used by and of them, 
and thus becomes of the nature of a title of honour. The 
Bannerets of former ages were a class of knights superior 
to the ordinary knight-bachelor, forming in fact an Order 
intermediate between the knight, in its ordinary sense, and 
the baron. The Baronet, which is <}uite a new dignity, 
not having been known before the reign of James 1 , has, 
besides its name, which is placed after the name and sur- 
name of the person spoken of, the privilege of prefixing 
Sir ; and their wives are entitled to tne prefix of Dame, and 
to be addressed as My Lady and Your Ladyship. 

Besides these, there are the ecclesiastical dignities of 
Bishop and Archbishop, which bring with them the right 
to certain titles of honour besides the phrases by which the 
dignity itself is designated. And custom seems to have 
sanctioned the claim of the persons who possess inferior 
dignities in the church to certain honourable titles or 
compellations, and it is usual to bestow on all persons who 
are admitted into the clerical order the title of Reverend.*" 

There are also academical distinctions which are of the 
nature of titles of honour, although they are not usually 
considered to fall under the denomination. Municipal 
offices have also titles accompanjdng them ; and in the 
law there are very eminent offices the names of which be- 
come titles of honour to the possessors of them, and which 
bring with them the right to certain terms of distinction. 

All titles of honour appear to have been originally 
names of office. The earl in England had in former ages 
substantial duties to perform in his county, as the 
sheriff (the Vice-Comes or Vice-Earl) has now; but the ^ 
name has remained now that the peculiar duties are gone, ^ 
and so it is with respect to other dignities. The emperor 
or king, the highest dignity known in Europe, still per- 
forms the duties which originally belonged to the office, or 
at least the most important of them, as well as enjgys the 
rank, dignity, and honours ; and on the Continent there 
are dukes and earls who have still an important political 
character. 

Some of these dignities and the titles correspondent 
to them are hereditary. So were the eminent offices 
which they designate in the remote ages, when there were 
duties to be performed. Hence hereditary titles. 
* The distinction which the possession of titles of 
honour gives in society has always made them objects of 

Vol. XXV,-B 



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ambition; and it may be questioned whether, as far as 
there has been any feeling in operation besides that of a 
sense of duty, the great exertions which are made in the 
sei-vice of the country are not stimulated less by the ex- 
pectation of pecuniary reward, than by the hope of receiv- 
ing one of these titles of honour which shall descend to a 
man's posterity. They cost nothing ; and hence it is that 
titles of honour have been called ' the cheap defence of 
nations.' 

Whoever wishes to study this subject in all its details 
will do well to resort to two ^eat works ; one, the late 
* Reports of the Lords' Committees on the dignity of the 
Peerage;' tlie other, the large treatise on ' Titles of 
'Honour,' by the learned Selden. The latter was first 
printed in4to., 1614 ; again,with large additions, folio, 1631. 

TITMICE, Paridce, a natural family of Perching 
Birds. [Insessores.] 

Linnaeus, in his last edition of the Sustema Naturtp^ placed 
the genus Parus between Pipra and Hirundoj in his order 
Passeres, 

Latham arranges it also at the end of the same order. 

Pennant too gives it a place in the Passerine section, 
between the Warblers and the Swallows. 

M. de Lac^p^de places it immediately before the Larks ; 
M. Dum6ril in the eighth family of the Passeres (Subu- 
lirostresj or Rar>hioramphes\ in company with the Mana- 
kins. Larks, and Bee-fins; M. Meyer, in the third suborder 
(Subulate) of his fifih order {Osdines), between Alauda and 
Regulus ; llli^er, at the head of the Poiserini, among the 
Ambulatores^ immediately before Alauda ; Cuvier, among 
the Conirostres^ directly after the Larks ; Vieillot, in the 
family oi /Egithalesin the tribe Anisodactyli; Temminck, 
iti the order Granivoresy between the Larks and Buntings ; 
and Latreille in the family ConirosireSy also between the 
Larks and the Buntings. Selby arranges it between the 
same two forms. 

Mr. Vigors places the genus Parui among the Pipridtp, 
in his order Dentirostrbs. In his paper On the Natural 
Affinities that connect the Orders and Families qf Birds^* 
he remarks that the true Wrens of the SylviadtB, a family 
which in his arrangement immediately precedes the 
PxpRiDA, display in their general appearance and habits so 
close a similaiity to Parus^ Linn., the Titmouse of our 
naturalists, that we may at onee acknowledge the affinity 
between the latter family and that of Pipridee, upon which 
he enters by means of the Pari. • A«d who is there,* he 
aaks, ' that has not been attracted by the interesting man- 
ners of both these familiar visitors of our domestic hauntsi 
and at the same time has not been struck with their resem- 
blance?' The Penduline Titmouse^ Parus pendulinus^ 
Linn., with its bill longer and more slfender than that of 
the Pari in general, seems to him to be the connecting 
link between the families. That species, he observes, is 
immediately met by the genus Tyrannulus of M. Vieillot, 
which in the name of Roitelet Mesange (Titmouse- Wren), 
confeiTed by Buffbn on the American species of which it 
is composed, happily illusfratea the affinity which he has 
pointed out* It is {^easing, he remarks, to trace in 
groups which bear a general affinity to each other in thcvir 
more essential characters, an affinity also in iei« consequen* 
tial partioulars, and he calls attention to the fact that this 
is the case in the c(hiterminous groups of fVrens and Tit- 
mice with respect to their mode of nidification; for the 
greater portion of both make their nests in holes of trees, 
but those poups which most nearly approach each other, 
▼iz., Regutas, Tyrannulus, and Parus pendulinw, suspend 
thein from the branches, leaving the orifice at the <ientre, 
and interlaj3ing the materials of which it is composed with 
^ corresponding ingenuity and elegance. Mr. Vigors goes 
on to remind his readers that the affinity between these 
birds has been acknowledged by scientific as well as by com- 
mon obsenrera ; and yet the former have generally ranked 
the Pari in a different tribe, and some indeed have even 
arranged them in a different order from the Sylviada?, in 
consequence of their more conical bill and the absence of 
the mandibular notch. A rigid deference to those parti- 
culars which form the characteristics of the conterminous 
subdivisions would, he admits, certainly exclude the Pari 
from the tribe of Dentirostres ; but the nature of their food, 
which eoinsists chiefly of insects, and the similarity of their 
habits, give them, he thinks, a more natural connection 
^th the families among which he has placed tiiem, than 

* • ' lifML Trant./ v^i »it». 



with the hard-billed and granivorous birds, where they are 
generally stationed. * Here,' says Mr. Vigors in continua- 
tion, 'it may also be ob8er\'ed that they form part of one 
of the extreme families of the tribe, and are immediately 
connected with a group of the preceding family of the 
Sylviada*, which passes on to the Uonirostres, the succeed- 
ing subdivision of the order. They thus are brought into 
contact with the tribe to which the strength and the coni- 
cal structure of their bill indicates a conlormity ; while at 
the same time they maintain their station among the 
groups where their manners and general economy would 
naturally place them. The Pari, which thus introduce us 
into the preseht ikmily, lead us on to the more typical 
groups of the Linnean PiprtSj with which they bear an ac- 
knowledged affinity in manners and general appearance. 
The genus Pardalotus, Vieill., which is the representative 
of the latter group in Australasia, appears to connect these 
two allied groups of the Old and the New World, by 
exhibiting the n^rfy divided foot of the one, and the par- 
tially curved bill of the other. Here come in the Rupicola, 
Brifts., lind PBiBAlvkA, Vieill. And here, as I have already 
observed, when speaking of the Thrushes [Merulid-k, vol. 
XV., p. 121], I apprehend that all those groups will be 
found to assemble, which, connected with Ampelis, Linn., 
are generally denominated Berry-eaters and Chatterers ; 
such as Bombycilla, BrisS., the true Amvelis of authors, 
Casmarhinchus, Temm., and Proc7iias, 111. To these the 
genus Querula of M. Vieillot may, I think, be added. This 
group, the type of which is the Muscicapa rubricollis of 
Gmelin, is strongly allied by its bill to tlie foregoiue: ge- 
nera, while its habits equally ally it to the family of Mus- 
ciCAPiDiE, which follows. Tlie interval between the present 
groups and those of the Pari, where we entered on the 
family, appears to be filled up by a race of birds peculiar 
to New Holland, and hitherto uncharacterized, of which 
the Muscicapa pectoralis. Lath., is the type. These, 
uniting many external characters, at least, both of the 
Berry-eaters and Fly-catchers, exhibit also in general ap- 
pearance a considerable resemblance to the Pari, and wul 
be found, I conjecture, to be the connecting bond between 
all these groups. The affinity between this last family of 
the tribe and the Muscicapid^, which first met our atten- 
tion as we entered it, has already been observed when t 
rke of the separation of the broad-billed Chatterers from 
Thrushes. And thus equally, as in the former tribe, 
we may recognise the completion of a circular succession 
of affinities between all the families of the Dentirostres.'' 

The unchai-acterized group above alluded to was after- 
wards formed into the genus Pachycephala, Sw. 

Mr. Swainson {Classification of Birds) enters among the 
Titmice by the American genus Seiurus, rem aik able for 
the motion of its tail. One species, Seiurus aquaticus, 
Sw., frequents the sides of sti-earas and runs upon the 
ground, whilst another, S. aurocapillus, Sw., is, he observes, 
confined to damp woods and runs along the low branches 
of trees. Here Kfr. Swainson sees a change of economy, 
which, he says, plainly shows that nature has assumed a 
new form ; and as the habit of running along branches of 
trees is the chief faculty of the Scansonal birds, or of their 
representatives, so, he remaiks, we may suppose that the 
group next In succession to the Motacillince would possc.':>s 
something of the same characters. These he finds mani- 
fested in the genus Accentor, and he adverts to an unpub- 
lished notice which he heard read at a meeting of the 
Linnean Society of London, relating to the habits of an 
Accentor which was killed near one of the public buildintrs 
at Oxford} and which was seen to climb so adroitly rcund 
the steep abutments of those buildmgs as to baffie for a 
considerable time the aim of the person who shot it. He 
also states that he has seen the common Hedgc-spaiTow 
frequently hop along the whole length of a strong oblique 
branch, pecking into the crevices ot the bark so as to re* 
mind the observer of a scansoiial creeper, or oi a Wood- 
pecker: and he makes the Titmice a subfamily of the 
Sylviad.e, with the genera and subgenera which will be 
found in that article. [Vol. xxiii., p. 441.] 

He remarks that this subfamily may be said to com- 
mence with the genus Accentor, which stands at the con- 
fines of that group which contains the most scansoiial 
warblers in the family of the Sylviada» ' The shoi-t, 
stout, and nearly conic bills of these active little climbeis,' 
says Mr. Swainson, * are admirably adapted for pecking 
into the bark of buds, and thus extracting the small U3fi6cts 



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that there lie concealed.' Of the five types of form, or 
subgenera, proper to the genus Parus, that which Mr. 
Swainson formerly named Parisoma is, he thinks, the con- 
necting link to Accentor, It is, he observes, one of those 
small birds of South Africa figured by Le Vaillant, but of 
which the greater part are known only by his plates : the 
four othere are composed of the ordinary or typical Tit- 
mice {Parus\ the Hangnest Titmice {^githalus, Vig.), 
the Brazilian Titmice {Hylophilus^ Temm.), and yEgithnia^ 
Vieill. Parus and /Egilhalus^ he remarks, are distin- 
guished by their conic, sharp-pointed, and entire bills, 
while the three aberrant types have that organ notched ; 
but he points out that in all five the feet, so constantly 
employed in the great exertion of climbing, are particu- 
larly strong and muscular ; and that the nind-toe also, 
upon which all climbing birds depend so much for as- 
sistance, is large and powerAil. * The discovery of the 
five subgenera of ParuSy says Mr. Swainson in continua- 
tion, ' independent of the verification they afford by their 
perfect analogy to the correctness of the corresponding 
types of the genus Sylvicola, subsequently detailed, is of 
much importance, since this discovery enables us to prove, 
beyond all reasonable doubt, that neither the long-tailed 
nor the bearded tits {Parut caudaiw and. biarmicus) are 
types either of genera or subgenera. We have already 
alluded to the station, in which, after the most minute 
analysis, we have placed the Parus biarmicus^* which ib 
only an aberrant species of the restricted subgenus Parus, 
as the latter now stands : from this bird always living in 
the vicinity of water, it becomes that species which repre- 
sents the natatorial type ; while in the greatly developed 
tail of Parifs eaudatus it is easy to perceive another aber- 
rant speeies typifying the Rasores, We have repeatedly 
remarked that groups preeminently tj^pical in their own 
circle, almost invariably present us with these variations 
in the form of their aberrant species. The restricted 
genus Paru^ is precisely of this description : it is the pre* 
eminent type of an entire subfamily; and hence, 'ike 
Corvus, Laniust Sylvia, and a gp^eat number of other genera 
holding the iame rank in their own circles, it contains a 
greater variety of modifications in the form of its species 
than genera which are not preeminently typical. The 
whole of the subgenera of Parus are distinguished from 
those of Sylvicola by characters the most simple and beau« 
tiful. Th£y all have that peculiar strength of foot so con- 
spicuous in our native emmples, and their wings are inva- 
riably rounded ; that is to say, the first quill is short, and 
the second and thii*d so graduated that the fourth becomes 
the longest. The bill also is short and thick* generally 
more or less conic, and somfftimes (as in the types) very 
stiong : the upper mandible may be said to b# entire, lor 
in the only genus (Pari*omff) which has the culmeo arched, 
the notch is so small that it may be termed obsoleti^.' Mr. 
Swainson then remarks that we are thus enabled to dis- 
tin^ish the whole from the neighbouring group, Sylvicola, 
which he then enters upon. 

Notwithstanding the discovery here claimed, and th6 
assumed proof that neither the Long-tailed nor the 
Bearded Tits are tvpes either of genera or subgenera, we 
shall presently fina that ornithologists, in their publica- 
tions subsequent to that of Mr. Swainson, are not convinced ; 
but, on the contrary, still regard these two interesting 
forms as generic types. 

Mr. Yarrell places the Parid^s, or Thie Tits, between the 
Warblers, Sylviadcp^ and the AmpelieUp, the latter being 
represented "by the Bohemian Waxwing. [Bombycilla.] 

The Priwje of Canino {Birds of Europe and North Ame- 
rica, 1838) arranges the Parinof as the seventh subfamily 
of the TurdidiB, placini( it bftween th« Motacillitue (Wag- 
tails) and the Sylvicoltna. The following genera are in- 
cluded by the Prince under the Parinm : — 

Regulus, "R^y {Wren, including Gold-Crests); Parus, 
Linn. ; Mecistura, Leach (Paroides, Brehm, — Long-tailed 
Titmouse) ; Calamophilus^ Leai;h (Mystaeinus, Brehm — 
Bearded Titmouse) ; jEgithalus, Vig, (Pendulinus, Cuv.— 
Penduline Titmouse), 

Mr. G. R. Gray {List of the Genera of Birds, 1841) 
makes the Parinee the fifth subfamily of his Luscinid^e, 
and places it between the Accentorincs and the Sylvico- 
littte : the Parince, according to him, consist of the fol- 
lowing genera: — 

/Egithalus, Vig. ; Melanochlora, Less. ; Parus^ Linn. ; 
• « GhiaUlAtkm of Anhnals/ pp. S70. STl. 



Megi8tina,VML\\.'^ Turannulus, V\m. ; Sphenostoma, 
Gould ; Calamophtlus, Leach ; Orites, Maehr {Mecistura, 
Leach ; Panoides, Brehm — Long-tailed Titmouse) ; Pari- 
soma,Bvr.', Psaltria,'£emm,\ ^githina, TitiWr, Hylo- 
philus, Temm. 

in this article we shall confine ourselves to those cognate 
forms which are vernacularly known as Titmice. 

EUSOPBAN TiTUXCB. 

The following species are found in Europe : — 

The Great Tit, Parus major f the Sombre Tit, Parv* 
lugubris; iYi& ^hensiXi Tit, Parus Sibericus; theToupet 
Tit, Parus bicolor; the Azure Tit, Parus cyaneus; the 
Blue Tit, Parus ccfrulc-us; the Coal Tit. Parus ater; the 
Marsh Tit, Parus palustris ; the Crested Tit, Parus cris- 
tatus; the Long-tailed Tit, Parus eaudatus of authors 
(genus Orites) / the Bearded Tit, Parus biarmicus (genus 
Calamophiius) ; the Penduline Tit, Parus pendulinus of 
authors (genus ^githalus). 

Of these, the Great Tit, the Blue Tit, the Crested Tit, 
the Coal Tit, the Marsh Tit, the Long-tailed Tit, and the 
Bearded Tit are Biitish. 

There is little doubt that the Tits are the Alyi0a\oi 
{yEgithali) of Aristotle. TTie Great Tit, th« Long-tailed 
Tit, and the Blue Tit are referred by Belon to the aiyiOaXSc, 
the atyiOoXoc mpoc, and the rpiroc aiyiBaX^ of that author, 
and, we think, with good reason. 

The Great Tit, the Blue Tit. the CoaJ Tit, and the Marah 
Tit are too well known to require description; but a 
sketch of their habits may pot be unacceptable. White, 
speaking of the English Tit, says : — ^ Every species of tit- 
mouse winters with us : they have what I call a kind of 
intermadiata bijl between the hard and the soft, between 
the LinnoBan genera of PHn^illa and Motacilla. One 
species alone spends its whole time in the woods and fields, 
never retreating for succour in the severest seasons to 
houses and neighbourhoods;* and that is the delicate 
Long-tailed Titmouse, which is almost as minute as the 
Golden-crowned Wren ; but the Blue Titmouse or Nun 
{Parus MBTulsus), the Coal-Titmouse {Parus ater), the 
Great Black-headed Titmouse {Fringilla^o), and the Marsh 
Titmouse {Parus palustrts), all resort at times to buildings, 
and in hard weather particularly. The Great Titmouse, 
driven by stress of weather, much frequents houses ; and, 
in deep snows, I have seen this bird, while it bung with 
its back downwards (to my no small delight and admira- 
tion)) draw straws lengthwise from out the eaves of thatched 
houses, in order to pull out the flies that were concealed 
between them, and that in such numbers that they quite 
defaced the thatch, and gave it a ragged appearance. 
The Blue Titmouse, or Nun, is a great frequenter of house?, 
and a general devourer. Besides insects, it is very fond 
of flesh ; for it frequently picks bones on dunghills : it is a 
vast admirer of suet, and naunts butchers* shop. VHien 
a boy, I have known twenty in a morning caught with 
snap mouse-traps l>aited with tallow or suet. It will also 
pick holes in apples left on the ground, and be well enter- 
tained with the seeds on the head of a sun-flower. The 
Blue, Marsh, and Great Titmice will, in veiy severe weather, 
cany away barley and oat straws from the sides of ricks.' 
{Selborne.) 

We can confirm, if confirmation were needed, the ac- 
count of this admirable observer relative to the straw- 
cKfraoting labours of the Great Tit. The thatch of a root- 
house in Gloucestershire was nearly destroyed by those 
fly«seekefB : but they have more to answer for than fly- 
catching; they are small-bird murderers, and freauently 
kill theif victims by repeated blows on the head witn their 
stTong, sharp, and nard beak, for the sake of feasting on 
the brains. 

The Great Tit, without any compass to speak of, i^ a 
songster, not unadmired by some for its few but lively 
notes heralding the spring early in February. The qua- 
train in the Portraits d'Oyseaux is loud in its praise : — 

*- Au temp* d'Autoone il y a 4m mcanogett, 
jjn gmnd loison, q"i I'antent pnr let bo>s, 
Kt funt das nttfk douze oo quiiixa par fob. 

The habits of the Blue Tit are recorded by White with 
equal truth : this is the bird that fights so stoutly pro 
aris etfoeis, hissing like a meke or an angry kitten when 
her nest in the hollow of some decayed tree is invaded by 

* Bat see poit, descriptioD of that sreews. 

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the school-boy, who, if not deterred by the ominous sounds, 
often rues his temerity and draws back his hand with more 
celerity than he stretched it forth, well pecked by the 
irritated matron. Hence he calls it * Billy Biter :' by the 
way Montagu gives * Willow Biter' as one of its names. 
The latter name does not convey much meaning to any 
one acquainted with the habits of the bird ; the former 
does : may not Montagu have heard it imperfectly ? 

The pBurdener, who sees this little bird busy about the 
buds, likes it not, and in some parishes a reward has been 
set upon its head. Mr. Knapp, in his interesting Journal 
of a Naturalist^ notices such a case where the stimulus 
appears to have operated to some purpose against these 
innocent little birds, for one item passed in tne church- 
wardens' account was ' for seventeen dozen of Tomtits' 
heads.' They may, now and then, knock oif a bud in 
theii busy search for insects ; but the great good they do 
in ridding the plants of these, far outweighs any casual 
harm that may result from their industry. 

The song of the Tomtit has but little variety : the viva- 
city of the bird seems however to have found favour for 
its song with our neighbours, for the Portraits dOyseaux 
notices it with applause : — 

' L'Efte et boU Ui raewmge bleue est, 
£t nous vi^nt voir en Hyver rt Autonne, 
Le doux chanter d'tcelle pUUir donne 
A toat etprit, k qui IVscouter plaist.* 

We proceed to illustrate the present article by the less 
* familiar Long-tailed Titmouse, Bearded Titmouse, and 
Penduline Titmouse. 

Long-tailed Titmouse. 
Description. — Male. — Head, neck, throat, and breast 
pure white ; Upper part and centre of the back, rump, and 
the six middle tail-feathers deep black; scapulars reddish ; 
belly, sides, and abdomen reddish white ; quills black ; 
greater wing-coverts bordered with pure white; lateral 
tail-feathers white on their external barbs and at their 
end; tail very long and wedge-shaped. Length five 
inches seven or eight lines. 

Female. — ^A large black band above the eyes, which is 
prolonged upon the nape, and proceeds to unite itself with 
the black of the upper part of the back. 

Young. — Small black spots on the cheeks and brown 
spots on the breast : black of the back not so decided. 
(Temm.) 

N.B. Mr. Gould remarks that the female does not differ 
from the male in colouring, and in the Birds of Europe \ 
both are represented vrith the black band above the eyes. 
This is the Pendolino, Paronzino^ Codibugnolo, and 
Paglia in culo of the Italians ; Mhsange a la longue queue 
and Perd sa queue of the French; Langschwdnziee 
Meise, Schwanzmeise^ and Belzmeise Pfannenstiel of the 
Germans ; Staartmees of the Netherlanders ; Alhtita of 
the Swedes ; Jenaga of the Japanese ; Bottle Tit, Bottle 
Tom, Long-tailea Farmer, Long-tail Mag, Long-tail 
Pie, Poke Pudding, Huckmuck, and Mum-ruffin, of the 
modem British ; and Y Benloyn gnyffonhir of the an- 
tient British. 

Geographical Distribution. — Siberia, Russia, Japan. 
The whole of Europe. England, Scotland (near Edin- 
burgh at least), and Ireland. 

Habits, Food, <J^. — Insects, their larvae and cggjs, form 
the food of these pretty little birds. When White says 
that the Long-tailea Titmouse never retreats for succour 
in the severest seasons to houses and their neighbourhood, 
he must not be supposed to mean that the binl avoids the 
haunts of men. We have seen in a nursery-garden in 
Middlesex a whole family of them within a few yards of 
the nursery-man's cottage, and close to his greenhouse, 
which visitors were constantly entering, and we have 
found its exquisitely wrought nest in a Silver Fir about 
eight feet high, in a pleasure-ground in the same county, 
little more than a hundred yards from the house. Pen- 
nant well describes its appearance in flight when, after 
stating that the young follow the parents the whole 
winter, he says, * from the slimness of their bodies, and 
great len^h of tail, they appear, while flying, like so many 
dai-ts cutting the air. They are often seen passing through 
our gardens, going progressively from tree to tree, as if 
on their road to some other place, never mid^ing any halt.' 
Yarrell is equally happy in describing the nest and 
manners of this interesting little bird. * The nest of this 
species,' says he, ' is another example of ingenious con- 







Nest of Lons-tailed Titmoose. 

struction, combining beauty of appearance with security 
and warmth. In shape it is nearly oval, with one small 
hole in the upper part of the side by which the bird 
enters. I have never seen more than one hole. The 
outside of this nest sparkles with silver-coloured lichens 
adhering to a firm texture of moss and wool, the inside 
proftisely lined with soft feathers. The nest is generally 
placed in the middle of a thick bush, and so firmly fixed, 
that it is mostly found necessary to cut out the portion 
of the bush containing it, if desirous of preserving the 
natural appearance and form of the nest. In this species, 
the female is known to be the nest-maker, and to have 
been occupied for a fortnight to three weeks in completing 
her habitation. In this she deposiU from ten to twelve 
eggs ; but a larger number are occasionally found : they 
are small and white, with a few pale red specks, frequently 
quite plain, measuring seven lines in length, and five lines 
in breadth. The young family of the year keep company 
with the parent birds during their first autumn and winter, 
and generally crowd close together on the same branch at 
roosting-time, looking, when thus huddled up, like a 
shapeless lump of feathers only. These birds have several 
notes, on the sound of which they assemble and keep 
together; one of these call-notes is soft and scarcely 




Lone-tniled Titmoaie. Male ami FeowU (Gonld.) 



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audible ; a second is a louder chirp or twitter, and a third 
is of a hoarser kind.' 

In the Portraits dOyseaux the qualities of this species 
are thus summed up : — 

' Ceste Mesanxe est ii la longae qaene 
Oyaeau petit, comme est le Roytelet : 
Dn dcmeiirant. inconstant* et foUct, 
Par ton hault chant sa Toix est bien oogneuc* 

The Bearded Titmouse. 

Description, — Male. — Black between the bill and the 
eye, and these black feathers are very long and prolonged 
on each side on the lateral part of the neck ; head and 
occiput bluish ash ; throat and front of the neck pure 
white, which blends on the breast and the middle of the 
belly into a rosy hue ; nape, back, rump, feathers of the 
middle of the tail and sides fine rust-colour ; great coverts 
of the wings deep black, bordered with deep rusty on the 
external barb, and reddish white on the internal barb ; 
quills bordered with white ; feathers of the under part of 
the tail deep black ; lateral tail-feathers bordered and ter- 
minated with grey ; tail long, much graduated ; bill and 
iris fine yellow. Length 6 inches and 2 or 3 lines. 

^Female. — No black moustaches ; throat and front of the 
neck tarnished white ; upper parts of the head and body 
rusty, shaded with brown ; on the middle of the back 
some longitudinal black spots; under tail-coverts bright 
iiistv. 

Young at their leaving the nest, and before their first 
moults with nearly the whole of the plumage of very bright 
reddish ; a good deal of black on the external barbs of the 
quills and tail-feathers ; on the middle of the back a very 
large space of deep black. After the first moult nothing 
of tJie deep black of the back remains but some longitudinal 
spots. 

Fa7'ieties.— More or less marked with white or whitish ; 
the colours of the plumage often feebly developed. (Temm.) 

This is the Mesange Barbtte ou Mottstache of the French ; 
Bartmeise of the Germans ; Least Butcher-Bird of Edwards ; 
Reed Pheasant (provincial) of the modem British, and Y 
Barfog of the Welsh. 

N.B. M. Temminck remarks that the Zahnschdblige 
Bartmeise of Brehm is a species or subspecies founded 
only on individuals which have been long caged, such as 
may be seen in the Dutch markets, where numbers are 
sold. Some of these captives come to London, where they 
may be bought for some four or five shillings a pair. The 
iiis and bill in the living bird are of a delicate orange- 
colour. 

Geographical Distribution, — The north of Europe, Eng- 
land, Sweden ; Asia, on the shores of the Caspian Sea ; no- 
where so abundant as in Holland ; accidentally, on passage, 
in France. (Temm.) In the third pait of the second 
edition of his Manuel, M. Temminck says, that in Italy it 
is as common in the marshes of Ostia, as in those of Hol- 
land near Amsterdam. As to Sweden, Pennant also states 
that it is rarely found there ; but neither Miiller, Brisson, 
nor Nilsson nouces it in that locality. Mr. Yarrell gives 
the beat summary known to us of the recorded distribution 
of the species in the British Islands : — * South and west of 
London the Bearded Tit has been found in Surrey about 
some ponds near Godalming ; in Sussex near Winchelsea ; 
and on the banks of the Thames from London upwards as 
far as Oxford. Pennant says it has been taken near Glou- 
cester. In Cornwall, as I learn from Mr. Rodd, it is con- 
sidered yejy rare ; a single specimen was obtained in the 
neighbourhood of Helston, which is now in the collection 
made by the late Humphrey Grylls, Esq. It is not included 
in the catalogue of the Birds of Shropshire and North 
Wales, lately published in the " Annals of Natural History" 
by my friend Mr. Thomas Eyton ; but is said to have been 
taken in Lancashire ; and a single specimen is recorded as 
Irish by Mr. Thompson, on the authority of Mr. W. S. Wall, 
a bird-preserver in Dublin, which example was received 
from the banks of the Shannon. Eastward from London 
the Bearded Tit inhabits the various reed-beds on the 
banks of the Thames, both in Kent and Essex. It is found 
also in Cambridgeshire, Suffolk, Norfolk, and Lincolnshire, 
but has not been traced in this country north of the 
Humber.* 

Habits, Food, ^c. — Dr. Leach had observed the fondness 
of this species for marshy and reedy spots, the shape of its 
open cup-shaped nest placed on the ^ound, and the nature 
01 its food— seeds, insects and their larvee, and small- 



shelled snails. He had also remarked that the sides of the 
stomach in this bird were muscular and much thickened, 
forming a gizzard which the true tits do not possess ; and 
that this structure of the stomach afforded the power of 
breaking down the shells of the testaceous mollusks — Sue- 
cinea amphibia and Pupa muscorum — ^many of which had 
been found comminuted therein. Still, from the com- 
parative rarity of this bird in Britain, and the impervious 
nature of its haunts, its habits were comparatively little 
known. Mr. Hoy and Mr. Dykes have supplied much 
interesting information on this head. 

The former states that the Bearded Tit begins building 
towards the end of April, and that the nest is composed 
on the outside of dead leaves of the reed and sedge, inter- 
mixed with a few pieces of grass, and lined with the top 
of the reed. He describes it as generally placed in a tuit 
of coarse ^rass or rushes near the ground, on the margin of 
the dikes, in the fens ; and sometimes as fixed among the 
reeds that are broken down, but never suspended between 
the stems. Their food, he says, is principally the seed of 
the reed, and so intent were they on their search for it, that 
he had taken them with a bird-limed twig attached to a 
fishing-rod; When alarmed by any sudden noise, or the 
passing of a hawk, they uttered their shrill musical notes, 
and concealed themselves among the thick bottoms of the 
reeds, but they soon resumed their station, climbing the 
upright stems with the greatest facility. 

Mr. Dykes had an opportunity of examining three speci- 
mens, and he found their, crops completely filled with the 
Succinea amphibia in a perfect state, the shells unbroken 
and singularly closely pacKed together. The crop of one, 
not larger than a hazel nut, contained twenty Succinece, 
some of them of a good size, and four Pupes muscorum, 
wkh the shells also entire. The stomach was full of small 
fragments of shell, in a greater or less degree of decompo- 
sition. Numerous sharp angular fragments of quartz which 
had been swallowed had with the action of the stomach 
effected the comminution of the shells. 

Two nests obtained by Mr. Yarrell from the parish of 
Horsey, were sustained only an inch or two above the 
ground by the strength of the stems of the coarse grass on 
which they were fixed. Each was composed entirely of 
dried bents, the finer ones forming the lining ; others in- 
creasing in substance made up the exterior. Mr. Yairell 
states the number of eggs at from four to six, rather 
smaller than those of the Great Titmouse, and less pointed ; 
eight lines and a half lon^ by six lines and a half in 
breadth, white, and sparingly marked with paJe red lines 
or scratches. (Britisn Birds,) 




Bearded Titmonse, Male and Female. (Gould .*) 

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Penduline THmome, I 

De$cription,^Male.-^W\ black, straight, a little elon- 
gated, and pointed ; tail short ; top of the head and nape 
pure ash-colour ; forehead, space between the evQ and the 
bill, region of the eyes, and feathers of the orifices of the 
ears deep black ; back and scapulars reddish grey : rump 
aah-colour; throat white, the other lower part* whitish, 
with rosy tints ; coverts of the wings chesnut, bordered 
and terminated with wliitish rusty knd white ; wings and 
tail blackish, bordered with whitish rusty; tail-feathers 
terminated with white ; iris yellow. Length 4 inohe» 3 or 
4 lines. 

Ftfwafe.— Rather less than the mide; the black on the 
forehead not so large nor so pure ; the band which passes 
over the eyes and terminates at the eai-s; bluish black ; 
ash-oolour of the head less pure; upper parts more 
clouded with rusty, but there }» a .yellowish tint on the 
middle of the belly. 

The young up to their first moult have the colours 
brighter ; they have not the forehead black. 

This is the Hemiz or Mesange de Pologne of the French, 
and Beutel Meise of the Germany. 

G90 graphical Distributi<in*-^Q\xi^^m and efistem pro^ 
vinces of Europe principally. Russia, Poland, Hungary, 
Austria, along the banks of the Danube, where it breedji, 
south of France and Italy, 




Penduliae TitmouM and Nest: 

Habits, Food, <J-c. — M. Temminckhif placed this species 
together with the Bearded Tit in hii wcond Section of 
Titmice, the Riverains ; and indfifid the Penduline Tit- 
mouse, both in habits and in th# choice of its food, has 
many points in common with the other species above 
described. Like the Bearded Tit, the Penduline Titmouse 
haunts the reedy banks of rivers, or the mar^ns of 'wide- 
watered * shores, and its food consists not only of the seeds 
of the reeds, but of iquatic insects and mollusks. It de- 
rives its name from Its pensile purse -like or flask-like nest, 
generally suspended at the end of some willow twig: or 
other flexible branch of an aquatic tree. This skilfully- 
viTought cradle is woven from the cotton-like wool or 
down of the willow or poplar, with an opening in the side 
for the ingress and egress of the artificers and their young, 



and mostly overhang? the water ; sometimes however it 
is interwoven among the reed-stems. The eggs, which 
are pure white marked with some red spots or blotches, 
are generally six in number. 

Asiatic Titmice. 

Example. — Parus Xanthogenys, 

Description. — Head with a full crest of black feathers ; 
occiput, superciliary stripe, and cheeks yellow ; ear-coverts 
black ; back olive ; wings and tail black, th^ former 
spotted, and the latter tipped with white ; a broad black 
hne passing down the throat, and extending along the 
middle of the abdomen ; sides of the chest and flanks 
pale yellow ; bill and feet black ; size rather less than 
that of the Greater Tit, Parus major, (Gould.) 

Locality, Habits, ^c. — ^The Himalaya Mountains ; 
flgured and described, in his ' Century of Birds,' by 
Mr. Gould, who remarks that the species bears a close 
resemblance to our Parus major, from which it diff'ers 
principally in its crested head. He further observes that 
the bnlliancy of its colouring is not surpassed by that of 
any of its congeners, and that its moae of life strictly 
assimilates to that of the Pari in general. 




Parof XnnthogaDYs. (Gould.) 

AMERicAif Titmice. 

Example.-^Part/« atricapillua. Black-can Titmouse. 

Description, -^Male. -^15 Y^^^ aspect of tne head, nape, 
chin, and throat velvet-black. A white line from the 
nostrils through the eye, spreads out on the side of the 
neck; back lead^coloured, glossed with yellowish grey, 
quill and tail feathers blackish gt^Y'' ^^^^ ^^^ greyish 
white ; undcr-plumage brownish white, deepening in some 
specimens to yellowish grey; bill pitch black; legs 
bluish ; total length five inches six lines. (Fauna Boreali- 
Americana,) 

Some ornithologists have considered this bird identical 
with the Marsh Titmouse, Parus palustrisy of Europe. 
M. Temminck in the first part of his Manuel declares that 
individualssent to him from North America had absolutely 
the same distribution of colours on their plumage as Hiose 
kilkd in Europe, only the hues of the American individuals 
were more pure. In the third part, where he notices 
Parus palustris, and adds to its synonyms, he says nothing 
to contradict his original observation ; and m the first 
part he gives Parus atricapillus. La MSsanee d tete noire 
du Canada (Briss.), and the Black-cap and Canada Tit* 
mouse (Lath.), as synonyms of Parus palustris. 

Mr. Swainson and Dr. Richardson however, after refer- 
ring to the opinions of tho«e who have considered the 
European and the American bird as the same, state that 
the two species appear to them to be sufficiently distinct. 
According to them this tit isthe Parus atricapillus, Linn., 
who by the way gives Canada as its habitat ; Mcsange d 
tcte noire de Canada, But*. ; Black-capt Titmouse, Parus 
atricapillus^ Wilt. ; Parus atricapillus, Bonap. ; Peecheh* 



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keeskafshsffs of the Cree Indians ; and Miiange (st the 
Canadian voyageure: and thev observe that its loose 
plumage, like that of the Canadian jajr, is well qnaJiiied 
for its protection in the severe arctic winters. According 
to Nuttall, ' Chicadee ' is the familiar name for this bird. 

Oeographieal Distribution. — Supposing the bird to be a 
distinct species. The whole width of the American con- 
tinent, from lat. 65' to the southern districts of the United 
States, throughout the year : one of the most common birds 
in the fur*countries, a small family inhabiting almost every 
thicket. {Fauna Boreali-Ameficana.) In winter resident 
around Hudson's Bay, and has been met with at 62* on the 
north-west coast. Difficult to say in what part of the 
United States it is most common, so generally and equally 
has it colonized the temperate parts. In winter abundant 
in all the fotests of the southern states to Florida, and pro- 
bably extending its visits into Mexico. (Nuttall.) 

Habits, Foody ^c. — The author last quoted gives a gra- 
phic description of the manners of this titmouse, Which 
would suffer by an attempt to lay it before the reader in 
any other terms than his own. 

* In all these countries,* says the observing author of 
the Manual qf the Ornithology of the United States and 
of Canada, ' in autumn families of them are seen chatter- 
ing and roving through the woods, busily engaged in 
gleaning their multifarious food, along with the preceding 
species ' (Parus bicolor), * Nuthatches, and Creepers, the 
whole forming a busy, active, and noisy group, whose 
manners, fbod, and habits bring them together m a com- 
mon pursuit. Their diet varies with the season ; for be- 
sides insects, their larvsB and eggs, of which they are more 
particularly fond, in the month of September they leave the 
woods and assemble familiarly in our orchards and gardens, 
and even enter the thronging cities in quest of that sup- 
port Which their native forests now deny them. Large 
seeds of many kinds, particularly those Which are oily, as 
the sun-flower, and pine, and spruce-kernels, are now sought 
aftet. These seeds, in the usual manner of the genus, are 
seized in the claws and held against the branch until 
picked open by the bill to obtain their contents. Fat of 
various kinds is also greedily eaten, and they regularly 
watch the retreat of the hog-killers, in the country, to glean 
up the fhigments of meat which adhere to the places 
where the Carcasses have been suspended. At times they 
feed upon the wax: of the candle-berry myrtle (Myrica 
cerif^ra) ; they likewise pick up crumbs near the houses, 
and search the weather-boards and even the window-sills 
ikrailiarly for their lurking prey, and are particulariy fond 
of spiders &nd the eggs of destmctive moths, especially 
those of the canker-worm, which they greedily destroy in 
all its stages of existence. It is said that they sometimes 
attack their own species when the individual is sicklv, and 
aim their blows at the skull with a view to eat the brain ; 
but this barbarity I have never witnessed. In winter, 
when satisfied, they will descend to the snow-bank beneath, 
and quench their thirst by swallowing small pieces; in this 
way, their various and IVugal meal is always easily sup- 
plied; and hardy, and warmly clad in light and very 
downy fV;athers, they suffer very little inconvenience from 
the inclemency of the seasons. Indeed in the winter, or 
about the close of October, they at times appear so en- 
livened as already to show their amorous attachment, like 
our domestic cock, the' male approaching his mate with 
fluttering and vibrating wings ; and in the spring season 
the males have obstinate engagements, darting after each 
other with great Velocity and anger. Their roost, I 
suspect, is in the hollows of decayed trees, where they 
also bfeed, laying their eggs merely in the dry rotten 
wood, without any attempt at a nest ;* these are from G to 
12 in number, white with specks of brown-red. They 
begin to layabout the middle or close of April, and though 
they commonly make use of natural or deserted holes of 
the woodpecker, yet at times they are said to excavate 
a cavity for themselves with much labour. Hie first brood 
take wing about the 7th oi^ 10th of June, and they have 
sometimes a second towards the end of July. Tlie young, 
as soon as fledpd, have all the external marks of the 
adult, the head is equally black, and they chatter and sldp 
about with all the agility and self-possession of their 

,,* N.h. Mr. Nuttall has, hWR, the following note:— 'In Europe however 
ittu kiud. If the same apecios, na asMrted by Temminck, is said to dig ont AH 
ncavation in decayed Millowa, in which it makes a tm^ of moM, thiatle* 
u*wn, and ■ometimes a little wool and feathen.' 



parctttn, who appear, tteVerthelesi, vety solicitous for their 
safety. From tjJis time the whole family continue to asso- 
ciate togethet through the autumn and winter. They 
seem to move by concert from tree to tree, keeping up a 
continued Hshe-Jte^de-de'de^vid 'tshe-de-de-de-datt, preceded 
by a shrill whistle, all the while busily engaged picking 
round the buds and branches, hanging fr6m their extremi- 
ties and proceeding often in reversed postures, head down- 
wards, like so many tumblers, prying into every crevice of 
the bark, and searching arouncl the roots and in every, 
possible retreat of their insect prey or its larvae. If the 
object chance to fall, they industriously descend to the- 
ground and glean it up with the utmost economy.* 

• On seeing a cat, or other object of natural antipathy, 
the Chicadee, like the peevish jay, scolds in aloud, angry, 
and hoarse note, like *Tshe, ddigh, ddigh, ddigh. Among 
the other notes of this species, I have heard a call like 
t she-de-jay, t she-de-jay, the two first syllables being a 
slender chirp, with the jdy strongly pronounced. The 
only note of this bird which may be called a song, is one 
which is frequently heard at intervals in the depth of the 
forest, at times of the day, usually, when other birds are 
silent. We then may sometimes hear in the midst of this 
solitude two feeble, drawling, clearly whistled, and rather 
melancholy notes, like He-(^rry, and sometimes ye-perritt 
and, occasionally, but much more rarely, in the same wiry, 
whistling, solemn tone, *phcbi. The young, in winter, also 
sometimes drawl out these contemplative strains. In all 
cases the first syllable is very high and clear, the second 
word drops low, and ends like a feeble plaint. Tliis is 
nearly all the quaint song ever attempted by the Chicadee: 
and is perhaps the two notes sounding like the whetting of 
a saw, remarked of this bird* in England by Mr. White, in 
his Natural History of Selborne (vol. i.). On fine days 
about the commencement of October, I havi heard the 
Chicadee sometimes for half an hour at a time, attempt a 
lively, petulant warble, very different fh)m his ordinary 
notes. On these occasions he appeari to flirt about, still 
hunting for his prey, but alnaost in an ecstasy of delight 
and vigour. But after a while the Usual diawling note 
again occurs. These birdi, like many others, are very sub- 
ject to the attacks of vermin, and they accumulate in great 
numbers around Uiat part of the head and front which is 
least acceseible to their feet' 

' The European bird is supposed to be partial to marshy 
placet. Ours has no such predilection, nor does the Ame- 
rican bird, that I can learn, even lay up or hide any store 




Panu atrtcapilltt*. 

• Here «ie question U bejffted. NoUlthttanding the timilarity of p 
it is difficult td rtad an account or the hablti of th« Chicadee aid of 1 
of our Maivh Titmoua^ and not acret with ihMa Wh« ooaaidw than diatuiel 
fp^et. 



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T 1 T 



T I T 



of seeds for provision — a habit reported of the foreign 
fjimily.' 

The Prince of Canino, a valuable authority at all bmes, 
but especially in this case, for he has enjoyed opportunities 
of comparing the American and European birds and their 
habits, notes Parus palustris and Parus atricapillus as 
cUstinct species, in his Birds of Europe and North America, 

African TrrMiCB. 

Example, Parus niger, Vieill. (Parus leucopterus, white- 
winged Tit, Sw.). ,. ^ 

Description,— -Dee^ uniform glossy black with slight 
bluish reflection in certain lights, except the wings, on 
which the black is relieved by the snowy white of the 
lesser and greater coverts and of the quills. Total length 
nearly six inches. 

Xoca/i7y.— Abundant in the Caffre country. South 
Africa. Mr. Swainson (Birds of Western Africa) observes 
that Le Vaillant states that this species was never met 
with by him, either on the west coasts or near the Cape of 
Good Hope, but that this is very singular, since two spe- 
cimens received from Senegal perfectly agree both with 
Le Vaillant*s figure and description. Mr. Swainson re- 
marks that the size of this bird is exactly that of Parus 
major^ and that the structure is nearly the same, except 
that the bill is rather shorter and the culmen more arched ; 
the feet also, he adds, are somewhat smaller, and their 
claws shorter, broader, and more curved. 

Habits, ^c. — Le Vaillant describes the note of this 
species, his MSsange noire, as the same with that of Parus 
major. The nest, he says, is made in the trunks of trees, 
where the bird also roosts. The pure white eggs, he adds, 
are from six to eight in number. 




PkruB Niger. (UVaUlant.) 

TITMOUSE. [TrrMicE.] 

TTTSINGH, ISAAC, one of the most able civilians in 
the Dutch East Indian service during the last century. He 
was bom at Amsterdam in 1740 : he entered the service of 
the East India Company of Holland at an eariy age, and 
rose to the rank of counsellor. His naturally vigorous 
constitution defied the pestilential effects of the climate of 
Batavia, where in the course of seventeen years he saw the 
entire body of his colleagues twice renewed. He was sent 
as supercargo to Japan in 1778. The war which then 
raged prevented the despatch of the ship sent annually 
from Batavia to the Dutch factoiy at Desima, dnd Titsingh 



was in consequence detained there for several years. He 
did not quit Japan till 1784. After his return to Batavia 
he was appointed governor of the Dutch factory in tlie 
vicinity of Chandemagore : how long he filled this office is 
uncertain. 

In 1794 Titsingh was appointed by the government at 
Batavia chief of the embassy which Van Braam, hoping 
to be himself appointed ambassador, had persuaded tiiem 
to send to the court of Pekin. The mission left Canton on 
the 22nd of November, 1794, and reached that city on its 
return on the 11th of May, 1795. The ill-health of Titsingh 
during the greater part of his residence in Pekin caused 
the discharge of the functions of ambassador to devolve in 
a great measure on Van Braam. Not long after the ter- 
mination of this mission Titsingh returned to Holland, after 
a residence of about thirty-one years in the East. The in- 
voluntary prolongation of his residence in Japan had eiv- 
abled him to obtain a greater amount of information 
relative to those islands than his predecessors* and the 
friendships he had contracted with several of the nobles 
enabled nim to procure, at a later date, by their good 
offices, material additions to the collections ne had made 
himself. He was acknowledged both by the Japanese 
and Chinese to possess a knowledge of their customs 
and manners rare in a European. He was esteemed 
by his colleagues for his business talents ; and the literati 
of Europe who had applied to him for information had 
ever found him as courteous and liberal as he was iiftelli- 
gent : consequently great additions to our knowledge of 
Japan were anticipated on his return to Europe. Thesft 
expectations have been in a great measure disappointed. 
With the exception of information which he supplied to 
Marsden,De Guignes and others, nothinc appeared during 
his life ; and after his death, by a fever which he neglected, 
in February, 1812, his collections were dispersed ; only a 
portion of his manuscripts, maps, and curiosities were ulti- 
mately recovered. M. Nepven, who had become the 
purchaser of the fragments, published in 1819, in two vols. 
8vo., * C6r6monies usit6es au Japon pour les Mariages et 
les Funcrailles, suivies de Details sur la Poudre Doxia, et de 
la Preface d'un livre de Confoutz6e sur la Piet6 Filiale„ 
traduit du Japonais par feu }/L. Titsingh.' In the introduc- 
tion to these Memoirs the author states that many of the 
most distinguished Japanese are fully aware of the advan- 
tage their country would derive from an extended inter- 
course with foreigners. In 1820 M. Abel Remusat pub- 
lished in 8vo., from the MSS. of Titsingh, * M6moires et 
Anecdotes de la Dynastie r6gnante des Djogouns, souve- 
rains du Japon, avec la D^ription des F6tes et Cerdmoniest 
ob8erv6es aux difffirentes epoques de Tannee i la cour 
de ces Princes, et un Appendice contenant des Details 
sur la Poesie des Japonais, leur ManiSre de divlser 
I'Ann^e, &c.' An English translation of these two works, 
by Frederic Shoberl, was published in 1822. The 
volumes edited by M. Il6musat, and the English trans- 
lation, contain a catalogue of the books, printed and in 
MS., the maps, plans, coins, &c., collected by Titsingh. 
Among the MSS. are his journal of travels from Canton to 
Pekin ; copies of letters addressed by him to various per- 
sons during the years 1790 to 1797; forty-six autograph 
letters addressed to him by Japanese functionaries and 
Roman Catholic missionaries ; thirty-five autograph letters, 
addressed to him by Volney, De Guignes, senior, and other 
eminent literary characters; and an exposition of the 
official conduct of M. Titsingh. The publication of the 
most important of these documents is very desirable : they 
are calculated to throw light both on the character of the 
natives and the conduct of Europeans in these distant 
regions. The account of Titsingh's official conduct, and 
his journal while ambassador in China, might supply what 
is left untold by De Guignes and misstated by "V^n Braam 
in their respective publications. The twenty-fourth volume 
of the * Annales des Voyages* contains an account of the 
island of Yesso, translated from the Japanese by Titsingh,. 
and a 'Notice sur Japon,' in Chai-pentier Cossigny's. 
* Journey to Bengal,' contains a rather inaccurate report of 
the substance of conversations with him respecting that 
country. The important work the 'Japanese Encyclo- 
paedia, in the * Biolioth^ue du Roi,' at Paris, was ob- 
tained from Titsingh. 

(De Guignes, Voyage d Peking, &c. ; Memoirs, by 
Titsingh, published at Paris, in 1819 and 1820; Van 
Braam's Account of the Dutch Embassy to the Emperor qf 



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TIT 9 

China ; ftnd a Notice of Titsingh, by Kyriis, in Biographie 

TJTTMANN, JOHANN AUGUST HEINRICH, one 
of the most distinguished Gennan theologians of modem 
times, was bom on the 1st of August, 1773, at Langensalza, 
where his father, Carl Christian Tittmann, was then preacher. 
Young Tittmann was originally of a very weakly constitu- 
tion, but he gained strength as he grew older, especialljr 
from the time that he lived at Wittenberg, where his 
father was appointed prsepositus and professor in the year 
1775. His extraordinary talents enabled him to enter upon 
the study of theology and philosophy at Wittenberg as 
early as the year 1788, after he had the year before pub- 
lished a Labn essay, * De Vir^lio Homemm imitante,' 
Wittenberg, 1787. On completing his studies there, he 
went to Leipzig in 1792, wnere he began his career as 
academical teacher on the 15th of May, 1793. His talents 
and the extensive knowledge he possessed at this e^]y age 
would have made him the first theologian of his time, if he 
had not been frequentlv drawn awKy from his regular 
studies, and occupied witn different subjects. Nevertheless 
he distinguished himself so much, that m the year 1795 he 
was ai>pointed moming-preacher (Fruhprediger) to the 
university, and the year after professor extraordinary of 
philosophv, and in 1800 of theolo^. In 1805 he was 
made a doctor of divinity, and obtained the fourth ordi- 
nary professorship of theology, and in 1818 he became 
first professor of theology in the university of Leipzig. 
During the last years of his life he was dean of the cathe- 
dral of Meissen. He died, in consequence of a cold he 
took in 1828, and of which he never recovered, on the 31st 
of December, 1831. 

As an academical teacher Tittmann distinguished him- 
self^ by his acuteness, sound judgment, and by the sim- 
plicity and clearness with which he treated his subject. It 
was perhaps owing to the variety of subjects on which he 
had tried nis strength, that in his later veare he was found 
competent to undertake the most variea business in which 
he was employed by his government. At the confess of 
Vienna, which he attended for some time, he spoke with 
great frankness, and particularly exerted himself to realise 
his favourite plan of uniting the Grerman Protestants, and 
giving to their body a new ecclesiastical constitution. But 
his object was not attained. During the last years of his 
life he was a member of the first chamber of the Saxon 
deputies, in which he represented the university of Leipzig, 
and often exercised great influence by his ability and his 
powers as a speaker. 

The numerous writings of Tittmann are distinguished by 
great clearness of style, those written in German, as well as 
those in Latin. The following are the most important for 
the theological student: — * Encyclopadie der Theologischen 
Wissenschaften,' Leipzig, 1798, 8vo. ; *Theocle8, em Ges- 
prach iiber den Glauben an Gott,' Leipzig, 1799, 8vo. ; 
*Ideen zu einer Apologie des Glaubens,' Leipzig, 1799, 
8vo. ; * Theon, oder liber unsere Hoffnungen nach dem 
Tode,' Leipzig, 1801; 'Lehrbuch der Homfletik,' Breslau, 
1804, 8vo. ; * Pragmatische Geschichte der Theologie und 
Religion in der Protestantischen Kirche wahrend der 
zweiten Halfte des 18ten Jahrhunderts ' (of this excellent 
work only the first volume appeared, Breslau, 1805, 8vo.) ; 

• UeberSupranaturaJismus, Rationalismus, und Atheismus,' 
Leipzig, 1816, 8vo. ; ' Ueber Vereinigung der Evangelischen 
Kirchen,' Leipzig, 1818; 'Die Evangelische Kirche im 
Jahre 1530 und 1830,* Leipzig, 1830, 8vo. Tittmann also 
edited the Greek text of tlie New Testament, Leipz., 1824, 
12mo., which has often been reprinted, and Zonaras and 
Photius*s Greek Lexicon, Leipzig, 1808, 4to. ; but of this 
work only two volumes appeared, which contain the 
Lexicon of Zonaras. He also wrote a great number of 
Latin dissertations in pro^mmes and on other occasions, 
which were edited after his death by Hidin, under the tiUe, 

* Opuscula varii Argumenti, maximam partem dogmatici, 
apologetici, et liistorici,' Leipzig, 1833, 8vo. Another 
Latin work, *De Synonymis in Novo Testamento,' was 
edited by Becher, Leipzig, 1832, 8vo. Information about 
the author is given in the prefaces to these last-men- 
tioned publications, and in the Conversations Lexikon, 
V. * Tittmann.' 

TITUS FLAyiUS VESPASIA'NUS, the son of the 

emperor Vespasianus, was bom on the 29th of December, 

40 A.D. He received his education together with young 

jpniannicus, who was poisoned by Nero in 55 a.o., and as 

P. C. No, 1553, 



T I t 



Titus fell dangerously ill after the death of his unfortunate 
friend, it was said and believed that he had dmnk a part 
of that deadly potion by which Britannicus perished. T^tus 
afterwards erected two statues to the memory of the com- 
panion of his youth. Possessed of uncommon beauty and 
vigour, and extraordinary talents, Titus distinguished him- 
self at an early age. The first campaigns which he made 
as thbunus militum were in Britannia and Germany. He 
first married Aricidia Tertulla, the daughter of a Koman 
knie^ht, and after her death, Marcia FumiUa, who was of a 
noble family, but from whom he was divorced some time 
after she had borne him a daughter. Titus became after- 
wards quaestor. The Jews, having been oppressed by Ges- 
sius Floms, revolted in 66 a. d. and defeated^estius Gallus, 
the proconsul of S)rria, but they were beaten by M. 
Licimus Mucianus, the new proconsul of Syria, and T. 
Vespasianus, the father of Titus, who was the commander 
of ftie Roman army, which consisted of three legions. 
One of these legions was commanded by Titus, who showed 
as much military skill as personal courage, especially in 
the siege and capture of the towns of Taricheae and 
Gamala (67 a.d.). During his sojourn in Palestine he 
fell in love with Berenice, the daughter of Herod Agrippa. 
[Bbrknice (6).] 

In the mean time the emperor Nero was murdered, and 
Gralba succeeded (69 a.d.). In consequence of this event. 
T. Vespasianus sent his son Titus to Rome, in order to 
gain the favour of the new emperor. Perhaps also Ves- 
pasianus wished to be informed of Galba's intention with 
regard to the war in Palestine, the command of the forces 
employed there being an office by which Vespasianus had 
acquired great influence in the East. (Tacitus, Hist,, ii. 1, 
and the notes to this passage in the edition of Gronovius, 
ii., p. 127.) The people said that Titus had some hope of 
being adopted by Galba, who was old and without issue ; 
but although this motive of his going to Rome is rejected 
by Tacitus, the mere existence of such a mmour proves 
that Titus had already attracted the public attention. 
When Titus arrived at Corinth he was informed that Galba 
had been murdered (16th of January, 69 a.d.), and that the 
imperial power was disputed by Vitellius and Otho. This 
event perplexed hinn bQs commission being to congratu- 
late Galba, he could not expect to be well received by 
Vitellius, by whose iniBtigation Galba had been massacred ; 
nor did he aeem it pmdent to adhere to either of the im- 
perial rivals before he had taken the advice of his father. 
He therefore returned to Judaea. There was a mmour that 
his love for Berenice was the secret cause of his return ; 
but however strong his passion was, it never prevented 
him from doing his duty. On his way from Greece to Syria 
he landed on Cypms, and there consulted the oracle in the 
temple of Venus of Paphos. The answer was favourable 
with regard to his voyage, and highly flattering to his am- 
bition : Sosti-atus, the priest of the temple and reporter of 
the oracle, promised him the empire. (Tacitus, Hist,, ii. 
2-4 ; Suetonius, Titus, c. 6.) 

Titus was one of the leaders of the new revolution by 
which Vitellius lost his power a shoi-t time after his vic- 
tory over his competitor Otho at Brixellum. Pull of filial 
admiration for the character of his father, Titus en- 
deavoured to remove the only obstacle to his accession, 
which might have fmstrated their plans, notwithstanding 
Vespasianus was at the head of three legions and a strong 
body of auxiliaries. This obstacle was, a serious misunder- 
standing which existed between Vespasianus and Mucianus, 
the proconsul of Syria. Titus succeeded in reconciling 
them. Their difTerence had chiefly a political character, 
yet Titus, by the mildness of his manner and by the 
modesty of his persuasion, brought together two highly- 
gifted men who were divided by the most intractable of 
passions. Supported by Mucianus, by Tiberius Alexander, 
and by Titus, Vespasianus was proclaimed emperor by the 
army in the East, while his brother Flavins Sabinus occu- 
pied for him the Capitol in Rome, and compelled Vitellius 
to lay down the imperial diadem. [Vespasianus ; Tibe- 
rius Alexander ; Vitellius.] Vespasianus left Judaea 
for Rome, and the command of the army of Judaea and 
the continuation of the war devolved upon Titus. Domi- 
tianus, the younger brother of TOus, hadng incurred the 
displeasure of his father, Titus interceded for him with 
brotheriy affection. (Tacitus, Hist., iv. 51, 52.) 

The army in Judaea, of which Titus was now the com- 
mander, consisted of six legions, twenty cohorts of allies, 



T If 

eight coi-ps of cAvalrj;, the troops of t)ie kings 4grippa and 
Soheraus, the auxiliaries of King Antiochus of Commagene, 
and a small body of Arabs. After a long siege, Jerusalem was 
taken by storm ; the whole population, more than 600,000 
men, was massacred ; and the remainder of the Jews were 
dispersed over the world (3n4 of September, 70 a.d.). 
[Jerusalem.] In this memorable siege Titus distinguished 
himself both as a general and as a soldier, and it is said 
that he killed twelve men of the garrison with his own 
hand. In the same year Titus was created Caesar by Ves- 
pasianus, whose colleague he was in his first consulship ; 
and he was again consul in 72, 74, 75, 76, 77, and 79. 
Vespasianus however recalled his son from Judaea. A 
rumour was spread that Titus secretly aimed at making 
himself master of the East, and this rumour had reached 
Vespasianus. 

So universally was Titus beloved, that the army im- 
plored him either to stay with them, or at least not to go 
without them ; but he obeyed the command of his father, 
and by his speedy return proved that those rumours were 
entirely unfounded. He celebrated a triumph together 
with Vespasianus, for their victories over the Jews, in 
commemoi-ation of which a triumphal arch was erected, 
which is still one of the finest monuments of that kind 
existing at Rome. Titus was likewise tribune with his 
father, who esteemed him so much, that he allowed him 
not only to write letters in his name, but also to draw up 
the imperial edicts. (Suetonius, Titus^ 6.) During the 
reign of Vespasianus, various high functions were succes- 
sively conferred upon Titus, whose character however 
seems to have been somewhat altered by the influence of 
the general corruption of the capital. He was charged 
with acting rashly ; he subjected himself to the reproach of 
having ordered tne murder of Caecina, which was an act 
of cmelty, for though Caecina was guilty of treason, he 
had not been legally sentenced (Suetonius, Titiis, 6); 
and he was generally reproached for taking money from 
those who solicited his intercession with the emperor. 
On the other side however he remonstrated with his father 
on those measures which this very economical prince 
adopted for the purpose of improving the finances, which 
were exhausted by the dissipation of v itellius. He wlis also 
charged with love of women. But he ordered Berenice, 
who had followed him to Rome, to go back to Judaea, and 
he thus proved once more that his passion for her did not 
prevent him from doing his duty. The consequence of all 
this was, that the Romans, who, by the example of Tibe- 
rius, Caligula, and Nero, knew that the virtue of exalted 
men is exposed to great temptations and strtinge changes, 
feared that Titus would become a new proof of the truth 
of their experience. 

But no sooner did Titus become emperor by the death 
of Vespasianus, in 79 a.d., than he showed that all these fears 
were unfounded. His virtuous conduct was the subject of 
general admii-ation. During his short reign the empire 
was visited by great calamities. An eruption of Vesuvius 
destroyed the towTis of Herculanum, Stabiae, and Pompeii, 
and carried ruin over the fertile coast of Campania (August 
79 A.D.) [Pliny] ; in 80 a.d. a conflagration broke out in 
Rome, which lasted three days, and destroyed a great part of 
this city ; the buildings on the Campus Martins, the Capitol, 
the libi-ary of Octavianus, were laid in ruins, and the Pan- 
theon was damaged [Rome^ ; and no sooner had the people 
recovered from their consternation than aplague broke out, 
of which 10,000 persons died every day. Titus supported his 
unhappy subjects with the greatest lioerality ; he exhausted 
his treasures, and he ordered the property and estates of 
those who had perished without leaving heirs, to be dis- 
tributed among the sufferers, alttiough the property of such 
persons belonged to the fiscus, or the emperor's private 
purse. Hi^ liberality was so great that his friends re- 
proached hdm for it ; he answered, that it was not just that 
anybody should leave the emperor with a sorrowful eye. 
He punished severely and exiled to the small barren islands 
in the Mediterranean those who followed the profession of 
liaise accusers [Tiberius Claudius Nero] ; and he disliked 
the punishment of death so much, that he used to say he 
would rather die than cause the death of others. Two 
patricians conspired against him, but he did not punish 
them : he only said, * Do not do it again ; Providence alone 
distributes crowns' (Suetonius, TUtis^ 9); and he then 
invited them to accompany him to the amphitheatre. He 
ftcted with the same generosity towards his brother Domi- 



IP 



t;t 



tianus, whq was guilty of more than one conspiracy against 
his brother. He gained all hearts by his extreme afikbility, 
which however was alw?^ys accompanied by dignity ; and 
he delighted the Roman people vath splendid entertain- 
ments, giving them amongst others the spectacle of five 
thousand wild beasts fighting with each other in the Colos- 
seum, or Flavian amphitheatre, which was finished by his 
order, the construction of it having been commenced under 
Vespasianus. 

During the reign of Titus, Agricola restored tranquillity 
to Britain, and penetrated as far as the Frith of Tay. (80 
A.D.) In the following year he constructed the wall be- 
tween the rivers Glota and Bodotria (the Frith of Clyde 
and the Frith of Forth), in order to protect Britain against 
the invasions of the Caledonians. 

In order to recover his broken health Titus retired, in 81 
A.D., to a villa in the neighbourhood of Reate, which 
belonged to his family, ana where Vespasianus had died. 
Here he was attacked by acute fever, and died on the 13th 
of September, 81 a.d. It was said that his brother Domi- 
tianus, who had accompanied him to Reate, had been the 
cause of his death by advising the use of improper reme- 
dies. On his death-bed Titus exclaimed that he died with- 
out regret, except for one act, which however he did not 
specify. The news of his death reached Rome in the 
evening, and the senators assembled in the same night, 
anxious to know each other's hopes and fears with regard 
to the unworthy successor of Titus, Domitianus. The con- 
sternation of the people was general, for they had lost him 
to whom they haa given the name of * the delight of the 
human race.' 

(Josephus, Jewish War^ vi. 6, &c. ; Dion Cassius, Ixvi. 
18, &c. ; AureUus Victor, De CcesaribuSy 10 ; Eutropius, 
vii. 14.) 




Coin of Titus. 
BriUih Maaeonu Actual Siie. Copper. W^eight, 3dS*7 grains. 

TITUS, EPISTLE OF ST. PAUL TO. Little is kno^vn 
of the personal history of Titus, to whom this Epistle is 
addressed. His name is not even mentioned in the * Acts 
of the Apostles,' and all authentic information about him 
is derived from the Epistles of St. Paul. From these 
it appears that Titus was converted by St. Paul, by whom 
he 18 called * his own son after the common faith ' (i. 4), but 
when and where is not recorded. Accordingly there 
are various conjectiu^es on this subject. This we Know for 
certain, that Titus was {Acts^ xv. ; GaL^ ii.) with St. Paul in 
Antioch before the first Council was holden at Jenisalem, 
and that he was one of the party sent by the church at 
Antioch to consult the Apostles at Jerusalem, on the 
question whether it was necessary for the Gentile converts 
to submit to circumcision * after the manner of Moses.* 
To this rite the Judaising Christians at Jerusalem were anx- 
ious that Titus should submit ; but St. Paul {Gal.^ ii.) informs 
us that he firmly refused to do so. After the Council, it 
would seem that Titus returned with St. Paul to Antioch, 
and subsequently accompanied him on some of his travels. 

At any rate, from the expression in 2 Cor.y viii. 23, it 
appears almost certain that Titus assisted St. Paul in 
preaching the Gospel at Corinth. From 1 Cor.y xvi. 8, 
compared with 2 (for., vii., it is not improbable that Titus 
was also with St. Paul during his long residence at Ephe- 
sus {ActSy xix. 10), and that he was selected to be the 
bearer of the first Epistle to the Corinthians, which was 
written by St. Paul at Ephesus. On his return firom 
Corinth, whatever might be the occasion of the visit alluded 
to in 2 Cor.y vii., Titus met St. Paul in Macedonia, and 
gave him such an account of the Corinthian church, and 
of the eflPect produced by his first letter to it, as gave 

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him Ine nighest satisfaction. (2 Cor,^ vii. 6-13.) Titus 
also appears to have been the bearer of the Apostle's 
second letter to the Corinthians, when he was charged to 
excite them to finish their collections for the poor converts 
in Judaea, which they had begun during his former visit. 
From A.D. 58, when we suppose him to have been the 
bearer of St. Paul's second epistle to the Corinthians, to 
A.D. 62, we hear nothing of him : in the latter year, in 
all probability he was left by St. Paul in Crete, • to set in 
order the things that were wanting, and to ordain elders in 
eveiy city.* (Titus, i. 4.) This year was the date of 
St. Paul's release from his first confinement at Rome, 
when he is supposed to have touched at Crete, and made 
some converts there, on his way from Italy to Judaea. 
Subsequently to this, Titus was reouested oy St. Paul 
(iii. 12) to visit him at Nicopolis in Epirus, and it seems 
that he was also with him during his second residence at 
Rome. (2 Timothy y iv. 10.^ We have no certain informa- 
tion as to the time and ))lace of Titus's death ; but ac- 
cording to an antient tradition, he lived to the age of 
ninety-four years, and died and was buried in Crete. The 
date of the Epistle has been a subject of much controversy, 
some placing it as early as a. d. 52, and others as late as 
A.D. TO. From the striking verbal resemblances between 
it and the first epistle to Timothy, it is not improbable 
that they were written about the same time, and while the 
same ideas and phrases were present to the author's mind. 
The genuineness and authenticity of the Epistle have never 
been disputed. 

St. Paul's design in writing it was to instruct Titus in 
the discharge of the duties of his ministry as head of the 
church in Crete. Accordingly in chap. i. he gives Titus 
instructions concerning the ordination of elders, who were 
to be appointed for eveiy city, and describes what qualifi- 
cations they should possess, and also directs him to oppose 
the Judaising teachers of Christianity, who seem to have 
been numerous in the island. In chap. ii. St. Paul informs 
Titus what precepts he was to inculcate, according to the 
age and circumstances of those whom he had to teach, 
and admonishes him to show himself a pattern of all good 
works, and an example of the doctrines which he taught. 

In chap. iii. he teaches Titus to inculcate obedience to 
principalities and powers, in opposition to the Jews, who 
thought it an indignity to submit to idolatrous magistrates ; 
and also that he should enforce gentleness and meekness 
towards all men. He then concludes with a request that 
Titus would inculcate the necessity of good works, and 
avoid foolish questions * an ii^unction of the same kind as 
St. Paul gave to Timotny. 

For the undesiffned coincidences between this Epistle 
and the * Acts of the Apostles,' see Paley, * Horce PauiinsB,* 

gp. 357-367. See also Home's * Introduction to the 
ritical Study of the Scriptures,' vol. iv., p. 387 ; Mac- 
knight on the New Testament, vol. iii. ; Collyer's ' Sacred 
Interpreter.' 

TIT-WARBLERS, Mr. Swainson's name for a sub- 
genus of his subfamily Parian^P [TrrMicE], and considered 
by him as the second or typical division of the whole 
group. The species of this subgenus (Sylvicola) are, he 
observes, the true Tit-Warblers of America, so cisely re- 
sembling the Worm-eaters ( F<?rmirora, Sw.), that many 
writers nave placed both in the same genus ; but they 
may, he remarks, be readily detected by a slightly-arched 
bill, notched near the end of the upper mandible. * The 
slender stnicture of their feet, the pointed form of their 
wings, and the scattered weak bristles of the mouth,' says 
Mr. Swainson in continuation, * suggest the idea that the 
mode of catching their prey must not be unlike that 
adopted by the true flycatchers, and such accordingly 
turns out to be the fact ; they ai-e, in short, lively, active, 
gaily-coloured little birds, continually hunting after seden- 
tary insects, and pursuing such as fly from bough to 
bough ; their habits thus forming a singular union of those 
of the Wood-Warbler, the Tits, and the Flycatchers : so 
close indeed is this analogy, that Meyer has confounded 
them with the first, Linnaeus and Buff'on with the second, 
and even Wilson considers some as belonging to the third 
«f these families. Nor was the great Ainerican ornitho- 
.ogist very far from the truth, since they actually pass into 




following 
£;enu8 SylvicolUy placed by him between Dumecola and 



Vermivora, under the genus' Sylvicola (Fly-catching 
Warblers) : — 

Bill very slender, acutely conic ; the^ tip of the upper 
mandible with an obsolete notch ; base with a few weak 
bristles. Wings lengthened, pointed; the three first 
(juills nearly equal. Tail nearly even ; the feathers ending 
in soft points. Feet as in Setophaga. 

Example, Sylvicola minuta. 

Mr. Swainson refers, for a figure and description of this 
species, to * Zool. 111.,' i., pi. 139. At the place refeiTed to 
we find the Grey-backed Warbler, Sylvia plumbea, with 
the following description and figure : — 

jDtfwnpfton.— Blue-grey, beneath golden yellow ; back 
olive ; wing-coverts tipped with white. 

Mr. Swainson states that this bird is a native of Brazil, 
from whence it was received by Mr. Leadbeater. 




Grey-baokad Warbler. (SwaiiuoB.) 

Mr. Swainson also refers to Sylvicola pmilla, Wil., pL 
3 8, f. 3. 

TIVERTON, a borough and market-town in the hun- 
dred of the same name, is situated at the confluence of the 
rivers Exe and Loman> 169 miles south-west of London, 
and 14 miles north of Exeter. It derives its name (for- 
merly T^^'yfo^dton, and now, by an easy gradual alteration, 
Tiverton) from its situation between the two antient fords, 
through the Exe on the west, and the Loman on the east. 
The hundred of Tiverton is described in* Domesday Book * 
under the head of Terra Regis, or land belonging to the 
king, held by several persons during the reign of Edward 
the Confessor as vassals of the crown. Soon after the 
Norman invasion these lands were held by Baldwin de 
Brionis, who had married Albreda, the niece of William 
the Conqueror, and was created by him hereditary earl of 
Devon : they descended to his son, Richard de Brionis ; 
and at his aeath, in llOO, without male issue, the manor 
and lordship were given by Henry I. to Richard Rivers, 
who was also created earl of Devon; and, in 1106, built 
Tiverton Castle for his residence. In 1293 the manor came 
into the possession of Hugh de Courtenay, second baron of 
Okehampton, created earl of Devon, in whose family it con- 
tinued until 1466, when Henry Courtenay being attainted 
of treason, and beheaded on tne 4th of March, nis posses- 
sions were given to Sir Humphry Stafford, of Soutnwick, 
who was however also executed on the 17th of August 
following ; and during the wars of the Roses and tlie suc- 
ceeding convulsions the estates frequently changed owners. 
On the accession of Henry VII., in 1483, the house of 
Courtenay was again restored ; and about the commence- 
ment of the sixteenth century William Courtenay married 
Catharine, seventh and youngest daughter of Edward IV., 
who survived him seventeen years, and lived during her 
widowhood in the castle of Tiverton : she was buried in 
the church adjoining. She was succeeded by her son and 
grandson, at whose death, in 1556, the lordship and manor 
were divided between the heirs of the four sisters of Ed- 
ward, his great-grandfather ; and soon after so subdivided, 
that when Risdon wrote, in 1630, there were then forty 
parts or shares, the principal of which came into posses- 
sion of the Wests ; and by the marriage of Dorothy, the 
heiress of that family, to Sir Thomas Carew, of Haccombe, 
in 1759, the family of Carew succeeded to the lordship and 
manor, which is now held by Sir Walter Palk Carew, feart., 
together with the castle ana adjoining estate, with a few 

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other farms in fee, and different undivided eighths of many 
other lands in the parish. 

Tiverton is supposed to be one of the largest boroughs 
in the kingdom, oeing about eleven miles in length, and 
nearly ten m breadth : the area is 20,000 acres, and it con- 
tains, according to the census of 1841, 1930 inhabited and 
109 uninhabited houses ; having a population of 10,041 
inhabitants, 4648 males and 5393 females. The countiy 
on the west and north sides is very hilly and well wooded. 
Tlie town is pleasantly situated on rising ground between 
the Exe and Loman, and is well watered by a brook called 
the Town Leat, which rises about 5 miles north of the 
town, and was given, about 1260, by the then countess of 
Devon, for the use of the inhabitants. On the west side 
of the river Exe is a large suburb called Westex, very 
densely populated, and principally inhabited by operatives. 
One of the greatest attractions of the town is the trout- 
iishing in the two rivers. On the ea.st side of the town is 
the Tiverton branch of the Great Western Canal, by which 
limestone, coal, culm, coke, &c. are imported. 

The parish church, or at least part of it, was first built 
in 1073 ; consecrated by Leofricus, first bishop of Exeter ; 
and enlarged and improved at various times by the families 
of Rivers and Courtenay previous to the fifteenth century. 
Between 1517 and 1529 John Greenway, an eminent mer- 
chant, rebuilt and enlarged the whole of the sovAh aisle 
and south front, together with the elegant chaptl bearing 
his name ; and also erected the fine Gothic screen which 
separates the chancel from the body of the church. The 
south front and porch (of which an engraving appeared in 
the * Gentleman's Magazine ')» together with Greenway*s 
Chapel, have lately been rebuilt, and the whole of the 
church new seated. It is a fine Gothic pile, 136 feet long 
and 82 feet wide ; and the tower is 27 feet square at the 
base and 116 feet high. St. George's Chapel, which was 
finished in 1T30, is of the Doric order, and situated in a 
large yard in the centre of the town. The tithes of the 
whole parish were granted, in 1146, by Baldwin de Rivers 
to the Cluniac monks at Exeter ; but the parish was after- 
wards divided ; for in 1257, as appears by the episcopal 
registers at Exeter, there were, as at present, four quarters, 
or ecclesiastical portions, viz., three rectories (Clare, Pitt, 
and Tidcombe), and an impropriation (Priors), which 
Henry VI. gave to the provost and fellows of King's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, who still retain the tithes, and appoint a 
stipendiary curate to perform a fourth part of the duty, 
altnough they deny their liability to do so. The tithes 
have lately been commuted : Clare at 565/. ; Pitt, 850/. : 
Tidcombe, 731/. 10*. ; Priors, 400/. ; and certain small 
detached pieces of land, technically called * All Fours,' 
66/. 

There are still many richly-endowed charities in Tivei 
ton. Blundell's free ^mmar-school was founded by Petei 
Blundell, merchant, in 1599 : the income has increased, 
owing to the rise in the value of land, from under 100/. to 
about 1200/. per annum. There is now a surplus income 
of 500/. or 600/. a year. There are several fellowships, 
scholarships, fitnd exhibitions connected with this school at 
Cambridge and Oxford. There is also a free English 
school, founded in 1609 by Robert Comyn, alias Chilcott, 
the nephew of Blundell. A blue-coat or charity school, 
where a number of poor children of both sexes are edu- 
cated and clothed, has lately been erected in lieu of an old 
building, and it is supportea by various bequests. There 
is also a national school, just built, which is supported by 
voluntary contributions; and an elegant school is now 
being erected in Westex, to be put under the direction of 
the British and Foreign School Society. Among the mis- 
cellaneous charities are Greenway's almshouses, founded 
in 1517, for the support of five poor men, with eightpence 
weekly for each ; but the revenues are now so much aug- 
mented that there are eleven houses the inmates of which 
receive five shillings per week each, and ten of which the 
inmates have four shillings, and four additional almshouses 
are now being built. There is also an excellent charity, 
founded by Walter Tyrrel in 1568, the proceeds of which 
are employed in repairing Exe bridge, and the overplus 
distributed weekly m bread. There are many others of 
less importance ; and it has been said that if aJl the 
charitable donations had been properly looked after, there 
would not at present be a.ny need of a poor-i-ate. 

The woollen trade of Tiverton was formerly veiy ex- 
tensive. From 1560 to 1566 there were only 2500 inhabit- 



ants, whereas in 1591 the population had increased to 5000 ; 
and Dunsford states, on the authority of Risdon and 
Chappie, that it was the principal place in Devonshire 
for the making of kersies, which were known all over the 
kingdom as ' Tiverton Kerzies,' and generally sent to the 
London market. In 1612, 8000 persons were constantly 
employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth, and the 
annual returns of the trade exceeded 300,000/. ; but an 
extensive fire shortly afterwards destroyed property to the 
amount of a quarter of a million, the operatives were dis- 
persed over the country, and the town never recovered 
its former prosperity. After this the trade in kersies 
gradually declinea ; out in 1690 the manufacture of mixed 
worsted serges was established, and by 1715 there was 
again a population of 8700, with a trade returning 350,000/. 
annually. In 1741 an epidemic fever scattered the po- 
pulation, and as serges were supplanted in Holland by 
the Norwich stuffs, the manufacturers engaged in making 
common duroys, &c., for the Spanish and Italian markets. 
In 1756 there were 56 fulling-mills regularly employed, 
but the French revolution, and the long wars consequent 
upon it, put an end to the foreign trade, and the improve- 
ment of machinery in Yorkshire has taken away the 
woollen manufacture. In 1790 however a large bmlding 
was erected in Westex for a cotton-mill, but finally con- 
verted into a manufactory for spinning wool, which was 
afterwards woven into coarse fabrics for the East India 
Company. This undertaking did not answer, and it was 
shut up in 1815. In 1816 Mr. Heathcoat of Lough- 
borough, in consequence of the Luddite disturbances in 
that neighbourhood, removed to it vrith his beautiful ma- 
chinery for making bobbin-net, for which he had obtained 
a patent in 1808, and many succesave improvements hav- 
ing been made on it, the trade is still carried on to the 
great benefit of the town. It gives permanent employ- 
ment to above 900 persons, besides temporary employ- 
ment to several hundred girls and women. 

The venerable remains of the old castle of the Ri verses 
and Courtenays stand on an eminence near the Exe ; some 
parts of the building are still in pretty good preservation, 
and might with a little repair last for several ages, but a 
considerable part of it was pulled down about a century 
since, and a modern house erected on its site. There is 
also a spacious market-place, erected in 1830, with a suite 
of rooms lor assemblies, several dissenting chapels, a 
theatre, union workhouse, and bridewell, which is about 
to be pulled down, and a building on an improved plan 
erected in lieu of it. 

Soon after the fire of 1612, James I. incorporated Tiver- 
ton by the title of mayor and burgesses, but the elective 
franchise then conferred was confined to the corporate 
body (25 in number), and continued in that state until the 
passing of the Reform Bill in 1832, under which the con- 
stituency is about 500. The castle was bombarded and 
taken by General Fairfax in 1645, when Sir Gilbert Talbot 
was the governor. 

Cosway the painter was a native of Tiverton, and 
painted an altar-piece of * Peter delivered out of Prison,' 
which he presented to the parish, and it was placed in the 
church in 1777 ; the celebrated Bampfylde Moore Carew, 
the gipsy king, who lived a century ago, was a son of the 
rector of Bickleigh, an adjoining parish, and ran away 
from Blundeirs school to join the gipsies. Although 
nearly related to the most respectable families of the 
western counties, nothing could induce him to give up his 
connection with this singular people, and his ^ventures, 
dictated by him to Mrs. Goadby of Sherborne, and which 
have been very frequently republished, contain an amusing 
account of his vagabondism. 

The principal market is on Tuesday, and is very abund- 
antly supplied with live cattle, com, meat, poultry, vege- 
tables, and fruit; there is another smaller market on 
Saturdays, and two fairs. There is an anniversary meeting 
of the trustees and other gentlemen educated at the 
grammar-school about the last week in August, and on the 
two following days there are races over a very excellent 
course, in the castle meadows adjoining the town. The 
borough is divided into three wards ; Westex ward. Castle 
ward, and Loman ward, and the municipal body consists 
of six aldermen and eighteen councillors, out of whom the 
mayor is chosen; the recorder is, as in other cases, 
nominated by the crown ; he holds a session four times a 
year, and is^the judge of the court of record for debt* 



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under 100/. The town is well lighted with gas, and the 
streets are under the control of commissioners em- 
powered by act of parliament, who keep them very clean. 

(Communication from Tiverton,) 

TI'VOLI, the antient Tibur, a town of the Papal State, 
16 miles east-north-east of Rome, situated on the slope of 
a hill on the left bank of the Anio, or Teverone, just 
above the spot where that river falls by a succession of 
rapids into the lowlands of the Campagna. Tibur existed 
as a town before the building of Rome, and its origin is 
lost in the obscurity of fabulous times. Virgil, in relating 
the wars of the Latins and Rutuli against iSneas, speaks 
repeatedly of Tibur. According to the old tradition, 
Tiburtus, son of Catillus, who emigrated from Greece with 
Evander to the shore of Latium previous to the Trojan 
war, founded or colonized Tibur. Coras and Catillus the 
younger, two brothers of Tiburtus, fought against iEneas 
and ms Trojan followers : 

• Tom ffemini firatres Tlburtia moenia linquttnt, 
Fnitris Tiburti dietam cognomine gentem, 
Catillutque acerque Coras, Argiva juventus.* 

JEneid, \ii. 

Pliny {Hist. Nat., xvi. 87) mentions three old oak-trees, 
existing in his time, which were reported to be older than 
Tiburtus, the founder of Tibur, and were consecrated to him. 
According to a passage in Horace (Orf., i. 7), they were 
called* tibumi lucus.' In the same passage Horace, 
as well as Virgil in the seventh book of the jtEneid, speaks 
of the fane and grove of the Sibyl Albunea at Tibur, the 
oracles of which were consulted from the oldest times. 

In the early part of the history of Rome we find Tibur 
mentioned as one of the principal towns of the Latin Con- 
federation. It stood where it still stands, on the left bank 
of the Anio, which river divided the territory of the Latini 
from that of the Sabini, and it was strong by its situation 
between the mountain and the river. [Latium.] The sub- 
sequent vicissitudes of Tibur and the other Latin cities, till 
their final subjection by Rome, 337 b.c, are noticed under 
Latini. Upon one occasion the militia of Tibur joined the 
Gauls and marched during the night to the walls of Rome, 
and spread alarm into the city, but they were repulsed. 
(Livy, vii. 12.) After the final defeat of the Latins, 
Tibui was deprived of part of its territory, which was seized 
by the Romans. During the Samnite wars the Romans 
made a road from Tibur over the Apennines to the country 
■ of the Peligni, which was called Via Valeria. The aque- 
ducts of the Anio vetus and Anio novus, and of the Aqua 
Marcia, which supplied Rome with wholesome water, passed 
through the territory of Tibur, where their remains are still 
seen. The healthy and romantic situation of this district 
induced the wealthy Romans to construct in it handsome 
country residences. Scinio iEmilianus, Metellus Numidi- 
cus, the famous Marius, Maecenas, Munatius Plancus, and 
Manlius Vopiscus, had their Tiburtine villas. The families 
of the Munatii, the Coponii, and the Plautii, which flourished 
at Rome in the latter times of the republic and under the 
first emperors, were from Hbur. The mausoleum of the 
Plautii is still seen at Ponte Lucano, a few miles from the 
town on the road to Rome. It is in the shape of a massive 
round tower, like that of Caecilia Metella outside of Rome, 
with an inscription, which however is said to be of much 
later ^te, to M. Plautius Silvanus, who served under Ti- 
berius in the Illyrian war (a.d. 10). G. M. Zappi, who 
lived about the middle of the 15th century, describes, in his 
* Annals of Tivoli,' this monument, as it then was, in better 
preservation than at present. 

Augustus used to visit his favourite Maecenas at his 
villa at Tibur, and Suetonius {Octav,^ 72) mentions his 
holding his tribunal under the porticoes of the splendid 
temple of Hercules, part of the cella of which is still 
seen behind the choir of the modem cathedral, which 
has been partly constructed with the materials of the antient 
temple. Gellius (xix. 5) mentions a public library as an- 
nexed to the temple. Horace preferred Tibur to sul other 
places of resort, and he had a country-house in the neigh- 
bourhood, distinct from his Sabine farm at Digentia. 

The emperor Hadrian constructed near Tibur a magni- 
ficent villa, of which extensive remains are still seen. It 
contained imitations of the works of art and of the 
beauties of nature which he had seen in his travels through- 
out the empire. Under his rei^ Getulius, a native of 
Tibur, and his wife Simphorosa, with their seven sons, being 
converts to the Christian doctrine, are said to have suffered 



martyrdom, according to Baronius, TiUemont, and other 
church historians. Under Aurelian, the famous Zenobia, 
queen of Palmyra, after having followed the triumphal 

grocession of her conqueror, was by order of the senate 
anished to Tibur, where she is said to have lived many 
years in comparative comfort. The grammarian Nonius 
Marcellus, who belongs to the fourth centuiy, was a native 
of Tibur. 

In the year 543 the Goths imder Totila took Tibur by 
surprise, and slaughtered most of the inhabitants, including 
tlie bishop. During the Longobard dominion in Italy, 
Tibur was included in the duchy of Rome, subject, at least 
nominally, to the emperors of Constantinople, and after- 
wards to Charlemagne and his successors. After the fall 
of the Carlovingian dynasty, and while the crown of Italy 
was an object of contest between various pretenders, Tibur, 
like most other towns of central Italy, governed itself as a 
municipal community. Its territory, which extended to 
the westward about half-way between Tibur and Rome, 
embraced in the opposite direction the whole vaUey of the 
Anio as far as the borders of Naples. But the abbot of 
the wealthy Benedictine monastery of Sublaqueum, now 
called Subiaco, having assumed the civil jurisdiction over 
extensive domains, villages, and castles in the upper part 
of the valley and the adjoining highlands, of which he had 
already, by various grants, the * utile dominium,' the mu- 
nicipality of Tibur, together with the bishop, resented his 
usurpation. After a temporary compromise between the 
parties, effected through the mediation of the pope, the 
Tiburtines resorted to arms, about a.d. 1123, took several 
castles, from which they drove away the monks and their 
men-at-arms, and a sort of desultory warfare was carried 
on for several years, until 1128, when the abbot of Subla- 
queum surprised the castle and village of Poggio, which 
was colonized by the Tiburtines; and after a desperate 
fighting in the streets and houses, the place was plundered 
and destroyed. After this a truce was concluded between 
Tibur and the abbot. In 1141, during the schism between 
Innocent II. and the anti-pope Anacletus, the Tiburtines 
having acknowledged the la,,ier, the people of Rome, who 
had had frequent border quarrels with their Tiburtine 
neighbours, seized this opportunity to assail their town 
with a considerable force. While they were trying to break 
open one of the ^ates, the inhabitants turned off part of the 
waters of the Anio, and made them fall with overwhelming 
force downfi the declivity upon the assailants, part of whom 
were swept away ; and the citizens, sallying out at the same 
time, routed the remainder of the besiegers, who ran away, 
leaving behind their tents and baggage. This was the 
cause of that deadly animosity of the Romans against the 
Tiburtines, which continued for more than a century after. 
In the following year, 1142, the people of Tibur, being 
threatened with another attack, thought it prudent to make 
their peace with Pope Innocent, and they swore allegiance 
to him, which so incensed the Romans, wno were bent upon 
the destruction of Tibur, that they rose in arms against 
the pope, restored the senate, and proclaimed the republic. 
In 1145 Pope Eugenius III. took refuge at Tibur from the 
turbulence of the Roman people. During the subsequent 
dissensions between the emperor Frederic I. and the pope, 
the people of Tibur seem to have remained faithful to the 
latter, and they joined the Roman militia in an attack 
upon Tusculum, the inhabitants of which had taken the 
part of the emperor, which ended in tlie total destruction 
of that antient city, a.d. 1191. The Tiburtines obtained 
a large share of the plunder of Tusculum. Frederic II., 
in his wars against the pope, held for a time possession of 
Tibur. After a course of desultory warfare between Rome 
and Tibur, a treaty was concluded and signed by the ma- 
gistrates of both towns, in August, 1259, entitled * Capitula 
et Instrumenta inter Romanum Populum et Populum Ti- 
burtinum,* by which the city of Rome secured the right of 
sending to Tibur a count, rector, or podestA, as political 
magistrate, who however, before entering upon his ofiice, 
was to sweai* to observe the municipal statutes of the town 
of Tibur ; but the judges, the captain of the militia, and 
the councillors of the commune, continued to be chosen 
by the citizens of Tibur as heretofore. The town of Tibur 
was to pay to the senate of Rome an annual tribute of one 
thousand * libre ' (about two hundred dollars). After this 
the people of Tibur, though often distracted by the factions 
of the Guelphs and the Guibelines, the Colonna and the 
Orsini, which desolated for more than a centuiy the Cam- 



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pagna and the neighbouring districts, remained upon the 
whole attached to tiie popes ; and they even fought for 
Urban VI. against the Orsini lords of Vicovaro and Ti^- 
liacozzo, whom they defeated in 1381. Pope Pius tl. built 
a castle at Tivoii, which remains. 

Tivoli is now the head of a district of the comarca of 
province of Rome, which district, according to the last 
census, contained 55,825 inhabitants, and includes most of 
the old territory of Tibur. It is one of the few antient 
towns of Latium which stands on its antient site ; whilst 
the modem representatives of Tusculum, PrsBueste, and 
Alba are no Iduger on the spot of those antient cities. 
The temple of Vesta, vulgarly called * Delia Sibilla,* with 
its Corinthian pillars, still occupies its commanding posi- 
tion ; the temple of Hercules has been transformed into a 
cathedral ; the Roman road, or Via Tiburtina, crosses the 
town ; the Roman bridge called Ponte Celio, or Ponticelli, 
is still extant. I^ere are considerable remains of the 
Villa of Msecenas near the Cascatelle. Remains of that 
of Quintilius Varus are shown near a church called Quin- 
tiliolo. Another round temple, vulgarly styled • Delia 
Tosse,' or of the goddess TussLs, is outside of the Roman 
gate. 

Tivoli is a bishop's see : it has a college, and a town 
library of about 6000 volumes, the gift of the Cavaliere 
Bischi, a native of the place ; several manufactories of 
iron, leather, and paper ; and 5900 inhabitants. The sur- 
rounding hills are covered with olive-trees. The streets 
of the town are narrow and steep. Near Tivoli is the ex- 
tensive Villa d*Este, constructea about the middle of the 
sixteenth century by the Cardinal Ippolito the younger, of 
Este, son of Alfonso I., duke of Ferrara, who was governor 
of Tivoli under Pope Julius III., and afterwards embel- 
lished by the Cardinal Luigi d'Este, brother of Alfonso II. 
It has all the formal magniiicence of the gardens and 
pleasure-grounds of that age ; its trees cut in architectural 
shapes, its mosaic-like parterres, its handsome fountains and 
water-works, constructed by Orazio Olivieri, a celebrated 
hydraulist of Tivoli ; its avenue of Italian pines, and its 
terraces, — constitute a princely residence, suited to the cha- 
racter and style of its former owners. The mansion is 
adorned with frescoes by Zuccari and Muziano. The view 
ftom the terrace before the house is magnificent. Ven- 
turini has pubhshed views of this villa, * Fontane del 6i- 
ardino Estense coi loro prospetti.' The country about 
Tivoli and the valley of the Anio above it is one of the 
most pleasant, saiubnous, and romantic districts near Rome. 
Vicovaro, the antient Varia, eight miles above Tivoli; 
the secluded monastery of Subiaco, which is twelve miles 
above Vicovaro, near where Nero had a villa ; the sources 
of the Anio, near Trevi, above iSubiaco ; and the valley of 
Digentia, afford scope for interesting excursions. The 
vines of Tivoli are famed for a peculiar sort of grape, called 
' piszutello * and * pergolese,* which, on account of its firm- 
ness and luscious taste, is much in request for the table. 
It was noticed as early as the time of Pliny thfe elder, who 
says (Hist, Nat., xiv. 4, Tauchnit2 edit.) that it was then 
a newly discovered sort of grape, having the appearance 
of the olive, and was called by the Tiburtines * uva mu- 
nicipi.* The stone commonly called * travertine,' of which 
many of the buildings of Rome are built, is dug near 
Tivoli. 

Many authors have written concerning the history and 
antiquities of Tivoli. Nicodemi wrote its history in Latin ; 
Zappi wrote * Annali di Tivoli ;' Del R5, * Antichit& Ti- 
burtme ;' Marzi, ' Storie Tiburtine ;' Cabral and Del R6, 
*NuoveRicerche dclle Ville e dei piii notabili Monument! 
antichi della Citti e del Territorio di Tivoli,' an excellent 

fuide-book ; De Sanc'.tis, * Dissertazioni sopra la Villa 
'Orazio, sopra il Mausoleo de' Plauzj, e sopi*a Antino ;' 
Ligorio, * Pianta della Villa Tiburtina di Adriano disegnata 
e descritta,' published by F. Contini, fol., Rome, 1751; 
Agostino Capello, * Saggio sulla Topografia Fisica di Ti- 
voli,' in the 23rd vol. of the * Giornale Arcadico,' 1824 ; 
Volpi, * De Tiburtibus, sen Tiburtinis,' in his » Vetus La- 
tium ;' and lastly, Viola, * Storia di Tivoli della sua origine 
flno al Secolo XVlI.' Rome, 1819. 
TLASCALA. [Mexican States, vol. xv., p. 159.] 
TMOLUS (T^wXoc), a chain of mountains which runs 
from east to west, nearly through the centre of Lydia, and 
parallel to the Messogis. It detaches itself from the Mes- 
sogis near the borders of Phry^a and terminates on the 
coast opposite the island of tinios. It thus separates the 



valley of the Caystnis from that of the Hermus. Il is said 
by Pliny to have been previously called TimOlus. (Nat, 
Hist.y V. 30 ; compare Ovid, Met., vi. 15 ; xi. 86.) 

Tmolus was celebrated in antiquity for its wine (Strabo, 
*iv. i537), to which allusion is frequently made in the 
* BacchsB ' of Euripides. It was also rich in minerals ; and 
the Pactolus, which flows from it into the Hermus, is said 
to have washed down a great quantity of gold, whence 
CrcBsiis and the Lydian kings were supposed to have 
obtained a great part of their wealth, fn the time of 
Strabo however no gold was found in the river. (Herod., 
i. 93 ; V. 101 ; Strw)0, xiii. 626.) Chishull, who visited 
Tmolus in 1699, describes the mountain as pleasant, and 
garnished with an intinite variety of plants, shrubs, and 
trees. Besides a fine prospect of tne country, the traveller 
is amused with impending rocks, perpendicular precipices, 
and the murmurs of a brook, probably the Pactolus. On 
the top, which he gained in four hours, was a fruitful vale 
between two lofty ridges ; with a vein of marble as clear 
and pellucid as alabaster. (Chandler, Travels in Asia 
Minor, c. 77.) Mr. Fellowes (Account of Discoveries in 
Lycia, p. 8) speaks of the mountain being covered with 
snow at the latter end of February ; but Chishull found 
the snow remaining on the summits at the latter end of 
April. 

In the time of Strabo there was a watch-tower of white 
stone on the top of Tmolus, which had been built by the 
Persians, and from which the whole of the surrounding 
country could be seen, especially the plain of the Caystms. 
(Strabo, xiii. 625.) Tacitus (Annal.j ii. 47) speaks of a 
town Tmolus, which was destroyed by an eartnquake in 
the reign of Tiberius, a.d. 17. This town seems to have 
been situated either upon or near the mountain. Ernesti, 
in his note upon the above-mentioned passage of Tacitus, 
says that this town is also mentioned by Herodotus (i. 84), 
but Herodotus is speaking of the mountain, not of the 
town. The Mesotimolitae, as the name indicates, in- 
habited the central part of the mountain. (Pliny, Nat^ 
Hist., V. 30.) 

TOAD. [Progs.] MM. Dum^ril and Bibron (Erpeio- 
logie) make the Buibniform family of the Anurous Phane- 
rogloss Batrachians (Anoures PnanSroglosses) consist of 
the following genera : — 

Dendrobates, Wagl. (Hylaplesia, part, Boie, Tschudi.,) 

Example, Dendrooates ttnctorius (Cayenne). 

Rhinoderma, Dum. and Bibr. 

Example, Rhinoderma Darwtnii (Chili). 

Atelopusy Dum. and Bibr. 

Example, Atelopusjtavescens (Cayenne) 

Bu/o, Laur. 

Example, Bufo vulgaris, the common toad. (Europe, 
Japan.) [Frogs, vol. x., pp. 490, 491, 493, 495.] MM. 
DumSril and Bibron record eighteen species of this genus. 

Phryniscus, Wieg. (Chaunus,* part, t'schudi.) 

Example, Phryniscus nigri'cans,^ie^, (Montevideo.) 

Brachycephalus, Fitzing. (Ephippifer, Coct.) 

Example, Brachycephalus ephippium, Fitzing. (Braz il, 
Guyana.) 

Hylcedactylus, Tschud. 

Example, Hyltsdactylus baleatus (Java). 

Plectropus, Dum. and Bibr. 

Example, Plectropus pictus (Manilla). 

Engy stoma, Fitzing. (Microps, Wagl. ; Stenocephalus, 
Tschud.) 

Example, Engy stoma ovale (Surinam, Buenos Ayres). 

Uperodon, Dum. and Bibr. 

Example, Uperodon ?narmoratus (Montavalle, Indian 
Peninsula). 

Breviceps, Merrem (Engystoma, part, Fitzing. ; Systoma, 
Wagl., Tschud.). 

Example, Breviceps gibbosus (South Africa, near the 
Cane of Good Hope). 

Khinophrynus,Uwm. and Bibr. 

Example, Rhinophrynus dorsalis (Mexico). 

Geographical Distribution of the Family. — MM. Du- 
m^ril and Bibron state (loc. cit.) that the number of species 
known to them (1841) was thirty-iive, a much less number 
than that of the Raniform family, which includes fifty-one, 
and less still than the Hyliform or Tree-frog family, which 
comprises sixty-four. 

Nevertheless, observe these excellent herpetologists, 

• N.B. PnMoeapledt li Uvt CAcmm is In omitholoi^. [Palakisia, toI* 

xvii., p. 135.] 



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species of this family exist in all the five* parts of the 
werld, where they are distributed in a manner not less un- 
equal than the Raniforra and Hyliform species, and, 
always, with a greater proportion for America, whilst the 
smallest portion of them belong to Europe, which has not 
even a single species peculiar to itself, for the twot there 
found, the Common Toad and the Green Toad {Bvfo viri- 
dis^ Laur.), also inhabit Africa and Asia, which produce 
moreover, the one Bufo pantherinus and Breviceps gib- 
bosus, the other Plectropus pictuSy Engystoma omatumy 
Hi/lcsdactylus baleatuSy Uperodon marmoratuniy an4 Bu- 
f(j}ies cruentatus, scabeVy biporcatusy isoSy and asper. 

Oceania, which, after America, is, they observe, best 
furnished with Hyliform species, and where two of the 
Ranilbrm family are found, has not hitherto yielded more 
than a single Bufoniform species, viz. Phryniscus Aus- 
trail's. 

America, besides six species of Bt{fOy viz. strumostLSy 
melanotis,mu6ncuSy Americanus, margaritifery dPOrbignyiy 
and LeschenaiUtiiy furnishes Dendrobates tinctoriuSy ob- 
scuruSy and pieties; Rhinoderma Darwinii; Atelopusfia- 
vescens ; Phryniscus nigricans ; Brackycephalus epnip- 
pium ; and Engystomata ovalcy CarolinensCy rugosum, and 
microps. 

Mr. Darwin, speaking of the Fauna of the Galapagos 
Archipelago, says, * Of snakes there are several species, 
but all harmless. Of toads and frogs there are none. I 
was surprised at this, considering how well the temperate 
and damp woods in the elevated parts appeared adapted 
to their habits. It recalled to my mind the singular state- 
ment made by Bory St. Vincent, namely, that none of this 
family are to be found on the volcanic islands in the great 
oceans. There certainly appears to be some foundation 
for this observation ; wmch is the more remarkable, when 
compared with the case of lizards, which are generally 
among the earliest colonists of the smallest islet. It may 
be asked whether this is not owing to the different facilities 
of transport through salt-water, of the eggs of the latter, 
protected by a calcareous coat, and of the slimy spawn of 
the former.' (Journal.) 

Fossil Toads. 

Here may be noticed the fossil specimens from the 
CEningen beds — Bombinator (EninsensiSy Agass. {Pelo' 
pfiilus Agassiziiy Tschudi), and PcUceophi^nos Gessneriy 
Tschudi. (See Classification der Batrachiery von J. J. 
Tschudi, pp. 84, 89, tab. 1, ff. 2, 3.) 




Palaophrynos GeMBeri. (TKhudi.) 

TOALDO, GIUSEPPE, a celebrated Italian geographer 
and meteorologist, was bom in 1719 at a small village 
near Vicenza. After having received the usual rudiments 
of education, he was sent to the University of Padua, in 
order to qualify himself for the priesthood by the study of 
literature and theology ; and while there, a taste for 
natural philosophy, and particularly for astronomy, induced 
him to devote a considerable portion of his time to the 

* The fifth part is that tenued by the French ' Ooeanie/ which includes the 
Indian Arohtpelago, the Society, Friendly, and other isles, Australia, and Van 
iDLemon's lAnd. 

f N B Bufo eaiamita, Laur., recorded a« a third species by the Prince of 
Caniao (Fattna Itaiiea atid Amphibia Europaa'), is constderea by MM. Du' 
m^ and Bibron as identical with B^fit virtdis. 



pursuit of those ^ranehes of science ; this pursuit he con« 
tinued, during the intervals which his pastoral duties af- 
forded, after he had quitted the university and become 
the curate of a village in the neighbourhood. 

In 1762 he was appointed professor of physical geo- 
^aphy and astronomy in the same university, and he 
immediately availed mmself of the influence which his 
appointment gave him to obtain the grant of a building 
wnich might be occupied as an observatory ; in this he 
succeeded, and being allowed the use of an antient tower, 
he placed in it all the instruments which he could collect. 
In this building he made a series of astronomical observa- 
tions, in continuation of those which had been made about 
forty years previously by Poleni ; and the first thunder-rod 
erected in the Venetian states was one which Toaicjo ap- 
plied to th6 same building. 

He died suddenly at Padua, in December, ^798, in con- 
sequence of a fit of apoplexy, which was supposed to have 
been brought on by a domestic calamity. 

The Add6 Toaldo applied himself to the study of 
mathematics only as far as that branch of science is ap- 
plicable to geography. In 1769 he published at Padua a 
treatise on plane and spherical trigonometry, with a col- 
lection of tables ; and at Venice, in 1773, a tract entitled 
* Compendio della Sfera e di Geographia.' In 1782 he 
published his * Saggio di Studi Veneti neir Astronomia e 
nella Marina ;' and two years afterwards, his method of 
finding the longitude of a place by an observed transit of 
the moon ; in 1789 appeared his * Trattato di Gnomonica,* 
and in 1791 a work entitled * Schediasmata Astronomica.* 

In 1776 he gave, in a letter to Mr. Strange, the British 
resident at Venice, an account of the tides in the Adriatic, 
which he drew from the observations of Signior Temanza, 
an Italian architect and engineer. From this account it 
appears that the tides in that sea are at their greatest 
height in winter; that the height of the spring-tides 
amounts to between 3 and 4 feet, while the neap-tides 
scarcely exceed 3 inches. (Phil. Trans.y vol. Ixvii.) 

The attention of Toaldo was strongly directed to meteor- 
ology at a time when this branch of natural philosophy 
was but little studied ; and he is the first who took notice 
of the supposed connexion of atmospherical phenomena 
with the movement of the moon in her orbit. Having 
observed that those phenomena return in nearly the same 
order at the end of every eighteen years, he drew up tables 
exhibiting the state ot the weather during three such 
periods ; and an account of his system was given in a 
paper entitled * Le Saros Meteorologique,* &c., which is 
contained in the * Journal de Rosier ' for 1782. 

In 1770 Toaldo published a tract entitled * Saggio 
Meteorologico suUa vera Influenza degli Astri ;* and two 
years afterwards, a tract concerning the method ot* pro- 
tecting buildings fi-om the effects of lightning ; he also 
published, in 1775, a work on the application of meteor- 
ology to agriculture. 

Toaldo wrote a life of the Abb6 Conti, which was pre- 
fixed to an edition of the works of that philosopher and 
poet, who had been his instructor. 

TOBACCO, the common name of the plants belonging 
to the MonopetaJous genus Nicotiana. Tobacco was the 
name used by the Caribbees for the pipe in which they 
smoked, but tnis word was transferred by the Spaniards 
to the herb itself. The genus Nicotiana contains about 
forty species, most of them yielding tobacco for smoking, 
and many of them cultivated in the gardens of Europe. 
The name Nicotiana was given these plants after Jean 
Nicot, of Nismes, in Languedoc, who was an agent of 
the king of France at Portugal, and there procured the 
seeds or the tobacco from a Dutchman who had pro- 
cured them in Florida. Nicot sent them to France in 
1560. 

The species of Nicotiana are most of them herbs, rarely 
undershrubs, and generally clothed with clammy haii-s or 
down. The flowers are terminal, racemose or panicled, 
and of a white, green, or purplish colour. The calyx is 
5-cleft, permanent ; corolla funnel- or salver-shaped, divi- 
sions 5, plicate and spreading ; stamens 5, as long as the 
tube of the corolla ; anthers dehiscing lengthwise ; stigma 
capitate; capsule 2-celled, 2-valved, valves bipartite; 
seeds minute, numerous. 

iV. Tabacumy Common Virginian or Sweet-scented To- 
bacco, is an herbaceous plant, with acuminated, oblong, 
lanceolate, sessile leaves, lower ones decurrent ; throat of 



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corolla inflated, seffments of the limb pointed. This plant 
is a native of the West Indies, where it first became known 
to the Spaniards, and of Virginia, where the Enghsh first 
became acquainted with its properties. Of the variotis 
species it is that which is most commonly cultivated in 
gardens as an ornament. It is also largely cultivated in 
Europe for the purpose of smoking. The other species 
are nowever in some cases preferred. Schrank has 
described a larj^e number of varieties of the common to- 
bacco, varying m the size and form of their leaves, as well 
as the colour and form of their corollas. For an account 
of the properties of this species, see Nicotian a Tabacum. 

N, Mocrophylla, Orinoco Tobacco, is an herbaceous 
plant, with ovate acute leaves clasping the stem ; throat of 
corolla inflated, segments short, pointed. It is a larger 
plant than the last, the stem rising from five to seven feet 
nigh. It is a native of America, and is frequently used for 
smoking, under the name Orinoco tobacco ; it is however 
inferior to the last ; the milder Havannah cigars are said 
to be made from it. 

N. Rustica, English Tobacco, has an herbaceous square 
stem, witii petiolate ovate, quite entire leaves, tube of 
corolla cylindrical, longer than the calyx ; segments of the 
limbs roundish, obtuse. This plant is a native of Europe, 
Asia, Afhca, and America. It is called English tobacco 
because it was the first species that was introduced into 
this country for growth ; it was then brought from America. 
It grows very well in this climate, and in some places is 
almost naturalised. It is known in France as tabacpausse^ 
in GtQxmwciY VABauerri'tabak, and in Spain as Tabcmca cima- 
rosa, Tliis plant grows on the coast of the Mediterranean, 
and thence finds its way into India, where it is highly va\ied. 
The tobaccos of Salonica and Latakkia, which are much 
esteemed, appear to be the produce of N. rustica. From 
the extensive range of climate and difference of situation 
which this plant occupies, its characters suffer considerable 
change ; hence a number of varieties have been described. 
In the shops this tobacco is known as Turkish. 

N. Persicay Shiraz Tobacco, is an herbaceous plant, 
clothed with clammy down, with the leaves of the root ob- 
long, those of the stem acuminate and sessile; corolla 
salver-shaped, with a long tube, and rather une(j^ual seg- 
ments. Tnis plant is a native of Persia, and furnishes the 
famous Shiraz tobacco. This tobacco is milder than that 
produced by the N. tahacumy and but a small quantity is 
consumed m this country. The English smoke more of 
the strongest tobacco than any nation in the world. 

There are several other species of tobacco which are 
used in the places where they naturally ctow for smok- 
ing. N. quadrivalvis has capsules with four valves ; it 
grows on the Missouri river, and is there smoked by the 
natives. N, multivalvis has capsules with many valves ; 
it is cultivated by the Indians on the Columbia river for 
smoking. It is a fetid plant, and the calyx, the most 
fetid part, is selected by the Indians for smoking. N. 
nanay a small species of tobacco, is a native among 
the Rocky Mountains of North America, and is smoked 
by Indians. N. repanda is a native of Cuba, and is said 
to furnish the tobacco for making the small cigars known 
as Queen's. ^ 

Cultivation. — ^The cultivation of tobacco is most ex- 
tensively carried on in the United States of North America. 
It requires considerable heat to come to perfection ; but 
with care and attention, and by treating it as an exotic, it 
maybe very successfully cultivated in much colder cli- 
mates. The least frost injures it ; but this is the case with 
many plants, which are nevertheless successfully culti- 
vated in the northern part of Europe. The seeds of the 
tobacco plant must be sown in a prepared seed-bed, and 
be carefully protected from the least frost : for which pur- 
pose straw and fern are used, as is done by the market- 
gardeners who raise early culinary vegetables. When 
once the danger of spring frosts is over, they maybe safely 
transplanted ; and if the ground has been duly prepared, 
they will arrive at maturity before the frosts of autimin, as 
is the case with potatoes, buckwheat, and many other 
plants which are natives of warmer climates. To accelerate 
the growth of the tobacco plant the ground should have 
been deeply trenched, and highly impregnated with 
manure for some time before ; for fresh dung, especially 
that of horses, would impart a rank disagreeable flavour to 
the leaf. It is therefore by a preparatory course of high 
cultivation, and by bringing the soil to the state of a rich 



garden mould, that tobacco may be cultivated without 
much fear of failure. There can be no doubt that, if it 
were not for the fiscal restrictions arising from duties im- 
posed upon tobacco by almost every government, the 
cultivatiron of it would be a great resource to native indus- 
try, especially on a smidl scale, by cottagers and gardeners. 
In Holland, of which the climate differs little from that of 
Great Britain, tobacco is cultivated to a very great extent, 
even in very poor soils, by great attention to manuring, 
and by accelerating the growth of the plant. The seed is 
sown in a well-prepared seed-bed in M!arch, and protected 
by mats laid over hoops as long as the nights are cold and 
frost is dreaded. The gi-ound in which the tobacco is to 
be transplanted is laid in narrow beds with intervals be- 
tween them, which are dug out deep, as is done with 
asparagus-beds, and richly manured with sheeps' dung. 
These beds are two feet wide at top, and two feet six 
inches at bottom, with sloping sides to keep the earth up : 
the intervals are only six or eight inches, and serve not 
only as drains to keep the beds dry, but as paths from 
which the surface of the beds may be stirred and weeded. 
Two rows of plants about eight inches high are planted at 
equal distances along the beds ; the rows are sixteen or 
eighteen inches apart, and the plants at the same distance 
from each other. In warmer climates the plants are 
placed three feet apart, as there they grow to a much 
greater size, and cover more ground ; a moist day is chosen 
for transplanting. The plants are taken up carefully with 
a small spade or trowel without shaking the earth much 
from the roots ; they are placed slanting in a shallow 
basket, and thus carried to the prepared beds ; they should 
be vigorous, and have a stem six or eight inches long. 
They are inserted into holes made by a proper instrument," 
so that the fibres of the roots and the adhering earth may 
be completely buried up to the bottom of the stem : four 
or six leaves should be on the plant ; if more, the lowest 
may be pinched off. If the ground was sufficiently moist, 
and no great heat or strong sunshine wither the plants, they 
will scarcely appear to have suffered from the removal ; those 
which die, as must often be the case, are replaced by others 
left in the seed-bed for that purpose. Great attention 
must be paid to the beds all the time the tobacco is grow- 
ing; weeds must be carefully eradicated, and the earth 
repeatedly stirred between the plants with hoes and narrow 
spades to accelerate the growth. When the leaves ac- 
quire a certain size, the lower leaves should be pinched off, 
to increase the bulk of the upper : for the former are apt 
to wither before the latter have acquired their full growth. 
A fine tobacco plant should have from eight to twelve !arge 
succulent leaves, and a stem from three to six feet high ; 
the top should then be pinched off to prevent its ninmng 
and drawing the sap from the leaves. Every lateral shoot 
should be carefully pinched off as soon as it appears, \o 
prevent branching. A few plants are left for seed, and 
of these the head^ are allowed to shoot the full lengths 
The seeds are so small and so numerous on a plant, that a 
few plants produce a sufficiency of seed for the next crop. 
The plantations of tobacco aie continually examined, and 
every leaf injured by insects or otherwise is pulled off. 
Tobacco takes about four months from the time of plant- 
ing to come to perfection ; that is, from May to Septem- 
ber, when the leaves are gathered before there is any 
danger from frost : one single white frost would spoil the 
whole crop and cause it to rot. As soon as the colour of 
the leaves becomes of a paler green inclined to yellow, 
thev are fit to be gathered ; they then begin to droop, 
and emit a stronger odour, and they feel rough and some- 
what brittie to the touch. When the dew is evaporated 
and the sun shines, the leaves maybe most advantageously 
gathered, which is done by cutting down the plant close to 
the ground, or even a little under the surface. They are 
left on the ground to dry till the evening, taking care to 
turn them often, that they may dry equally and more 
rapidly. They are housed before the evening dew falls, 
which would injure them, and laid up undercover in heaps 
to sweat during the night ; and some mats are thrown 
over the heaps to keep in the heat. If they are very full 
of juice, they are sometimes carried out again the next day 
to dry in the sun ; but most commonly they are left to 
sweat for three or four days, and then moved and hung up 
to dry in sheds or builcungs made for the purpose, like 
those in which paper is dried in the paper-mills, which 
allow a thorough draught of air, but keep out the rain. 



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Every tobacco plantation has such buildings, proportioned 
to the extent of the cultivation. The floors are most 
commonly only the soil on which they stand ; but it is much 
better if they are boarded, because on the earth the plants 
are apt to be soiled, which injures the quality of the 
tobacco. In some places the leaves are now stnpped off 
the stems and strung on packthread to hang tliem up to 
dry. In others the whole plant is hung on pegs placed in 
rows at regular distances, and fixed on laths which run 
across the Duilding. All that is required b to place as 
many plants as possible without their being so near as to 
prevent the circulation of the air between them. When 
the plants are quite dry they are removed in moist or 
foggy weather : for if the air is verv dry the leaves would fall 
to dust. They are laid in heaps on hurdles and covered over, 
that they may sweat again, which they do but slowly. 
The heaps are carefully examined from time to time to see 
that they do not heat too much ; and, according to the sea^ 
son and the nature of the plants, whether more or less filled 
with sap, they remain so a week or a fortnight. This part of 
the process requires much attention and experience ; for 
whether they do not heat to the proper degree or too much, 
in either case the quality is impaired. An experienced to- 
bacco grower will ascertain the proper degree of heat better 
with his hand, than the ablest chemist could do with his ther- 
mometer. If the leaves were not stripped off at first, 
which is not the mdst common practice, Uiey are taken off 
now, when the proper fermentation is completed, and 
sorted ; those which grow on the top of the stem, in the 
middle, and at the bottom, are laid separately, as being 
of different qualities. They are tied together in bundles 
of ten or twelve leaves, and again dried carefully, when 
they are ranged in casks horizontally, and pressed in, by 
means of a round board, by lever or screw, as soon as a 
certain quantity has been laid in ; the pressure is equal to 
that of a weight of several tons. This is essential to the 
safe transportation of the tobacco, and it is thus that the 
great bulk of it arrives from the places where its cultiva- 
tion is most extensive, as in Amenca. 

The finest tobacco however is made into rolls, which 
from their shape are called carrots. The leaves are placed 
together by large handfuls, and wound very tightly round 
by strips of fibrous wood or strong grass, at a time when 
the air is somewhat moist ; they partially consolidate, 
and require only to be rasped to make the finest and most 
genuine snuff, or rapp6e, as it is called. The snuffs commonlv 
sold however are manufactured and prepared in a muck 
more complicated manner. 

The refuse stems of the tobacco are sometimes burned ; 
but it is best to let them rot in the ground, where they are 
converted into good manure for the next crop. From the 
high state of cultivation of the land, it is left very rich for 
any other crop after the tobacco ; but as this is quite a 
gai-den cultivation, the tobacco recurs very soon on the 
same ground ; the abundant manuring and deep trenching 
prevent any bad effects from this frequent recurrence. 

Maniffacture. — ^Tobacco is packed m hogsheads for ship- 
ment : it is done with the greatest care, each bundle being 
laid separately. They are ranged side by side, and the 
direction of the points of the leaves is reversed with every 
alternate row. When the cask is about one-quarter filled, 
the tobacco is compressed by a powerful lever- press, which 
reduces the thickness of the layer from about twelve inches 
to three ; and the pressure is continued eeveral hours, that 
the tobacco may become so consolidated as not to spring 
lip again when it is removed. In this way the cask is 
filled, by successive stages, until it contains a mass of to- 
bacco-leaves so dense and compact, that a hogshead forty- 
eight inches in len^h, and thirty or thirty-two inches m 
diameter, will contain one thousand pounds. 

Upon the arrival of the tobacco m this country it is 
conveyed to bonding-warehouses. Those of the metropolis, 
which are of immense extent, are situated at the Lon- 
don Docks, where every cask is opened, to examine its 
contents, and to remove any tobacco which may have been 
injured in the passage. This arrangement is rendered 
necessary by the operation of the high import-duty, which 
renders it oetter for the owner to sacrifice a large quan- 
tity of tobacco which may have become impaired m value 
(though not rendered valueless) than to pay the duty upon 
it. For the purpose of examination, the head of the hogs- 
head is knocKed out, some of the staves are loosened, and 
the hogshead is taken completely off from the tobacco. 
P. C, No, 1554. 



If it be found that, from defective packing, from th* 
action of sea-water, or from any other cause, part of the 
surface has become so injured as not to be woith preserv- 
ing, such part is removed, with large powerful cutting 
instruments, by small quantities at a time. This requires 
considerable power, owing to the intense compression of 
the tobacco, especially upon the cylindrical sides of the 
mass, where the cutters act across the direction of the 
stalks and leaves. The damaged tobacco thus removed is 
consumed in a Aimace on tne premises, which, with its 
chimney, is jocularly termed the • qtieen's tobacco^pe* 
The remainder of the mass is accurately weighed, ana tnen 
returned into the hogshead. 

The manufacture of the tobacco-leaves into the nume* 
rous varieties of tobacco for smoking in pipes — consisting of 
the leaf cut up into shreds or filaments, and usually divested 
of the stalk ; into cigars^ which are bundles of the to- 
bacco-leaf rolled compactly together into a convenient 
foim for smoking ; ana into snuffs which consists partly of 
the stalks of the leaves, and partly of the leaves themselves, 
cut and ground into the state of powder — is usually con- 
ducted by three distinct classes oi individuals. The pre- 
paration of tobacco, properly so called, claims the first 
notice. 

The first operation performed upon a hogshead of to- 
bacco, after it has been removed to the manufactory and 
opened, is the digging out of the solid tobacco with iron 
instruments. The pieces thus detached are then n>rinkJed 
with water, which facilitates the separation of the small 
bundles from each other, and also of the leaves composing 
each bundle. If the tobacco be of the kind called * han£ 
work,' that is to say, with the stalks remaining attached to 
the leaves, it must now be stripped, unless indeed it be re- 
quired for the producbon of a kind of tobacco called 
* bird's-eye,' which contains a portion of stalk as well as 
leaf. The removal of the stalks is usually effected in Eng- 
land by women or boys, who fold the leaf along the middle, 
and, by means of a small instrument, applied with a dex- 
terity acquired only by practice, separate the stalks from 
the leaves, and lay them aside in different heaps. To pre- 
pare them for being cut into shreds or filaments, the leaves 
are pressed together in large numbers in the form of a 
cake, during which operation they are occasionally moist- 
ened, not only to enable them to cake together the more 
readily, but also in order to improve the subsequent flavour 
of the tobacco. The details of the machineiy employed 
for compressing and cutting the tobacco vary in different 
establishments. In that which is described in ' A Day at 
a Tobacco-Manufactory,' in the • Penny Magazine,' the 
damp leaves are taken up out of a trough and laid in what 
is called a * mortar-press,* several layers being piled upon 
each other. The whole is then subjected to pressure by 
means of an iron plate which descends into the press, and 
is forced down by a screw. The tobacco is next removed 
from the * mortar-press ' to the • standing-press,' where it 
is compressed into one-third of its original thickness. The 
leaves remain several hours in this press, in order to de- 
stroy their elasticity. When removed from the press to 
the cutting-engine, the cake of leaves is as hard as a board ; 
yet it retains a slight degree of clamminess or moisture 
from the previous sprinkling. 

As manufacturing machinery generally has undergone, 
of late years, great changes and improvements, so it has 
been with the cutting-machinery of the tobacco-manufac- 
turer. Originally it consisted simply of a long knife 
worked by nand. Hand-engines were then introduced, 
and such are still partially used, in which the knife is 
moved by a train of machinery, which also shifts the cake 
of tobacco between each cut, so as to make it ready for 
the next. This kind of cutting-engine is turned by a 
winch-handle, and the motion is regulated by a fly-wheel. 
Horses have been applied to a similar machine ; and, 
lastly, steam-power has been brought to the aid of the 
manufacturer, leaving the attendance of men necessary 
only to place the cake in the engine, to attend to it while 
at work, and to remove the cut tobacco. Generally speak- 
ing, all of these machines act upon the same principle. 
The cake of leaves is laid upon an iron bed, which is sus- 
ceptible of a slow progressive motion by means of a screw 
which passes beneath it, and is connected with a cog-wheel 
in such a manner that, while the machine is moving, the 
bed is constantly urged forward. Another part of the 
mechanism gives motion to the knife, which has ashaip 

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blade, rather longer than the width of the cake, and is 
pivoted on a hinge or fulcrum at one end, the other rising 
and falling with the action of the machinery. The depth 
of the cake is about two inches, and the thickness of the 
film taken off by each stroke, and consequently the fine- 
ness or coarseness of the filaments of tobacco, is regulated 
by alterations in a train of cog-wheels. Other machines 
have been devised in which knives attached to the arms of 
a revolving wheel are to cut the tobacco in a similar man- 
ner to the action of a chaff'-mill ; but the writer is not 
aware that such have been brought into use. 

Many circumstances combine to account for the differ- 
ent qualities and appearance of the numerous varieties of 
tobacco used for smoking. Tobaccos raised in various 
X)laces naturally present some points of difference ; varia- 
tions will, as already shown, appear in different parts of 
the same crop ; and the retention or rejection of the stalk, 
the nature and extent of the moistening, and the degree 
of fineness of the fibres, occasion still further differences. 
These varieties it is needless to notice further, unless the 
coarse variety called * shag,' which is used both for chew- 
ing and smoking, be deemed a sufiicient exception. It is 
formed of the darkest-coloured leaves, well liquored, which 
darkens them still more. 

One other kind of tobacco claims notice : it is that 
known as * pig-tail tobacco,' and consists of a rope or cord, 
about as large as the thicker end of a tobacco-pipe, and as 
long as the manufacturer can conveniently make it. It is 
produced by a process similar to spinning, and requires 
the simultaneous aid of a man and two boys. A bench 
several yards in length is made use of, with a spinning- 
wheel at one end, turned by one of the boys. The other 
boy arranges a number of damp leaves, with the stalks 
removed, end to end upon the bench, taking care to lay 
them smooth and open ; and the man immediately follows 
him, and rolls up the leaves into the form of a cord by a 
peculiar motion of his hand. As fast as this is done, the 
finbhed tail is wound upon the spinning-wheel. It is 
transferred from the spinning-wheel, by the action of the 
machinery, to a frame connected with it ; and subsequently 
it is wound or twisted up into a hard close ball, and dark- 
ened by steeping in tobacco-water. 

The manufacture of cigars is exceedinglv simple. One 
man or boy, with a quantity of unstripped leaves before 
him, takes them one by one, strips them as before described, 
and then passes them to the cigar-maker, who is seated on 
a low stool in front of a low work-bench, which has raised 
ledges on every side excepting that nearest to him. He 
takes a leaf of tobacco, spreads it smoothly before him on 
the bench, and cuts it to a form resembling one of the 
gores or stripes of a balloon. He then lays a few frag- 
ments of tobacco-leaf in its centre, and rolls the whole up 
into a form nearly resembling^ that of a ci^ar. The next 
•peration is to place the partially formed cigar in an iron 
cauge, which cuts it to a given length. The maker then 
lays a narrow strip of leaf upon the bench, and rolls the 
cigar spirally in it. All this is done with ^eat rapidity, 
a few seconds being sufficient for the production of a cigar. 
The cigars are finally dried for sale. 

Snuff, which requires a higher degree of care in its 
manufacture than any other product of the tobacco-plant, 
is made either from stalks only* from leaves only, or from 
a mixture of the two. That known as Scotch snuff is 
made either wholly of stalks, or with a very small admix- 
ture of leaves; high-dried snuffs owe their peculiar 
qualities chiefiy to a degree of drying which imparts a 
scorched flavour to them ; and innumerable varieties are 
produced by the choice, niixture, and preparation of 
different tobaccos. Most of the snuff made near London 
is ground in mills whose machinery is impelled by the 
river Wandlc, in and near to the small town of Mitcham 
in Surrey. In these mills two kinds of grinding-machine 
ai'e employed, one consisting of two cylindrical stones, 
several feet in diameter, and one or more in thickness, set 
up on edge, side by side, upon a circular slab or bed. 
These stones have a two-fold motion imparted to them, 
resembling that of a carriage-wheel compelled to revolve 
in a small circle. The effect of this peculiar motion is a 
grinding action upon the bed where the snuff is laid, pe- 
culiarly adapted to the required purpose. Some kinds of 
snuff however are better ground oy fiie other sort of ma- 
chine, which consists of a kind of rolling pestle, set in 
motion by an ingenious train of wheels and set of jointed 



arms or levers. Little is done at the snuff-mills beyond 
a preparatory drying of the tobacco and the actual grind- 
ing ; but the snuff usually receives some finishing opera- 
tions from the maker after it leaves the mill. 

(Porter's Tropical Agriculturist; Penny Magazine^ 
No. 620.) 

Trade, — ^The discoverers of the New World learned 
the habit of smoking tobacco from the natives, and on 
their return the practice was at first introduced into 
Spain and Portugal, and soon spread to other paiis of 
the Continent. The settlers who accompanied Kaleigh 
on his expedition to colonize Virginia, which returned 
unsuccessful in 1586, introduced the habit into Eng- 
land. Before the establishment of the colony of Virginia 
in 1606, all the tobacco imported into this country 
was raised by the Spaniards in the West India Islands. 
King James's invectives against the use of this weed are 
now curious matters of history. In 1604 he took upon 
himself, without the consent of parliament, to raise the 
duty on tobacco from '2d. to 6«. 10^. the lb. In the com- 
mission addressed on this occasion to the lord treasurer, he 
remarks that * tobacco being a drug of late years found out 
and brought from foreign parts m small quantities, wa;s 
taken and used by the better sort, both then and now, only 
ajs physic to preserve health ;' but he goes on to say that 
persons of mean condition now consumed their wa^es and 
time in smoking tobacco, to their great injury ana to the 
general corruption. In his * Counterblast to Tobacco ' he 
inveighed still more strongly against this ' precious stink.' 
In 1615 the colonists of Virginia regularly betook them- 
selves to the cultivation of the tobacco-plant, abandoning 
the manufacture of ashes, soap, glass, tar, and the planting 
of vineyards, which they had already commenced. (Ban- 
croft's tlist, of United States^ i., p. 168.) James felt that 
in the infancy of the colony this proceeding of the planters 
must be tolerated, and without abating his well-known 
aversion to tobacco, he held, according to a proclamation, 
that it was ' of the two more tolerable that the same should 
be imported, amongst many other varieties and super- 
fluities which come from beyond seas, than to be permitted 
to be planted here within tnis reajm, thereby to abuse and 
misemploy the soil of this fruitild kingdom.' In the first 
instance he commanded that the pr^uction of tobacco 
should not exceed the rate of a cwt. for each individual 
planter. The cultivation was forbidden in England, and 
the plants already growing were ordered to be uprooted. 
At the same time ne confined the right of importing the 
commodity to such persons as he should license for the 
purpose. In the last year of his reign the exclusive sup- 
ply of the English market was given to the English planta- 
tions in America. 

The tobacco duty now yields a gross revenue of about 
3,500,000/. a year ; only two articles of foreign production, 
sugar and tea, bring in a larger sum. Since 1825 the 
duty has been 3«. per lb., and Zs, ^. if the produce of the 
British possessions in America. The value of the article 
in bond varies from 2^. to 6^. per lb. ; and the duty is 
therefore from 600 to 1440 per cent. ; the average rate 
is said to be 900 per cent. From 1815 to 1825 the duty 
was 4*. the lb. In 1786 the duty in Great Britain was 
only \0d, per lb. ; but in the following year it was in- 
creased to lir. 3d, ; in 1796 to Is, 7d, ; and it was succes- 
sively increased at different times until it amounted to 4s. 
in 1815. 

From 1794 to 1798, when the duty was Sd, the lb., the 
consumption of tobacco in Ireland averaged 8,000,000 lbs. 
yearly ; but from 1825 to 1829, with a duty of Ss,, the 
consumption was only 4,000,000 lbs. Had it kept pace 
with the population, it would have been 16,000,000 lbs. 
The conclusion is that a large quantity of the tobacco con^ 
sumed in Ireland was smuggled. The late Lord Syden- 
ham, when president of the Board of Trade, stated that in 
one year seventy cargoes of tobacco had been smuggled 
between Waterford and the Giant's Causeway ; and that 
the quantity thus introduced was not less than 3,500,000 lbs. 

The consumption in Great Britain was as follows in 
each of the undermentioned years :— 



1786 
1791 
1796 



6,846,606 lbs. 
9,340,875 
10,047,843 



Duty lOd, 
Is.Sd. 
Is. 7d. 



For the following years the population of each decennial 
period is added ; — 



Digitized by 



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Popalation. 


CoosnmpUon. 


Daty per lb. 


1801 


10,942,646 


10,514,998 lbs. 


U. Id, 


1811 


12,609,864 


14,923,243 


2».2d. 


1821 


14,391,631 


12,983,198 


4e. 


1831 


16,539,318 


15,350,0^8 


Ss. 


1841 


18,535,786 


16,000,000 


36 



It thus appears that the consumption is now considerably 
less than one lb. per head : in Prussia it is three lbs. The 
alio jvaiice to British seamen for stores is two lbs. per month ; 
and in 1798 the annual consumption in Ireland averaged 
two lbs. a head. It is impossible to believe that tlie use 
of tobacco has declined, or even been stationary, within the 
last few years : there is little doubt indeed of its having in- 
creased, though the returns give a different result. In 
1828 only 8600 lbs. of cigars paid duty at 18*. the lb. ; in 
1831, the duty having been reduced one-half, 66,000 lbs. 
were entered for consumption ; and in 1841 there were 
entered 213,613 lbs. "the following table shows the mian- 
tities of unmanufactured tobacco on which duty has oeen 
paid in the United Kingdom in the three years and a half 
ending July, 1842 :— 

Half-year ending 
1939. 1840. 1841. Sth July, 1842. 

lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. 

England 15,686,245 1§,475,481 14,590,129 7,189,166 
Scotland 2,082,469 2,071,350 2,031,982 975,022 
Ireland 5,202,692 5,355,617 5,473,477 2,663,522 



^|^*®^^|22,971,406 22,902,398 22,095,588 10,827,710 
Smuggling and extensive adulteration of the article 



must be supposed to have had their effect in producing ths 
above result, which has naturally alarmed the government ; 
and an act has been passed (5 & 6 Victoria, c. 93) intended 
to remedjr one of the sources of loss to the revenue, by 
again subjecting the manufacturers and dealers to the 
supervision of the excise. Up to 1825 both a customs and 
excise duty was collected on tobacco ; but since that year 
the duty has been wholly; collected by the officers of Uie 
customs at the ports of importation. A strict survey of 
the manufacturers' premises, and a registry of Uieir opera- 
tions and the sales of the retail dealers, were still kept up 
by the excise, though they no longer collected any duty. 
Tfiis survey was at length abolished in 1840, by the 3 & 4 
Vict., c. 18: it is now partially re-estabhshed. The nature 
of the adulterations practised may be ga,thered from one of 
the clauses of the Act 5 & 6 Vict., which prohibits, under 
a penalty of 200/., manufacturers having in their possession 
• any sugar, treacle, molasses, or honey, or any commings 
or roots of malt, or anv ground or unground roasted grain, 
ground or unground chicory, lime, sand (not being tobacco 
sand), umfore, ochre, or other earths, sea-weed, ground or 
powdered, wood, moss, or weeds, or any leaves, or any 
herbs or plants (not being tobacco leaves or plants) re- 
spectively, nor any substance or material, syrup, liquid, or 
preparation, matter or thing, to be used or capable of 
being used as a substitute for or to increase the weight of 
tobacco or snuff.' The price of tobacco has risen in con- 
sequence of the Act being strictly enforced. In the last 
year of the excise survey (1839) the quantities of the dif- 
ferent kinds of tobacco and snuff sent out by permit 
from the manufacturers of the United Kingdom were as 
under: — 



England 
Scotland 
Ireland 



lbs. 
lbs. 
lbs. 



United Kingdom 



Cut or Shag 
Tobaeeo. 



13,221,111 
4,511 

2,305 



13,227,927 



Roll 
Tobacco. 



1,152,695 
1,760,977 
3,557,313 



6,470,985 



Cigan. 



538,971 
i,462 



540,433 



Bapp^e 
SnufT. 



566,682 

643,614 

2,007 



1,212,393 



Scotch Sttttff. 



1,184,014 

1,063 

200,885 



1,385,962 



Brown 
Scotch Snuff. 



211,557 

152 
670 



212,379 



Tobacco- 
stalk Flour. 



72,768 
51,905 



124,668 



Total.' 



16,947,793 
2,410,317 
3,816,637 



23.174,747 



The number of tobacco and snuff manufacturers in 1839 
was— England, 309; Scotland, 130; Ireland, 227; total 
666: of dealers— England, 158,385; Scotland, 13,432; 
Ireland, 13,938 : total, 185,755. 

Tobacco, as already stated, is not allowed to be grown in 
England. The acts prohibiting its cultivation did not 
until lately apply to Ireland. In Prussia 24,748 acres 
were planted with tobacco in 1835 : in France, in 1840, j 
the produce of home-grown tobacco was 175,015 cwt., 
on 19,662 acres: the duty on tobacco in FVance yields 
about 3,800,000/. per annum. Tobacco is extensively 
cultivated in Holland and Belgium, also in the southern 
provinces of Russia, and in Turkey and Syria. It has 
as yet made little progress in the British West Indies, 
and still less in Upper Canada, though encouraged by a 
small differential duty of 3^. in the lb. It is said that East 
India tobacco would be much more extensively introduced 
if a similar preference were shown to it. The tobacco of 
Cuba holds the highest rank for the excellence of its 
fiavour. In 1833 the export of cigars was 3,320,207 
lbs., and of leaf tobacco 2,346,545 lbs. Next in favour, 
perhaps, are the cigars of Manilla. But the cultivation of 
tobacco is most extensive in the United States. In 1836 
the value of the exports was 10,000,000 dollars, being one- 
seventh of the value of the cotton exported ; in 1838 the 
value of tobacco exported was 7,392,029 dollars ; in 1839, 
9,882,943 dollars ; and in 1841 it was 12,576,703 dollars. 
The following table gives a genei-al view of the trade of 
England in tobacco : — 

Pbid Duty for Home 
Consumption. 



We give another table further illustrating the commer- 
cial intercourse created by the demand tor tobacco : it 
shows the countries from which tobacco was imported in 
1839:— 

Unmanu- 
ConntriM ftom wliSeh Imported, fectured 
Tobacco. 
lU. 
United Statte of America . . 33.888,130 
Mezioo . . . • . 



1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
IffiS 
18» 
18« 



IiBpottod 

from tbe Total 
tTfiited States. Imitortcd, 
lbs. 
32,712.108 
19.522,807 

ao,743.:«7 

87,804.873 
24,d55.4L9 
51.208,757 
26,353.973 
28,191,543 
83388.10) 
M,6i8,69S 



33,107.679 
19,9670)35 
22,082,579 
88.517.861 
95A«.6U 
52,232.907 
27,144.107 
80,162,094 
35.605,253 
86,686,887 



Unmnim- Manufac. 
Bo-expurted. factured. and Snuff. 



lb«. 
9,306.356 
6,754,950 
8,06' ,562 
19,960.951 
13,218,897 
1231d.405 
17.841.587 
11,640,495 
9,287.518 
12;294,5e4 



lbs. 
19,418,940 
20.096,717 
20.502,971 
21.046.324 
81303.776 
22,150,784 
22,391.489 
83^149,726 
' ~^3,905 
^.857 



lbs. 
114.900 
148.750 
143^93 
145.546 
141.813 
158.610 
144,736 
190.010 
196,260 
198,784 



Net 

Keveuuo. 
£ 
SJ64.592 
8,060.598 
3.H0.084 
8.223,648 
3,334.234 

3397.102 
3,417,663 
8.561.818 
3,495^ 



Calnmbia .... 


22,603 


Brazil 


1323«7 
889.381 


Cuba . . • « . 


Hayti . . • • 


167.862 


British West Indies . 


84,S95 


East India Company's Territories 


97'827 


Philippine Islands . 


114 


Ss?Zir''"''f"': : 


3,200 


Belgium . . . • ' . 


106.196 


Germany • • • • • 


114.973 


Other Countries • ^ • 


39,949 



Manu- 






fiicturpd 


SnufT. 


Total. 


aadCigm. 






lbs. 


lU. 


lbs. 


931361 


6 


34.819.987 


875 


,, 


375 


6 


,, 


22,514 


343,6/0 


12 


477369 


214,410 


3 


6*3.794 
16B110 


4.fS 


1 


48 


88J66 


41,741 
12349 


48 


139.616 
2.363 


22 


,, 


: 82S8 


11,292 


710 
10,744 


571242 


245 


117.185 


61.841 


9 


166.823 


. 6.5£8 


96 


46373 



ToUl . ^ . 86,605.253 1,610,649 11,677 37,2^7379 

Tobacco is not allowed to be imported in vessels of less 
than 120 tons, nor exported in those under 70 tons. The 
places of import are limited to a few of the principal ports 
where it can be safely secured under the kind's lock. A 
charge of 2s. per hhd. is made on its being placed in the 
warehouse, and the same sum when it is taken out) 
but no other payment as rent is due for five years. Of 
37,000,000 lbs. imported in one year, 20,000,000 arrived in 
the port of London, and 14,750,000 lbs. at Liverpool. The 
tobacco exported is principally to Germany, Holland, Bel- 
gium, Spain, Italy, the West of Africa, and Portugal, and 
to other parts in smaller quantities. 

TOBACCO-PIPE, a long slender tube, of very small 
bore, used for inhaling the fumes of a small quantity of 
burning tobacco deposited in a bowl or cavity attachea to 
one end oif the tube. 

The materials of which tobacco-pipes are formed are 
very numerous. White and coloured earths, porcelain* 
metals, ivory, horn, shell, costly woods, agate, cornelian* 
talc, and amber, are among the substances which have 
been used for the purpose. The forms of tobacco-pipes 
admit of at least equal variety, but perhaps the most re- 



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mdrkable is the oriental hookah, in which the smoke is 
purified by passing it through water. This is effected by 
having an air-tiffht vessel half filled with water. On the 
top of this vessel is a bowl to contain the burning tobacco, 
and a small tube descends from the bowl into the water in 
the lower vessel. The pipe is inserted into the upper part 
of the vessel, above the level of the water. When the 
smoker begins to draw through the pipe, he produces a 
pai-tial vacuum in the vessel, and this occasions the pres- 
sure of the external air to force the smoke of the tobacco 
downwards, through the small tube before mentioned, into 
the water beneath. After losing its solid particles in the 
water, the smoke bubbles up into the vacant space above, 
and thence passes through the pipe to the smoker's mouth. 
Hie pipe or tube is usually made flexible, and is often of 
great length. 

The tobacco-pipes most commonly used in this country 
are formed of a fine-rrained plastic white clay, which is 
called, from this apjilication, pipe-clay. It is procured 
chiefly from Purbeck in Dorsetshire, and it is punned from 
all foreign substances by working it with water into a thin 
paste, and then either allowing it to settle in pits, or passing 
it through a sieve, to separate the siliceous or other stony 
matter. The water is subsequently evaporated until the 
clay becomes of a doughy consistence, when it must be 
wetl kneaded to make it uniform. It is finally formed into 
cubicd masses of about one hundred pounds each, and 
from one of these the workman cuts off just enough to 
make one pipe. Each piece is kneaded thoroughly upon 
a board, and rolled out to nearly the form and size of a 
pipe, with a projecting bulb at one end for the formation 
of the bowl. These pieces are laid aside for some time to 
dry, and when the clay is sufficiently firm, they are sub- 
jected to the curious process of boring. The workman 
takes the roll of clay in his left hand, and with his right 
inserts the end of an iron needle, previously oiled, in the 
small end of the roll, and by dexterous management thrusts 
the needle through the whole lencfth of the roll, without 
penetrating the surface. The bulb is then bent into the 
proper position to form the bowl, and the piece of clay, with 
the needle remaining in it, is pressed into a mould to com- 
plete its form. 

Tobacco-pipe-moulds are formed either of copper, brass, 
or iron, and each consists of two precisely similar halves, 
with projecting pins in one half, and corresponding holes 
in the other, which ensure their exact union. On their 
inner surfaces, which are hollowed so as to fit the finished 

Sipe, may be added any ornamental device or inscription, 
^ne half of the mould being laid flat, the pipe is placed in 
it, covered with the other half, and then firmly pressed. 
The bowl is partially hollowed by the finger, and com- 
pleted by the insertion of an oiled stopper or mould. The 
wire should then be thrust backwards and forwards until it 
becomes visible in the bowl. The wires are now with- 
drawn, and the pipes are taken out of the moulds, slightly 
smoothed over, and laid aside to dry. After drying for a 
day or two, any remaining roughness is removed by means 
of an instrument of bone or hard wood, and then the pipes 
are sometimes moulded a second time, and polished witn a 
piece of flint bored with holes, through which the stem is 
passed repeatedly. Hitherto the pipes are straight in the 
stem ; but before going to the kiln they are slightly bent. 
It is said that a clever pipe-moulder will make uiree thou- 
sand five hundred in one day. 

The tobacco-pipe-kiln consists of a large but very light 
cylindrical crucible, or sagger, with a dome-shaped top, 
and a circular opening in one side for the insertion of the 
pipes. This vessel is formed in the following curious 
manner : — The bottom is composed of fragments of pipe- 
stems, radiating from the centre, and coated at the circum- 
ference with a layer of clay. A number of bowls of broken 
pipes are inserted in this' clay, and in these bowls other 
fragments of pipe are placed upright to form the sides of 
the cylinder. Ttie addition of a little clay, in a similar 
manner to lath-and-plaster work, completes the solidity of 
the work ; and in this way the whole of the vessel, including 
the domed roof, and a series of vertical projecting ribs on 
the outside of the cylinder, is completed. In Eke way, 
also, the aperture by which the charge is inserted is closed. 
This crucible or sagger is mounted in a brick furnace, 
lined with fire-brick, m such a manner as to leave a space 
of about four inches all round for the circulation of flame ; 
and the effect of the before-mentioned fillets is to divide 



this space into a series of flues, betweeti Which however 
there is some communication through apertures in the 
flilets. The pipes are placed in the kiln with their bowls 
against the circumference, and their ends supported at a 
considerable elevation upon circular pieces of clay set up 
in the centre. Six small ribs project inwards round the 
interior of the crucible, at various elevations, and each of 
these will receive a range of bowls, while successive points 
of support are provided in the centre for the pipes. By 
this arrangement one furnace may contain fifty gross, or 
seven thousand two hundred pipes, which may all be baked 
within eight or nine hours. During the operation the fire 
may be raised or damped, if necessary, by a plate sliding: 
over the chimney-top. The tobacco-pipe-kiln is engraved 
and more ftilly descnbed in Dr. Ure's ' Dictionary of Arts.' 

{Penny Magazine^ No. 496 ; Dr. Ure's Dictionary of 
Art9,&c.,m. 1256,1257.) 

TOBAGO, an island in the Columbian Archipelago, in 
ll*' 16' N. lat. and e(y 3(y W. long. It is the most south- 
em of the Caribbee Islands, and lies about 25 miles north 
of Trinidad. Its greatest length is 32 miles, and greatest 
breadth about 13 miles. A mountainous ridge 1800 feet 
high extends two-thirds of the length of the island, and 
smaller ones proceed from it, rendering the general surface 
of the interior irregular and abrupt. The yalleys and 
ravines are well watered, and there are alluvial plains of 
small extent. The northern coast is lofty and rugged, and 
the southern terminates in lowlands. Conical elevations, 
which slope with a gentle descent, are often found isolated, 
and as if rounded by the action of water. There are none 
of the volcanic features which most of the neighbouring 
islands present. Tobago is out of the range of hurricanes. 
There are harbours on both the northern and southern 
coasts for vessels of 150 tons. The capital and chief port 
is Scarborough, on the northern coast. The climate is 
said to be healthy in some accounts, but this may possibly 
only refer to the elevated lands in the interior. Statistical 
returns show that the mortality of the troops stationed in 
Tobago has always been higher than in any of the other 
islands of the West Indies. The exports consist almost 
solely of the produce of the sugar-cane. In 1836, 109,640 
cwts. of sugar, 128,970 gals, of molasses, and 435,994 gaJs. 
of rum were exported, the total value of which was esti- 
mated at 196,974/. In the same year the estimated value 
of the imports was 73,947/. In 1839 the exports were 
two-fifths less than in 1836, and in 1841 still less, but small 
quantities of cotton and arrow-root were shipped. 

The population of the island in 1835 was 10,385, con- 
sisting of 250 male and 30 female whites ; 300 free blacks, 
and 9805 apprenticed (black) labourers. On the 1st of 
August, 1834, the number of registered slaves was 11,589, 
for whose emancipation 233,875/!, or 20/. 3*. 7d. per head, 
was paid out of the parliamentary grant. On obtaining 
their freedom many of them proceeded to the other islands, 
in which there was a greater demand for labour. 

Tobago was discovered by Columbus in 1496, and derives 
its name from the pipe (* tobacco') used by the natives in 
smoking the herb • Kohiba' (tobacco). At an early period 
the British flag was planted on the island, and James I. 
granted it to the Earl of Pembroke, but no attempt was 
made by the English to colonise it. In 1632 the Dutch 
formed a settlement and called the island New Walcheren, 
but the Spaniards from Trinidad attacked and destroyed 
the colony. Twenty years afterwards the Dutch returned, 
and soon after a party of about a hundred Courlanders 
arrived, the Duke of Courland, godson of James I., having 
obtained a grant of the island. In the disputes which 
arose between them and the Dutch the latter were success- 
ful. The subsequent history of the island is not of general 
interest. (Edwards's We^ Indies^ vol. iv., p. 275.) In 
1763 it was ceded by France to England. In 1781 the 
FVench captured it, and in 1783 it was regularly ceded to 
France by the treaty of Versailles. In 1793 General Cuyler 
and 2000 men took the island, and it has ever since been a 
British possession. Tobago has a local legislature, consist- 
ing of the lieutenant-governor, a legislative council of nine, 
and a house of assembly of sixteen members. 

TOBIN, JOHN. Tlie author of one play which still 
holds possession of tlie stage — a play of considenible merit, 
although displaying little of what may be termed original 
genius — ^womd scarcely be entitled to notice in a work 
which does not profess to include Uie minor adventurers in 
literature, wer^ it not for the peculiar circup[i9tance9 under 



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Tvhich he devoted a Jife to dramatic writing. John Tobin 
was born at Salisbury in 1770. His father had property in 
the Isle of Nevis, and from the political circumstances of 
the period, thinking his presence necessary upon his plan- 
tation, he took up his residence there, leaving three sons 
under the care of their maternal grandfather. They were 
placed at the free-school at Southampton, where John dis- 
covered some precocious talents. His father, returning to 
England, settled at Bristol in a mercantile employment, 
where his sons became pupils of the Rev. Mr. Lee. John, 
who was tlie third son, was in 1785 placed in the house of 
a London solicitor, in which house he eventually became a 
partner. His ambition was however early directed to 
dramatic composition, and for fifteen years he persevered 
in offering to the theatres play after play, each of which 
was uniformly rejected by the managers. Tobin had per- 
haps more real talent than the greater number of those 
who had possession of the stage, at a period when a suc- 
cessful dramatic performance was not only highly paid, 
according to any commercial estimate of literary merit, 
but was very often a little fortune to its author. But the 
stage was tnen also in the hands of three or four writers, 
who perfectly understood the taste of the town, and espe- 
cially adapted themselves to the peculiarities of the actors 
who were to represent their characters. It was a necessary 
consequence of this system that whilst no drama was com- 
posed upon a principle of art — ^whilst no attempt was made 
to sustain a ^Aot by consistent and natural character, wit 
or humour, pathos or poetry — whilst the author modelled 
his jokes according to his conception of this comedian's 
flexibility of face, and his sentiment with a due reverence 
for that tragedian's stride and intonation,-*-there was still 
something produced which was perfect in its way, through 
the power of the machinery by which it was worked ; a 
thing to move laughter or tears upon the stajge, but sin^- 
larly provocative of sleep in the closet. This was the day 
when the drama existed upon slan^ and clap trap, miscalled 
comedy. Tragedy had died out in its dullness ; and farce 
— ^not legitimate farce — demanded the five acts of Reynolds, 
Morton, and George Colman the Younger. At this period 
Tobin essayed to become a writer of comedy. He pro- 
duced •The Faro-Table,' *The Undertaker,' and *The 
School for Authors.' These were all rejected. He then 
tided his hand at the romantic drama, and vfroie with equal 
ill success * The Curfew ' and • The Indians.' The latter 
piece was called forth by the success of Sheridan's melo- 
drama of ' Pizarro.' Some one, it is said, proposed this 
auestion to Tobin at a social meeting where tne state of 
le drama was a subject of discussion : • Would a revival 
of the dramatic spirit which produced the plays of Shak- 
spere and Fletcher be relished by the public ? * Tobin 
thought it would, and he wrote *The Honeymoon.' This 
play was presented to the managers of Covent-Oarden, 
and refused. It was finally accepted at Drury-Lane, and 
it was acted with a success which has attended very 
few dramatic compositions. In the mean time its author, 
who had a tendency to consumption, was obliged to leave 
London, seeking the recovery of his health. He had 
worked for many years at his profession by day, and at his 
dramatic compositions by night. He died on the 8th of 
December, 1804 ; and • The Honeymoon' was produced at 
Drury-Lane on the 31st of January, 1805. Those who cater 
for the public taste have often an alacrity in discovering 
the ments of a man when he is dead ; and so Tobin's 
rejected pieces were eventually brought upon the stage. 
They are forgotten. ' The Honeymoon' is exactly such a 
piece as might have been calculated upon, looking at the 
theory which is said to have sugjgested it. It is throughout 
an imitation of the old dramatists ; clever indeed — ^but as 
an automaton compared to a man, for the breath of poetical 
life has not been breathed into what moves before us in 
the attitudes of humanity. The dialogue is skilful, the 
chief situations are interestine^, there is a proper quantity 
of simile and other embroidery which looks like poetry. 
But the high art with wliich the old dramatists worked is 
not there. Tobin did the best he could as an imitator ; 
but the Shaksperian drama is not a thing for imitation. 
The great and essential spirit of poetry is ever the same ; 
but it only becomes original as it puts on new forms, the 
elements of which are to be found in the ag^egate thought 
of its own age. The memoirs of John Tobin, with several 
of his unacted dramas, were published by Miss Benger, in 
1820. 



TOBIT (Tw/3lr: accordingto the Vulgate, Tolnas\ a 
canonical book of the Old Testament, according to the 
Roman Catholics, but the divine authority of which is 
rejected by the Protestants. Tins book contains the his- 
tory of Tobit, and purports to be written by himself. 

Tobit was a native of Thisbe in Gralilee, and belonged 
to the tribe of Naphtali. He had one son named Tobias ; 
and while the rest of his tribe sacrificed to Baal, he re- 
mained steadfiBst in the worship of the Lord. He, with his 
wife and son, accompanied the other Israelites in their 
captivity to Nineveh, where he ^ned the favour of the 
king Shalmanesar, and was appointed his purveyor. He 
was thus enabled to acquire considerable property ; but 
was deprived of it all in the reign of Sennacherib, in con- 
sequence of having buried some Israelites whom the king 
had slain, and he was obliged to flee from the city. He 
was however recalled to Nineveh on tiie accession of £sar- 
haddon, through the influence of Achicharius, who was 
his own nephew, and held high offices in the court of the 
king. Not long afterwards he buried again one of his 
countrymen who had been slain, and being polluted, he did 
not enter his house, but slept outside by the wall of the 
courtyard with his face uncovered. While lying here the 
sparrows dropped some warm dung into his eyes, which 
occasioned total blindness. Tobit however did not lose his 
confidence in God. Being reduced to poverty, he sent his 
son Tobias to Rages (Rhagse) in Media, to obtain a sum of 
ten talents, which he had left some ^eais before with one 
Gabael. Tobias was accompanied in his journey by an 
angel, who, under the form of an Israelite of the name of 
Azarias, was so kind as to offer himself as a guide. In the 
course of their journey Tobias caught a fish in the Tigris, 
of which he carefully preserved the heart, the liver, and 
the gall, according to tne directions of the angel, who ex- 
plained their wondrous efficacy. At length they arrived 
at Ecbatana, where Tobias mamed the daughter of Raguel, 
his kinsman. Now the damsel had alreacW been married 
to seven husbands, but on the wedding-ni^t of each the 
evil spirit Asmodeus had killed them. Tobias however 
burnt the liver and the heart of the fish, as he was ordered 
by the angel, and by the smoke arising flrom them drove 
the evil spirit straightway into Egypt. As Ra^el would 
not let hia son-in-law leave Ecbatana immediately, the 
angel was sent to Rages for the money ; and upon his re- 
turning with it, Tobias went back to Nineveh, where he 
cured tiis father's blindness by rubbing his eyes with the 
gall of the fish. Tobit continued to live happily till 
the time of lus death, which did not take place till he 
was a hundred and fifty-eight years old. After the death 
of his parents Tobias removed to Ecbatana with his wife 
and children, and died at the age of a hundred and twenty- 
seven years. 

The Book of Tobit is written in rather a pleasing style. 
Sound criticism will scarcely regard it as a true history. It 
is rather a tale written to inculcate the duty of trust in 
God, and to show how such confidence will be recompensed 
eventually. It also abounds in exhortations to practise 
good worKs, and to continue steadfast in prayer. 

The translation in the Vulgate was made by St. Jerome 
from the Chaldee. It also exists in Greek, wnich is pro- 
bably a translation of an old Hebrew original, of which 
the Chaldee text used by St. Jerome was perhaps also a 
translation. There is a Syriac version besides, which dif- 
fers considerably from the Greek and Latin ones. It seems 
impossible to determine with any accuracy the time when 
the book was written. 

(K. D. Il^en, Die Geschtchte Tob€s nach drei verschie' 
denen Originalen, dem erieeh.y dem latein. des Hierony^ 
mus und einem wr. vSersetzt mit Anmerkungen, &c»» 
Jen., 1800; De Wette, Einleitung in die Bucher de9 
Alien Testamentes^ p. 381, &c.) 

TOBOLSK. Asiatic Russia, or the kingdom of Siberia^ 
was formerly divided into two ^eat governments. Western 
and Eastern Siberia, Tobolsk being the western and Irkutsk 
the eastern. Tobolsk was subdivided into the provinces of 
Tobolsk, Omsk, and Tomsk. Subsequently Tomsk was 
erected into a separate government ; and in 1838 the province 
of Omsk was divided between Tobolsk and Tomsk. The 
government of Tobolsk, as now constituted, is bounded on 
the north by the Frozen Ocean, on the west by the govern- 
ments of Archangel, Orenburg, and Perm, and on the south 
and east by Tomsk and Jenisseisk : the area is 519,200 
squc^re mUes, and the number of inhabitants is 822,684, not 



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including the pait of Uue protiace of Omsk wfaieh was in- 
corporated vith it in 1838. On the west it if separated 
from European Russia by Uie chain of the Ural Mountaiaa. 
The piincipid rivere are the Obi, the Tobd, the Irtiadi, 
and the Tuia. In the south and south-western parts the 
summer is warm and pleasant ; the winter is very cold, and 
much snow talis. In the short summer there are some hot 
days, but when the wind blows from the Frozen Ocean, 
which frequently happens, the cold becomes very cutting. 
The soutJi and south-weatem parts of the government are 
very fertile, and produce abundance of com and flax. The 
really agricultural districts are on the west, on the Tc^l 
and its tributaries, which yield luxuriant crops, and supply 
with grain not only the tracts to the north, but the govern- 
ments of Perm and Orenburg. There are also rich pas- 
tures favourable for the breeding of homed cattle, horses, 
and aheep. Here and there some camels are bred. This 
pact of Siberia is equally remarkable for the prodigious 
quantity and value of the flsh in the great rivers. The 
mineral wealth contained in the mountains on the west 
and southern frontiers is immense. The Ural Mountains 
produce iron, copper, gold, and platina ; and the foiges of 
£katerinenburg are amongthe most extensive in the world. 
Prom the shores of the Frozen Ocean to 60* N. lat. the 
whole country is totally unlit for agriculture. It is 
covered with thick forests, the ground of which is a 
morass ; these gradually give way to a few pines and stunted 
shrubs, and these too entirely disappear towards the Frozen 
Ocean, where a little moss is almost the only sign of vege- 
tation. The flsh^ and the chase of the fiir-bearing ani- 
mals are the only resources of this inhospital^e tract 
The sable however, the most hi^ly prized of these 
animals, is nearly extirpated. Besides the Russians there 
are among the inhabitants Mongols, Bokharians, Tunffuses, 
Samoieds, Ostiaks, and wandering Tartan of different 
tribes. The neceasaries of life being abundant and cheap, 
the inhabitants have no sufficient stimulus to rouse them 
from the indolence which appears to be a predominant 
characteristic of the people or this region. 

TOBOLSK, the.capital of the government of Tobolsk, is 
situated in 58P I2f N. lat. and m* W fi. long., at the 

i 'unction of the Tobol with the Lrtisch, 582 feet above the 
evel of the Caspian Sea. It is divided into the uppet and 
the lower town : the former, on the east banlc of the 
lrtisch, is on a hill, or rather ridge, which runs parallel to 
tlifi river, at a small distance from it ; the latter, which is 
the larger, is in the interval between the ridge and the 
river, and ii exposed to inundations. The communication 
between the upper and lower town is by a gently rising 
causeway laid with planks, which is continued in a ravine 
of the ndgs, and is jiraeticable even for carriages. The 
view from the summit, which is 200 feet above the lower 
town, though not very diversified, is striking ; the, great 
river, rannmg in a semicircle, is the principal object ; on 
the right hand is the lower town ; beyond the river is a 
verdant plain extending to the horizon, the uniformity of 
which is mtermpted only by the Tobol, of which there are 
glimpses here and there^ and by isolated Russian and 
Tartar villages, most of which are near the river, and 
among them the Tartar villages are always to be reco^- 
msed by a little grove of trees (not pines), which are their 
burying-gronnds. At the foot of the ridge some springs 
iasue, of which Professor Rose examined two, and found the 
temperature of one to be 4-2', that of the other 4-6°, bj 
Reaumur's thermometer; this temperature, he sa3rs, is 
manifestly too high for the latitude of Tobolsk to be con- 
sidered me mean temperature of the earth. Professor 
Erman, who passed several months at Tobolsk in 1829, 
found the temperature of the earth to be only l-S** of 
IUaumur*8 thermometer. 

Tobolsk is the see of a Russian archbishop, the metro- 
politan of all Siberia, and has a theological seminary, an 
establishment for the education of sch^masters, a g3rm- 
nasium, and several other schools ; some printing-offices, a 
Bible Society, and a theatre. The only manufactures of 
importance are of Russia leather ; the Russian and Tartar 
women make linen, carpets, and woollen cloth. There 
are in all twenty-three churches, one Crerman Protestant 
churoh, two mosques, two convents, and the residence of 
the govemor-general. The population, connsting of Rus- 
sians, Germans, and Tartars (the last are about a fourth 
pert of the whole), amounts to 20,000, exclusive of the 
aoidiers, the clergy, and the exiles, for whom there is a 



house of correction. The Tartars were formerly allowed 
to live in the lower town, where a number of streets were 
assigned to them ; but the crowded manner in which they 
built their houses, rendering them very liable to fire, which 
spread to the Rusnan streets, the Tartars were removed to 
a separate quarter. The style of living and the manners of 
the upper classes of society are not very different from 
those of Europe. Kotzebue, during his exile, had the 
gratification of seeing some of his own plays performed in 
flie theatre of Tobolsk ; and Dr. Clarke was of opinion that 
in his time the society was as good as in any Russian city ; 
and it has doubtless continued to improve.* The inha- 
bitants are distinguished for their hospitality to strangers. 
Game is so extremely abundant in the vicinity of the 
city, that partridges and grouse are the daily and almost 
necessary food of all classes. The cock of the wood 
is not found in great numbers near the city till the winter 
has become severe, but is brought from the country of the 
Ostiaks, to the north, all the year round, as well as the 
black cock and other game. The common use of these 
and other articles of foml, which in Europe are chiefly con- 
fined to the tables of the richer inhabitants, ' forcibly 
reminds ua^* says Professor £rman, *of the remaric of 
Paulus Jovius, in the sixteenth century, who affirmed that 
the Russians lived less with refined elegance than in the 
greatest abundance, for that the tables of the Russians 
were constantly supplied, and at a cheap rate, with viands 
which in Europe none but the most prodigal (luxuriosis- 
ami) wished for or could obtain.* (See Pauli Jovii Ds 
legat, Basilii Magni, Princip. Moscov. ad Glementem 
VIL, Pontiflc. Max, liber. In Comm. Per. Moscov.^ 
p. 170.) 

Though Tobolsk has no manufactures, it has a very con- 
siderable transit-trade between European Russia and 
China. The European traders arrive m the spring with 
the goods destined for the Chinese, and at the end of 
summer the boats return with their cargoes for Moscow 
and Petersburg. The merchants from Tartary and Bok- 
hara arrive at the beginning of the winter, and remain at 
Tobolsk till the spring. All the sums collected as tribute 
from the wandenng tribes of the immense deserts are 
brought to Tobolsk, where there are extensive magazines 
for the various descriptions of goods. 

In 1756 the Abbe Chappe d'Auteroche was sent by 
Louis XV. to Tobolsk to observe the transit of Venus. He 
erected a small observatory, and determined astronomically 
the position of Tobolsk. TTiough no traces of the obser- 
vatory now remain. Professor Erman, after much incjuiry, 
ascertained the spot where it stood, and found his ob- 
servations very nearly corresponding with those of 
Chappe : — 

Latitude, according to CJhappe, 58° 12' 22" N. 
Latitude, according to Erman, 58** 12' IS^.D N. 

Humboldt's observations nearly coincide with the 
above. 

(Adolph Erman, Reise um die Erde durch Nord Asien 
und die Beiden Oceanen, en 1828, 1829, et 1830, erster und 
zweiter band; A. von Humboldt, G-. Ehrenberg, and 
G. Rose, Reise nock dem Ural, dem Altai, und dem Kas- 
pischen Meerc, erster band, Berlin, 1837 ; Horschelmann ; 
Cannabich.) 

TOCUYO. [Venezuela.] 

TOD, an old measure of wool, fixed at two stones, or 
28 pounds averdupois, by a statute of the 12th of Charles 
II. As usual, there are several local tods. 

TODDA'LIA, a genus of plants of the natural family of 
Rutaceae, tribe Xanthoxyleae, which is itself sometimes 
made into a distinct order. The name Toddalia is derived 
from Toddali, the Malabar name of one of the species. 
The genus is distinguished by having unisexual flowers, 
the calyx 5-toothed. Petals 5. Stamens 5, longer than 
the petals. Stigma almost sessile, peltate. Fruit fleshy, 
5-furrowed, 6-ceTled, cells 1-seeded. Seed kidney-shaped. 
Embryo arched. The species consist of moderate-sized 
shrubs, with alternate trifoliate leaves ftill of pellucid dots. 
Male and female flowers on diff^erent branches of the same 
tree. Flowers in axillary or teiminal racemes or panicles. 
The species are few in number, and found in the not parts 
of India and in the Mauritius, as well as in Brazil. The 
Indian species are found in the Peninsula, but extend 

* The firtt eloments of Eoropeaa ciTiUntioa were tetrodnetd by fh» 
numerous Swedish ptisonen of war takou at the battle of Pultowa, who wexi 
lit that time for better informed and more polished than the RiiKiani, 



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northwards aa fiu: as Nepaul and Deyra Doon ; from Ne- 

?aul Dr. Wallich figured T. floribunda {PL As. Rar„ t. 232). 
'. aculeata has prickly »tems and branches, and extends to 
30° N. ]at., along the jungly base of the Himalayan Moun- 
tains. The barf and root of this species are said to be 
used as a cure for the remittent fever of such situations ; 
and as many of the alUed plants are possessed ^f bitter 
with aronmtic properties, it is probable that this plant also 
may be useful for such purposes. 

TODI. [Pervgia.] 

TODIRA^MPHUS. [Kinofishebs, vol. xiii., p. 220.J 

TODUS. [Muscici.PiDiB, vol. xvi., p. 14.] 

TOEPLITZ. [Teplitz.] 

TOFA'NA. [Aqua Tofana.] 

TOGA is the name given to the principal outer garment 
worn by the Romans. The Romans generally wore the 
same kind of dress as the other Italian nations and the 
Greeks ; the toga alone is by some writers said to have 
been derived from the Lydians, but this statement probably 
arose froni the belief that the Etruscans had come from 
Lydia ; and that at least a particular kind of toga (the toga 
praetexta) was introduced at Home at a very early time 
from Etruria, is expressly stated. (livy, i. 8 ; Pliny, Hist. 
Nat.y viii. 74.) In later times the toga was the peculiar 
garment of the Romans, which in times of peace they wore 
both at home and abroad, and whenever they appeared in 
full dress. Hence they are called gens togata (Virgil, Aen.y 
\. 282) and tofati (Sallust, Jugurth.^ 21), in contradis- 
tinction from other nations. The name ' to^a' was, accord- 
ing to Varro (De Ling. Lat.^ iv., p. 33, ed. Bipont.), derived 
from tegerey * to cover,' because it covered the whole 
body. Gellius (vii. 12) states that in early times it was 
the onlv article of dress that was worn, but afterwards we 
know that it waa worn over other di'oases. The ri^ht of 
wearing it was the exclusive privilege of Roman citizens 
of every age and sex. (Servius, ad Aen.y i. 282.) Slaves, 
foreigners, and Romans sent into exile were not allowed to 
wear it. (Pliny, EpUt., iv. 11 ; Horat., Carm., iii. 5, 10.) 
The peculiarity of the toga as a Roman dress is also indi- 
cated by the circumstance that comedies in which Romans 
appeared on the stage and were represented with their 
native costume, were called * togatae,' to distinguish them 
from Greek comedies. As the toga covered the whole 
body with the exception of the left arm, it could not be 
worn by a person while at work either at home or in the 
field. (Juvenal, iii. 171 ; Livy, iii. 26.) 

The material of which the toga was made was woollen 
cloth, which differed in thickness and fineness according 
to circumstances and the seasons. Under the empire per- 
sona of rank used to have their togas made of silk. The 
colour was usually white, probably the natural colour of 
the wool. Those who appeared before the people as can- 
didates for a pubhc ofilce, wore a particularly white and 
clean toga (Candida), whence they derived their name of 
candidates (candidati). On festive occasions too it was 
considered a matter of importance that the toga should be 
perfectly white. (Horat., Sat., ii. 2, 60 ; Cicero, in Vatin.^ 
13.) On melancholy occasions the Romans wore the toga 
puUa, or ' dark-coloured toga.' (Cicero, in Vatin.^ 13 ; in 
y&rr.y iv. 24.) Whether, however, the word pulla refers 
to a particular dye, or whether it only means a dirty and 
worn-out toga, which was also put on with less care than 
usual, as seems to follow from the adjectives sordida and 
squalida, which are often given to it (Livy, ii. 54 ; xlv. 20), 
is not i|uite certain, though it is a well-known fact that the 
mourning colour among the Romans was a dark blue. 
Towards the end of the republic and under the empire the 
toga, especially that worn bv the emperors, was of a purple 
colour, and was called trabea. This custom appears to 
have been introduced by Julius Caesar. (Cicero, Philip.y 
ii. 34 ; Servius, ad Aen., vii. 612.) As early as the time of 
Augustus many Romans had left off wearing the toga, and 
taken to a kind of cloak called lacema. This induced the 
emperor, who was fond of restoring antient customs, to 
enjoin the aediles to see that no Roman should appear in 
the forum or circus without the toga. (Sueton., Aug., 40.) 
The toga during the empire continued to be the honourable 
dress which was worn by persons of rank, as senators, 
judges, priests, and by clients when they saluted their 
patrons or received the sportula (Martial, xiv. 125), and 
especially on all occasions where the emperor was present. 

The mode or fashion of wearing the toga appears to I 
have been variously modified in the course of time, aJ- { 



though the general character always remained the sam^. 
A great difference seems to have existed in the quantity of 
cloth used for it, as some statues present a richer drapeiy 
than others. Respecting its form and the manner of puV- 
ting it on, nothing can be said with certainty, notviath- 
standing the description in Quinctilian (xi. 3, 137, &c.) 
and the many statues with togas still extant. Those who 
are curious about this matter may consult an excellent 
article in the * Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities,' 
under * Toga.' 

Besides the different kinds of togas we have mentioned 
above, the following must be noticed : — 

1. Toga ^aetexta was worn by the children of the 
nobles, by girls until they married, and by boys until they 
attained the age of puberty (fourteen), when they exchanged 
it for the toga virilis, also called pura, libera, or recta, 
which waa the usual white toga described above. The 
praetexta was also the official robe of the higher magis- 
trates of the city and the municipia, d^ well as of the colo- 
nies. The name praetexta was derived from the circum- 
stance of this toga being adorned with a broad purple 
border (latus clavus). 

2. Toga pkia was a toga ornamented with embroidery 
and gold according to the Etruscan fashion. It was worn 
by generals in their triumph, whence it was also called 
toga Capitolina. During the empire it was also worn by 
the consuls and praetors when they were present at the 
public games. 

(Ferrarius and Rubenius, De Re Vestiaria } Becker, 
Gallusy ii., p. 78, &c. ; Dictionary of Greek and Roman 
Antiquities, under * Toga.') 

TOGGENBURG, the Upper and Lower, a long valley 
in the north of Switzerland, was formerly the name of a 
county Iving between the territories of the Abbey of St. 
Gallen, the Thurgau (Thurgovia), and the cantons of Zurich 
and Appenzell. It is separated from these cantons by 
mountains, which contract its breadth ; it is however above 
50 miles in length, and its area 250 square miles. It is 
traversed bv the river Thur, from which it is sometimes 
called the Thurthal (or Valley of the Thur). The chief 
occupations of the inhabitants are agriculture, pasturage, 
and partly weaving linen and spinning cotton for the large 
establishments in the towns. 

In the fifteenth century the counts of Tog^enburg were 
among the richest and most powerful landholders in Swit- 
zerland. The line of the counts becoming extinct in 1036, 
they were succeeded bv the barons of Rason as the next heirs : 
they indeed confirmed to the inhabitants the great privileges 
which had been granted to them by the last count of Tog- 
genburg, but in 1469 sold the county to the abbot of St. 
Gallen. iFnhappy differences ensued. The abbots wished 
to govern despoticallv, and the inhabitants to preserve 
their privileges, founded on the charter granted them 
in 1339, by count Donatus, and confirmed by Frederick, 
the last count, by which they were empoweied to con- 
clude after his death an alliance with the Swiss for the 
security of their rights. Such an alliance they afterwards 
concluded with the cantons of Glarus and Schwyz. The 
oppressive conduct of the abbots twiee led to a san- 
guinary conflict. The firet time was in 1712, when seve- 
ral of the cantons took part in the contest, which was 
ended, in 1718, by a convention concluded at Rorschach. 
Fresh conflicts arose in 1755-1759. At present' Upper and 
Lower Toggenburg form the fourth and fifth districts of the 
canton of St. Gallen. Here are the httle manufacturing 
town of Lichtensteig, which may be called the capital ; 
and the small mountain-village of Wildhaus, 2010 feet 
above the Lake of Zurich, the birthplace of Ulrich 
Zwingli. 

(Stein, Geog, Lexicon ; Cannabich ; Horschelmann ; 
Brockhaus, Conversations Lexicon.) 

TOGRAI, or TOGHRAI, the surname of Abu Ismail 
Hosein Ben'Ali Ben Mohammed Mowayyed ed-Din al- 
Issfahani, and the name bv which he is commonly known. 
He was descended ftova AbuH-Aswad ad-Doioli, one of the 
most celebrated of the companions of Mohammed, and was 
born at Ispahan in the fifth century of the Hejra, or the 
eleventh of the Christian sera, and gained great reputation 
as a poet. He was at first in the service of the celebrated 
Melek Shah (a.h. 465-483 ; a.d. 1073-1092) and his son 
Mohammed, the third and fifth sultans of Pei'sia of the 
Seliukian dynasty; and he afterwards became vizir to 
Maa'oud, the son of Mohammed, and Sultan of Mosul. 



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When this prince revolted from his brother Mahmud, the 
seventh Seljukian Sultan of Persia, and was conquered in 
the battle at Esterabad near Hamadan, a.h. 514 (a.d. 
1130), Tograi vras taken jmsoner, and v^as at iirst kindly 
treated by uie conqueror. This however excited the jea- 
lousy of his viar, Abu Talib *Ali Ben Ahmed as-Semi- 
remi, who caused Tograi to be secretly put to death, a.ii. 
515 (A.D. 1121), under the pretence of his beine a heretic 
who believed the doctrines of the Molaheds or Ismaelites, 
but in reality from fear of his talentii. This is the account 
of his death given by Abulfeda (* Annal. Moslem.,' vol. iii., 
p. 417) and ftn Khallekan (' Vit. Illustr. Viror.,' $ 196, ed. 
Wustenf.) ; that given by Leo Africanus (* De Vir. 
niustr. Arab.,* cap. 13) is somewhat different. He was 
rather more than sixty lunar, or fifty- eight solar, years old 
at the time of his death. He appears to have enjoyed a 
great reputation, and was distinguished by several titles or 
surnames. The word Tograi is the name given to the per- 
son employed by the sultan to write on all the imperial 
decrees and proclamations his name and titles in a pecu- 
liarly large and flourishing character, which is called, from 
• a Persian word, the togra ; and from Tograi's skill in wri- 
ting this, or perhaps from his celebrity as lln author, he 
derived the title of ' Fakhr al Cottab,' or the Glory of Wri- 
ters. His surname * Al-monshi * signifies a person employed 
to draw up the letters written in the name of the prince ; 
and that of ' Alostad * means the master or doctor. 

The most celebrated of his poems, and the only one which 
has been published, is that entitled * Lamiato 'l-'Ajam,' which 
he composed in Arabic at Bagdad, a.h. 505 (a.d. 1111-2). 
It derives its name * Lamiat ' from the circumstance that all 
the verses end with the letter /am, or /; and * al-*Ajam,' that 
is, * of the Persians,' is added to distinguish it from a cele- 
brated Arabic poem written by Shanfara, and entitled ' La- 
miato 'l-'Arab. It is a poem of the ele^ac kind, written 
in a plaintive style, and composed of distichs ; and has been 
frequently published and translated. The first edition is 
that by the elder Pococke, Oxford, 1661, 8vo., with a Latin 
translation, and copious elementary notes. At the end of 
the volume is a treatise on Arabic prosody by Samuel 
Clerk, the University printer. There is an edition by 
Matthias Anchersen, with an unedited Latin translation 
by Golius, published in 1707, Utrecht, which is now ex- 
ceedingly scarce, as almost all the copies were lost at sea. 
Tograi's poem was also published m Arabic, together 
with that by Shanfara, by H. A. Frahn, Casan, 1814, 8vo. 
It was translated into English by Leon Chappilow, Cam- 
bridge, 1758, 4to. ; into French by Pierre Vattier, Paris, 
1660, 8vo. ; into German by Reiske, Friedrichstadt (Dres- 
den), 1756, 4to. A fuller account of the editions and 
translations of this poem may be found in Schnurrer's 
' Bibliotheca Arabica,^and Zenker's 'Bibliotheca Orientalis,' 
Leipzig, 1840, 8vo. Tograi also wrote a work on alchemy, 
entitled * Directio in Usum Filiorum,* which title has been 
the occasion of D'Herbelot's making a great mistake as to 
the contents of the book. 

(Schnurrer, Biblioth. Arab. ; De Sacy's article on Tograi^ 
in the Biograph, Univers,; Wiistenfeld, Gesckichte der 
Arabischen Aerzte und Naturforacher^ Gottingen, 1840, 
} 151, p. 87.) 

TOISE, a French measure of six Frencn feet, particu- 
jarly used in all the older French measures of the earth. 
[Weights and Measures.] 

TOK AT, or TOCAT, a town of Asia Minor in 40** 16' N. 
lat. and d^" 45' £. long. The antient name of the place is 
supposed to have been Berisa : under the lower empire it was 
called Eudocia, and the same name is given to it by the 
Armenian writers. That it is not the site of Comana 
Pontica, as was formerly supposed, is now quite cei-tain. 
Tokat is surrounded by hills, which enclose it on three 
sides, the only opening being to the north-east ; a small 
stream runs through the town in the same direction, which 
joins the Tokat-Su (ancient Iris) a little below the city. 
The town is not walled ; the streets are paved. The houses 
are all tiled (i,e. not flat-roofed), and the higher class of 
them built with unbumt bricks, but the greater part are 
merely wooden sheds, and give a mean appearance to the 
town. Tlie streets are filthy and narrow ; and from the 
eaves of the houses nearly meeting overhead, are very 
gloomy. Still some of the edifices are of good size, and 
parts of the town are tolerably neat for a Turkish city. 
Fires are frequent in Tokat. The luxuriant vegetation of 
the gardens in and near the town, the filthiness of the 



streets, and the abundance of fruit, occasion malignant 
fevers in summer and autumn. Tokat is under the Bey of 
Sivas. It is stated by Mr. Vice-Consul Suter to contain 
about 6730 families ; of whom 5000 are Mussulmans, 1500 
Armenians, 150 Greeks, 50 Jews, and 30 Roman Catholics. 
The place is the seat of an Armenian bishopric, and there 
are seven churches and thirty priests of that persuasion. 
The place has lost much of its former commercial impor- 
tance, and the import trade is now limited to supplying the 
local consumption of the neighbouring villages. The 
merchants obtain what they requure from Constantinople. 
There is an extensive dyeing establishment in which British 
calicoes and indigo are used ; there is also an establish- 
ment for printing on cotton (by hand) ; the cloths are 
partly those of me country, but chiefly British muslins, 
of which many are thus required. Copper irom the mines 
of Arghana is brought to Tokat to be refined ; and there 
are manufactures of the raw silk brought from Amasia and 
other places. 

(Mr. Vice-Consul Suter's Notes on a Journey from Erz- 
rum to Trebizond^ in » Geog. Joum.,' vol. x. ; Smith and 
Dwight's Researches in Armenia,) 

TOKAY is an ill-built town in the county of Zemplin, 
in Upper Hungary, on the river Bodrog, at its confluence 
with the Theiss. Tokay contains 45S) inhabitants, and 
has four churches, — one Roman Catholic, one Lutheran, 
one Calvinist, and one United Greek; one convent of 
Piarists and one of Capuchins. It is situated in 48° 7' N. 
lat. and 21° 25' E. long., at the foot of the He^alla, a 
chain of hills which is about 30 miles in length, from 
Szanto to Tornya, 8 or 9 in breadth, and the highest point 
700 feet above the level of the sea. The whole of it, to 
the height of 250 feet, is planted with vines, which Bela 
IV. had brought to Hungary by Italian colonists ; but the 
finest wine is produced on the small isolated hill called 
the Theresienberg or Mezes-Mal6 (honey from the comb). 
The greater part belongs to the crown : the other chief 
owners are Prince Bretzenheim, and the family of Szirmay. 
At the foot of the several vineyards of the HegyaJla the 
places are situated, the inhabitants of which are employed 
m ttie cultivation of the vine : the wines of Tallya, larczal, 
Zombor, Tollsva, and Mad, all which are in the neigh- 
bourhood of Tokay, are considered as the best. The whole 
produce is estimated at 150,000 to 200,000 eimer (the 
eimer in Upper Hungary is nearly 20 £nglish wine gal- 
lons, not imperial gallons). All these wines of the Heg- 
yalla are comprehended under the name of Tokay, though 
they differ a littie in quality : those of Tokay and Tarczal 
are the finest. A great deal of wine which is sold as 
Tokay is produced in other parts of Hungary. The supe- 
riority of the wines of Tokay is owing partly to the climate 
and partly to the great care taken in the cultivation of 
the vines, in the selection of the grapes, and in the pre- 
paration of the wine. The vines are grown on the sides of 
the mountain, where ranges of stones are piled up, which 
protect the soil against torrents of rain, and, by reflecting 
the rays of the sun, greatly increase the heat. The ground 
is turned up with tne spade three times in the season. 
Throughout this district the fully ripe grapes are gathered 
one by one, without throwing the buncnes with the stalks, 
and the fnut, in the different stages of maturity, into the 
press, as in other parts of Hungary. The wine is of three 
sorts. 1. The Essence. The grapes being put into a barrel with 
holes at the bottom, their own weight presses out the juice, 
which is sweet and thick. 2. 2%^ Ausbruch. This wine 
is made from the grapes which have furnished the essence. 
On these grapes new wine of fresh grapes is poured, and a 
slight pressure ai>plied. This wine is chiefly that sold 
abroad as Tokay ; it has an aromatic flavour, and is not fit 
to drink till it is three years old. 3. The Muslas, or 
Muschlasy is obtained by. pressure with the hands and the 
addition of new wine. The prices of the Essence and 
Ausbruch are very high in the country itself and at 
Vienna. 

Tokay, though a small town, is a place of considerable 
trade, not only as being the centre of the wine trade, but 
likewise having great magazines of the salt of Marmaroz, 
which is exported to all parts of the kingdom. The annual 
fairs are much frequented. The vint^e at Tokay gives 
occasion to a truly national festivity, at which great num- 
bers of the nobles of the country are present. This fSte 
affords the best opportunity of studying the character and 
manners of the several nations of which the population of 



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Hungary consists. The jjrave character of the Mai^ara is 
manifested even in their national songs, while those of 
the Germans and Slavonians are for the most part cheerful 
and gay. 

(Jenny, Handbuch fur Reisende in dem Oesierreicki- 
schen Kauerstaate ; Cannabich, Lehrbuch der Geographie ; 
Stein, Handbuch^ by Htirschelmann ; Brockhaus, Conver- 
wttions Lexicon ; C. W . Rohrdauz and H. E. Lloyd, European 
Commerce.) 

TOLAND, JOHN, was bom on the 30th of November, 
1669 or 1670 (it is not certain which), in the most northern 
part of the county of Londonderry, in the peninsula called 
lnis-£ogan, whence in one of his works, published with a 
Latin title, he called himself Eoganesius. Though it is 
not known who his parents were, it is known that they 
were Roman Catholics. He tells us of himself, * Being 
educated from my cradle in the grossest superstition and 
idolatry, God was pleased to make mjr own reason, and 
such as made use of theirs, the happy instruments of my 



* he was not sixteen years old, when he became as zealous 
against Popery as he has ever since continued. . . . 
Yet in Ireland that malicious report gained upon some 
few, because his relations were Papists, and that he 
happened to be so brought up himself in his childhood.' 
He was sent fi»t to a school at Redcastle near London- 
derry, where, we are told, that, having been christened 
Janus Junius, he was laughed out of this name by the 
boys, and took the name of John, which he ever after kept. 
He went in 1687 to the university of Glasgow, and alter 
being there three years, to the university of Edinburgh, 
where he got a diploma as Master of Arts, in June, 1690. 
Shortly after this ne went into England, where managing 
to gain the favour of some influential dissenters, he was 
sent by them to the university of Leyden to study, and 
prepare himself for the duties of a mimster. 

He stayed at Leyden about two years, and made the friend- 
ship of Le Clerc, Leibnitz, and other learned men, with 
whom he afterwards corresponded. On his return to Eng- 
land he went for some time to Oxford, where he employed 
himself chiefly in collecting materials on various subjects 
in the Bodleian library. The vanity of his character, and 
the ostentatious avowal of free-thinking on religion, appear 
to have made him conspicuous at Oxfonl, as they did every- 
where else through the whole of his life. But in a reply to 
a letter of advice which he received here, he denied his 
being either an atheist or a deist. {Collections qf Several 
Pieces of Mr. John Tolandy &c., vol. ii., p. 302.) 

At Oxford he began his * Christianity not Mysterious,' 
which was published in London in 1696, the year after his 
leaving O^dTord. The remainder of the title, viz., ' A 
Treatise showing that there is nothing in the Gospel 
contrary to reason nor above it, and that no Christian 
doctrine can be called a Mystenr,' more fully explained 
the object of the publication. Ine work created a very 
considerable sensation, and elicited much attack and some 
persecution. 

In 1697 Toland returned to his native country. Mr. 
Molyneux wrote to Locke, April 6th, 1697, from Dublin : 

* In my last to you, there was a passage relating to the 
author of " Christianity not Mysterious." I did not then 
think that he was so near me as within the bounds of this 
city ; but I find since that he is come over hither, and 
have had the favour of a visit from him. I now under- 
stand, as I intimated to you, that he was bom in this 
country, but that he hath been a great while abroad, and 
his education was for some time under the great Le Clerc. 
But that for which 1 can never honour him too much is 
his acquaintance and friendship to you, and the respect 
which on all occasions he expresses for you. I propose a 
great deal of satisfaction in his conversation — I take him 
to be a candid free-thinker, and a good scholai'. But 
there is a violent sort of spirit that reigns here, which 
begins already to show itself against him, and I believe 
will increase daily; for I find the clergy alarmed to a 
mighty degree against him ; and last Sunday he had his 
welcome to this city, and hearing himself harangued 
against out of the pulpit by a prelate of this country.' 
(Locke's 1V(yrks, vol. viii., p. 405, 8vo., ed. 1799.) Toland 
appears to have become acquainted with Locke ; and this 
acquaintance he made the most of in conversation at 

P. C, No. 1555. 



Dublin. In Locke's reply to the bishop of Worcester, 
who, in defending the doctrine of the Trinity against 
Toland, had connected Locke with him, he showed that 
he did not reciprocate in an equal degree Toland's friend- 
ship and esteem for him. Mr. Molyneux wrote of him 
afterwards. May 27, 1697 : * Truly, to be free, I do not 
think his management, since he came into this city, has 
been so prudent. He has raised against him the clamour 
of all parties, and this not so much by his difl'erence in 
opinion, as by his unreasonable way of discoursing, pro- 
pagating, and maintaining it. . . . Mr. Toland also 
takes here a great liberty on all occasions, to vouch your 
patronage and friendship, which makes many that rail at 
him rail also at you. l believe you will not approve of 
this, as far as I am able to judge, by your shaking him ofl\, 
in your letter to the bishop of Worcester ' (p. 421). And 
Locke, on June 15, wrote what is worth quoting for 
itself, as well as for the opinion implied of Toland : * As 
to the gentleman to whom you think my friendly admon- 
ishments may be of advantage for his conduct hereafter, 
I must tell you that he is a man to whom I never 
wrote in my life, and I think I shall not now begin ; and * 
as to his conduct, it is what I never so much as spoke to 
him of : that is a liberty to be taken only with friends and 
intimates, for whose conduct one is miffhtily concerned, 
and in whose affairs one interests himself. I cannot but 
wish well to all men of parts and learning, and be ready 
to afford them all the civilities and good offices in my 
power ; but there must be other qualities to bring me to 
a friendship, and unite me in those stricter ties of concern ; 
for I put a great deal of difference between those whom I 
thus receive into my heart and affection, and those 
whom I receive into my chamber, and do not treat them 
with a perfect strangeness ' (p. 425). Pecuniary difficulties 
and persecutions together obliged Toland to leave Ire- 
land m a very short time. The parliament at Dublin 
voted that the book should be burnt by the common 
hangman. Mr. Molyneux gives an account of his de- 
parture in another letter written to Locke. 
He went to London, and, nothing daunted, published 

• An Apology for Mr. Toland, in a Letter from himself to 
a Member of the House of Commons in Ireland, written 
the day before his book was resolved to be burnt by the 
Committee of Religion ; to which is prefixed a Narrative 
containing the occasion of the said Letter.' He now 
devoted himself very vigorously to book-making of all 
sorts, in politics, theology, literature; showing always, 
even in the pamphlets which the mere passing occasions 
called forth, a degree of genius and enidition deserving 
of a better fate than his very scanty and precarious 
earnings. He published in 1698 a pamphlet, just after 
the Peace of Ryswick, when there arose the question what 
forces should be kept on foot, entitled, ' The Militia 
Reformed, or an easy scheme of furnishing England with 
a constant Land Force, capable to prevent or to subdue 
any foreign power, and to maintain perpetual quiet at 
home, without endangering the public liberty;' and in 
the same year his *• Life of Milton,' which was prefixed to 

• Milton's Prose Works,' in 3 vols, folio. Then came, in 
1699, the * Amyntor, or a Defence of Milton's Life,' in 
answer to a criticism of Dr. BlackaJl, bishop of Exeter, on 
some incidental remarks made by him m his * Life of 
Milton' on the genuineness of some parts of Scripture. 
There followed in rapid succession his editions of Holies s 

• Memoirs,' and of Harrington's Works, with a Life of 
Harrington prefixed ; * Clito,* a poem on the force of 
eloquence ; * Anglia Libera, or the Limitation and Suc- 
cession of the Crown of England explained and asserted,' 
and other political pamphlets. The * Anglia Ijbera' was 
published in 1701, on the passing of the act which settled 
the crown on the Princess Sophia of Hanover and her 
heirs, after the death of William, and of Anne without 
issue ; and Toland went over to Hanover and managed to 
get presented to the electress by the earl of Macclesfield, 
who had been sent on a special mission to cariy the act to 
the electress, and then presented his ' Anglia Libera 'to 
her with his own hands. He aiterwards stayed in Han- 
over for some short time, and went from thence to the 
court of Berlin, acting at these courts apparently as a 
sort of political agent, and making the most of the recom- 
mendations which he carried from the English govern- 
ment to extend his reputation for literature and learning. 
He won the good opinion both of the Princess Sophia and 

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of the queen of Pru»ia ; they both courted his conversar 
tion, and afterwards his correspondence. On the occasion 
of his first visit to Berlin he held a theological discussion 
with Beausobre in the presence of the queen, who acted as 
a sort of moderator, and closed it, on observing that the 
disputants were beginning to lose their temper. His letters 
to Serena, published in 1704, were addressed to the queen 
of Prussia. 

In 1702, in an interval of his residence abroad, he 
published * Vindicus liberius, or Mr. Toland's Defence of 
liimself against the Lower House of Convocation and 
others.' In this work his opinions have assumed a very 
subdued tone, which is perhaps to be accounted for in a 
great measure by the prospect of political advancement 
which seemed to be opening for him. ' Bein^ now arrived 
to years that will not wholly excuse inconsiderateness in 
resolving, or precipitance in acting, I firmly hope' that 
my persuasion and practice will show me to be a true 
Christian, that my due conformity to the public worship 
may prove me to be a good churchman, and that my 
untainted loyalty to King William will argue me to be 
a staunch commonwealth's man.' Subsequent theological 
works showed this to have been a moderation merely 
assumed for the time. 

The mask of orthodoxy was thrown off in a pamphlet 
which he published in 1705, in the title of which he did 
not scruple to designate himself a Pantheist : * Socinian- 
isra truly stated, being an example of fair dealing in 
theological controversies ; to which is prefixed Indifference 
in disputes recommended by a Pantheist to an orthodox 
fnend.' But he was now enjoying the zealous patronage 
of Harley, afterwards earl of Oxford, who had in the 
previous year become secretary of state, and he probably 
thought he could again afford to be a free-thinker. 
Harley employed him to write several political pamphlets, 
and sent lum abroad again in 1707, to Germany and 
Holland. Tlie nature of his connection with Harley may 
be gathered from the following extract from one of his 
* Memorials to the £arl of Oxford,' which are printed in 
a posthumous collection of his pieces written at a time when 
the zeal of his patron had cooled : — * I laid an honester 
scheme of serving my country, your lordship, and myself; 
for seeing it was neither convenient for you nor a thing at all 
desured by me, that I should appear' in any public post, I 
sincerely proposed, as occasions should offer, to com- 
municate to your lordship my ol»ervationsonthe temper of 
the ministry, the dispositions of the people, the condition 
of our enemies or allies abroad, and what I migiit think 
most expedient in every conjuncture ; which advice you 
were to follow in whole, or in part, or not at all, as your own 
superior wisdom should direct. ... As much as I 
thought myself fit, or was thought so by others, for such 
general observations, so much nave I ever abhorred, my 
lord, those particular observers we call spies; but I 
despise the calumny no less than I detest the thing.* 
(vol. ii., p. 223.) Toland was abroad on this occasion 
for about three years, acting as a sort of political spy 
for Hariey, though he disavowed the name, and eking 
out his subsistence bj his pen, and apparently in any 
way that presented itself. He made a trip from Hol- 
land to Vienna, commissioned by a wealthy banker to 
procure for him from the imperial ministers me rank of a 
count of the empire ; but he did not succeed in attaining 
the object of his mission. He managed in Holland to 
ingratiate himself with Prince Eugene, who was very 
attentive and liberal to him. In the * Memorial ' to the 
Earl of Oxfoitl, which has been before ouoted, Toland 
mysteriously connects this prince with nis mission to 




was not only applauded by tlie prince that employed me, 
but also proportionably rewarded ' (p. 225). In due time 
he quarrelled with Harley, and then wrote pamphlets 
against him. As a Whig pamphleteer, he had tne honour 
of Swift's notice in ' Toland's Letter to Dismal.' 

The principal publications of Toland which remain to 
be mentioned are the follovring, with the dates of their 
appearance : — a volume published at the Hague in 1709, 
containing two Latin essays, with the titles * Adeisidsemon, 
seu Titus Livius & Superstitione Vindicatus,' and ' Origines 
Judaicse, seu Strabonis de Moyse et Religione Judaica His- 
toria brevitdr illustrata;' * The Art of Restoring, or the 



Piety and Probity of General Monk in bringing about the 
last Restoration, evidenced from hb own Authentic Letters, 
with a just account of Sir Roger, who runs the parallel as 
far as he can ' (by Sir Roger was meant the earl of Oxford, 
his former patron, who was then plotting the restoration 
of the Pretender) ; and * A Collection of Letters by Gene- 
ral Monk, relatinji^ to the Restoration of the Royal l^amily,' 
both published m 1714 ; * Reasons for Naturalizing the 
Jews in Great Britain and Ireland, on the same footing 
with all other nations, with a Defence of the Jews against 
all Vulgar Prejudices in all Countries,' published in 1714 ; 
* The State Anatomy of Great Britain, containing a par- 
ticular account of its several Interests and Parties, their 
bent and genius, and what each of them, with all the rest of 
Europe, may hope or fear from the reign and family of 
King George,' which work called forth several answers, 
that led Toland to publish a second part ; * Nazarenus, 
or Jewish, Gentile, or Mahometan Christianity, containing 
the History of the Antient Gospel of Barnabas, and the 
Modem Gospel of the Mahometans, attributed to the same 
Apostle, this last gospel being now first made known 
amonjB^ Christians : also the original plan of Christianity, 
occasionally explained in the Nazarenes, whereby divers 
controversies about this divine (but highly perverted) in- 
stitution may be happily terminated ; with the relation 
of an Irish manuscript of the four gospels, as likewise a 
summary of the antient Irish Christianity, and the reality 
of the Keldees (an order of lay religious), against the two 
last bidiops of Worcester,' which appeared in 1718 ; * Pan- 
theisticon, sive Formula celebrandee Sodalitatis Socraticae, 
in tres partes divisa, quae Pantheistanim sive sodalium 
continent, 1, Mores et axiomata; 2, Numen et philoso- 
phiam ; 3, Libertatem et non fidlentem legem neque fal- 
fendam : Prsemittitur de antiquis et novLs eruditorum soda- 
litatibus, ut et de universo infinito et astemo, diatriba. 
Subjicitur de duplici Pantheistanim philosophia sequenda, 
ac de viri optimi et omatissimi idea, disseitatiuncula,' 
published in 1720 ; and in the same year, ' Tetradymus ;' 
and in 1721, < Letters from the Right Honourable the late 
Earl of Shaftesbury to Robert Molesworth, Esq., now Lord 
Viscount of that name ; with two letters written by the 
late Sir John Cropley.' 

Some of these titles show at once the learning and the 
fantastical pedantry of Toland. The ' Tetradymus ' con- 
sists of four treatises, which bear the names Hodegus, Cly- 
dophorus, Hypatia, and Mangoneutes, and have ror their 
respective subjects the pillar of cloud and fire which led 
the Israelites, and which Toland argues was no miracle ; 
the exoteric and esoteric philosophy of the antients ; an 
account of the female philosopner Hypatia, * who was 
murdered at Alexandria, as was supposed, at the insti- 
gation of the clergy ;' and an answer to Dr. Mangey, who 
had attacked his * Nazarenus.' The * Nazarenus ' and the 

* Pantheisticon ' had again evoked the anger of the cnurch. 
Dr. Hare, dean of Worcester, in a treatise against Hoadley, 
spoke of Toland as often quoting Locke to support notions 
he never dreamed of. Toland published an advertisement 
to the effect that he had never quoted or even named 
Locke in his writing. Hare issued a x;ounter-4ulvertise- 
ment, in which he directs ' makes great use of Mr. Locke's 
principles ' to be read instead of * is often quoted to sup- 
port notions he never dreamed of.' Toland then published 
a pamphlet, with the title * A Short Essay upon Lying, or 
a Defence of a Reverend Dignitary, who suffers under the 
Persecution of Mr. Toland, for a lapsus calami.* This 
pamphlet, with Hare's advertisement, was reprinted at 
the end of the * Tetradymus.' Hare returned to the charge, 
and, in the preface to a new edition of his work, speaks of 

* downright Atheists,' such as the impious author of the 

* Pantheisticon.' 

Towards the close of his life, Toland, whom all his lite- 
rary industry could not keep from pecuniary difficulties, 
found a benefactor in Lord Molesworth. Mr. Disraeli, 
who has devoted a chapter to Toland in his * Calamities of 
Authors,' mentions, from Toland's papers which he has 
seen, the paltry sums which he generally received for his 
writings. ' For his description of Epsom he was to receive 
only four guineas in case 1000 were sold. He received 
ten guineas for his pamphlet on Natuialising the Jews, 
and ten guineas more in case Bernard Lintott sold 2000.' 
And in another place, in the * Quarrels of Authors,' in tlie 
chapter headed ' Lintott's Account-Book,' he says, * It 
appears that Toland never got above 5/„ 10^., or 20/. for 



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hia publications. ... All this author seems to have 
reaped from a life devoted to literary enterprise, and phi* 
losophy, and patriotism, appears not to have exceeded 
200/.' This last statement must be an exaggeration. Fur- 
ther details as to Toland's literaiy gains, derived also from 
Lintott's Account-Book, are to be found in Nichols's * Lite- 
rary Anecdotes,' vol. v., p. 302. 

Toland died at Putney, where he had lodged for about 
four years previous, choosing that place on account of its 
convenient distance from London, on the 11th of March, 
1722. • Never,' am Mr. D'Israeli, * has author died more 
in character than Toland : he may be said to have died 
with a busy pen in his hand, ilaving suffered from an 
unskilful physician, he avenged himself in his own y/ay ; 
for there was found on his table an '* Essav on Physic 
without Physicians." The dying patriot-traaer was also 
writing a preface for a political pamphlet on the danger of 
mercenary parliaments ; and the phiioeopher was compos- 
ing his own epitaph, one more proof of the ruling passion 
predominating in death ; but why should a Pantheist be 
solicitous to perpetuate his genius and his fame?' 

Toland's posthumous works were published in 1726, in 
2 vols. 8vo., with a Life bv Des Maizeaux prefixed, and were 
republished in 1747. The contents of these two volumes 
are an additional proof of the versatility of his powers : 
they contain, together with many other essays, the Memo- 
rials to the Earl of Oxford which have been referred to, 
and several private letters ; an account of Giordano Bruno ; 
the Secret History of the South-Sea Scheme, in which 
Toland had been concerned; a Plan for a National Bank ; 
and a proposal, in Latin, for a new complete edition of 
Cicero. 

' An Historical Account of the Life and Writings of the 
late eminently famous Mr. John Toland, by one of his 
most intimate friends, in a letter to the Lord — ,' was 
published in 1722; and is attributed to Curll. This is 
not so minute a bioj^phy as Des Maizeaux's, and is rather 
a sketch of his writings and opinions. There is appended 
to it a complete list of Toland's works, many of the smaller 
of which are not named in this article. 

Toland's works have never been collected, and the noto- 
riety which attended him during his life having soon died 
away, they are now little known. But they are almost all 
of some worth, and his political writings may throw some 
little light on the history of the times. 

TOLEDO, a province of Spain, formerly part of New 
Castile, but now a separate province. It is divided into 
three large districts, Toledo, Ocana, and Talavera, com- 
prising 282 towns and hamlets. Its boundaries are, to the 
north the province of Madrid ; to the east that of Cuenca ; 
to the south La Mancha ; to the west Estremadura ; and to 
the north-east the province of Avila. It covers a surface of 
734 square leagues (Spanish), and is watered by five rivers, 
the Tagus, the Tiyuiia, Rio Ansares, Guadarrama, and 
Alverche, besides other inconsiderable streams. A chain 
of lofty mountains, called * Los Montes de Toledo/ inter- 
sects it from east to west. 

TOLE'DO {Toletum), a large city of Spain, and the 
capital of the province of that name, is situated on a rocky 
eminence surrounded by the Tagus, except on the northern 
side, in 39^ 52^ N. lat., 4'' IV W. long. It is a very antient 
city. Pyrrhus, one of the fitbulons kings of Spain, is 
sometimes called the founder. Its origin is also attributed 
to some Jews who migrated to Spain auring the period of 
tlie second temple in Jerusalem, and who called it Tole- 
doth, ije, gencflJo^es ; because thev say the exiles there 
reviewed tneir family genealogies when they assembled to 
di^ the wells and found the city. In support of the latter 
opinion many towns are pointed out in the province of 
Toledo whicfa retain to this day the names given to them 
by their Hebrew settlers, such as Escaiona, from AscaJon ; 
Noves, from Nove ; Maqueda, from Megiddo ; Jepes, or 
Yepes, from Joppa, &c. Toledo waaseity of some import- 
ance under the Romans, who made it a colony. In 
A.D. 577, Leovigdd, king of the Godis, transfenred the seat 
of his empire from Sevifle to Toledo. It was aiso greatly 
enlarged and embeliished bv Wamba, who suirounded it 
with walls. The eity was taken by tfae Arabs luider Tlirik 
Ibn Zeyyid, in a.d. 712 (April), after the celebrated battle 
of Guadaiete, winch opened the gates of the Peoinsula to 
the Modems. Under the Arabs, Toledo was a city of 
the first rank, second to none but Cordova, the capital 
of the Mi^ammedan empire. Its motley populaticm. 



composed of Arabs, Berbers, Jews, and Christians, which 
last were denominated Most^arabs, or Mozarabes [Muz- 
ARA.B], were often in open revolt against tlie khalifs of 
Cordova. At the breaking up of the empire of the Benl- 
Umeyvah, and when the governors rose m the provinces 
and declared themselves independent of the capital 
[Moors], the whole of New Castile and a portion of the 
old was formed into a kingdom by a powerful chieftain 
named Ibn Yaysh. At his death he was succeeded by 
Isma'il Ibn Dhl-n-ndn, and this latter by Yahya Ibn Dhi- 
n-niin, surnamed Al-m^miiin, an able and enterprising 
monarch, who became the patron of science, and added 
Valencia, Cordova, and other large cities to his hereditary 
dominions. His son Yahya, surnamed Al-kadir-billah, 
succeeded him in 1075, but in the year 1083 Alfonso VI. 
of Castile and Leon invaded his dominions, and, alter re- 
ducing all the fortresses and towns round Toledo, took 
possession of that city on the 25th of May, a.d. 1085. 
Alfonso having assumed on the occaaon the title of em- 
peror of Toledo, the city was thenceforward * Real 6 Impe- 
rial ' (Royal and Imperial). During the civil wars between 
Peter the Cruel and his bastard brothers Don Fadrique and 
Don Enrique ( 1354*69), Toledo was often taken and retaken, 
and the population, which consisted chiefly of Jews, sub- 
mitted to all kinds of ill-treatment from the conquerors. 

Toledo is the see of an archbishop, who is the primate 
of all Spain, and has the title of ' Canciller de Castilla. 
The bishoprics of Cordova, Cuenca, Siguenza, Jaen, 
Segovia, Cartagena, Osma, and Valladolid are iU sufira 
grams. It was formerly the richest see in aU Spain, but 
the revenue is now greatly diminished. Some of the 
greatest men that Spain has produced have been arch 
bishops of Toledo, a^ Rodrigo Simon de Rada, Ximenez 
de Cisneros, Gil de Albomoz, Mendoza, Tavera, Lorenzana, 
&c. The cathedral is the largest in Spain, and is by some 
considered the finest ; for although, owing to its having 
been built at different periods, it does not present that 
uniformity of style which might have been desired, it is 
nevertheless exceedingly interesting in its details. It stands 
on the site of the old Moorish mosoue, and the foundations 
were laid, in 1258, by Ferdinand III. of Castile, afterwards 
canonized by the church of Rome, and Rodrigo Ximenez, 
at that time archbishop of Toledo. It consists of five 
naves» and measures 404 feet in length and 204 in width, 
The naves are sunported by eighty-four colossal pillars 
and the whole cnurch is pav^ with white ana blue 
marble. Some of the chapels are exceedingly beautiful. 
La Capilla Mayor (great chapel), which was enlarged by 
Cardinal Ximenez, contains the mausoleums of Alfonso 
VII., Don Sancho el Deseado, Don Sancho el Bravo, the 
Infante Don Pedro, son of king Alfonso VIII., and lastly 
that of Cajdinal Don Pedro de Mendoza, which last is sur- 
rounded by a most beautiful plated iron railing. The 
chisel of Santiago, where the celebrated Don Alvaio de 
Luna and his wife Dona Juana Pimentel are buried ; that 
of San Ildefonso, Nuestra Seiiora del Sagrario, and Reyes 
Nuevos— which last contains the tombs of Enrique II., 
Juan L, Enrique III., and their wives — are all deserving 
of notice for their architecture, and the profusion of ex- 
quisite marble and carvings in wood with which they 
are decorated. Another chapel, called Capilla Muzarabe, 
because mass is still said daily according to the Muzarabic 
ritual, is a great curiosity of its kind. It was founded, in 
1510, by Cardinal Ximenez. The cathedral of Toledo was 
formerly celebrated for its jewels and its ulver and gold 
ornaments. There was once, among other relics, a figure of 
massive gold representing San Juan de las Viiias, and also 
a petticoat of Our Laoy embroidered with pearls and 
rubies, said to be of inestimable value. Most of them 
however disappeared during the Peninsular war, and what 
remained has lately been disposed of bv the government 
Annexed to the cathedral is the archbishop's palace, which 
contains a very fine library, rich in old manuscripts. Be- 
adfit the cathedral, Toledo has other splendid buildings, 
amorg which the following ve the principal :— ^Tlie con- 
vent and church of San Juan de los Keyes, built, in 147G, 
by Feidinand and Isabella, in commemoration of the vic- 
tory gained over the Portuguese at Toro in 1476. At a 
later period the manaeles and fetters worn by the Christian 
captives of Granada, liberated at the taking of that city in 
1492, were suspended to the outside walls of the building, 
where they are to be seen to this dav. The church and 
the eloister, built in the richest Grothic, are particularly 

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admired. The foundling hospital of Santa Cruz, founded 
by Cardinal Mendoza in 1304 ; that of St. John the Bap- 
tist, called also * el Hospital de afuera,* because it stands 
outside the city walls, built and richly endowed by Cardi- 
nal Tavera ; San Juan d^ la Penitencia, which is a founda- 
tion of Xiraenez, — all will afford subject of study to the 
artist. La Iglesia del Ti-ansito, which was formerly a 
Jewish synagogue, built during the reign of Peter the 
Cmel, at the expense of his treasurer, Samuel Levi, is a 
curious specimen of Saracenic architecture. The same 
may be said of another church, called Santa Maria la 
Blanca, which was once a Moorish mosque. 

T\\e Alcazar, or royal palace, stands on an eminence, at 
the foot of which flows the Tagus. It was built by Alfonso 
X. on the site of the Moorish palace, and was almost en- 
tirely rebuilt by Charles V., who employed the best 
Spanish architects of his time. His son, Philip IL, made 
ako considerable additions to it, which were principally 
directed by his chief architect, Herrera, who designed the 
Escurial. At present it is in a very dilapidated state, and 
unless it is speedily repaired, it will soon be a heap of 
ruins. A lunatic asylum, called * el Nuncio nuevo,' and 
the * Universidad Literaria,' are the only two modem build- 
ings of note. Both were erected about the end of the last 
century by an enlightened archbishop, named Lorenzana. 
At a rfiort distance from the city, on the right bank of the 
Tagus, are shown the ruins of a Moorish building, which 
the people of the country call • Los Palacios de Galiana :' 
it was formerly a country villa belonging to the Moorish 
rulers of Toledo. Of the two bridges on the Tagus, 
that of Alcantara was built by the Arabs. It consists of 
only one arch, which spans the whole stream. The streets 
of Toledo are very narrow and crooked, like those of most 
Moorish-built cities of the Peninsula. The houses, which 
are built in the Moorish style, have generally only one or 
two stories; and the apartments are arranged round a 
court, over which an awning is thrc^wn. In this court, 
which is frequently ornamented with a fountain and 
flowers, the family usually sit in summer-time. The en- 
virons of the city are barren and unproductive, but the 
neighbouring mountains contain some green valleys, where 
the wealthy inhabitants have their country-houses, called 
cigarrales. During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 
Toledo was celebrated for its manufactory of sword-blades, 
as well as for its silks : the fabrication of the former still 
continues under the patronage of the government ; but of 
the latter, not one loom remains in operation. The popu- 
lation of Toledo, which in the sixteenth century exceeded 
100,000 inhabitants, does not amount now to 12,000. 
There, are several histories of Toledo, among which the 
most esteemed are, * Descripcion de la imperial Ciudad de 
Toledo, y Historia de su Anti^uedad y Grandeza,' Toledo, 
1605, 4to., reprinted in 1617 ; Roxas, * Historia de la impe- 
rial y nobilisima Ciudad de Toledo,' Mad., 1654-63. fol. ; 
Alcozer, ' Historia de Toledo,' 1554, fol. ; a Jesuit, named 
Homan de la Higuera, well known as the forger of the 
chronicles of Luitprand and Dextrus, wrote also a history 
of Toledo in several volumes, which is preserved in manu- 
script in the Royal Library at Madrid. 

(\fiiiano, Diccionario deogrdjlco, vol. viii., p. 444 ; and 
the historians above named.) 

TOLE'DO, DON PEDRO DE, a younger son of Frederic 
of Toledo, duke of Alba, was bom at Alba de Tormes, near 
Salamanca, in 1484. After going through his early studies 
he was {Placed as a page in the court of King Ferdinand 
the Catholic, who took him into particular favour ; and 
it was by the king's influence that young Pedro obtained 
the hand of Donna Maria Osorio, heiress of the house of 
Villafranca, in consequence of which he took the title of 
Marquis of Villafranca, and the possession of the rich 
estates attached to it. He afterwards served with dis- 
tinction in the expedition a^inst Jean d'Albret, king of 
Navarre, and after King Ferdinand's death he continued in 
the service of his successor Charles I. of Spain, afterwards 
Charles V. of Germany. He served against the revolted 
communeros of Castile, and afterwards followed the court of 
Charles V., whom he accompanied in his joumejrs through 
Flanders, Germany, and Italy. In 1532, being at Ratisbon 
with the emperor, the news arrived of the death of Cardinal 
Colonna, viceroy of Naples, when Charles V. appointed 
for his successor Don Pedro de Toledo, marquis of Villa- 
franca, who immediately set out to take possession of his 
government. He found the kingdom suffering from the 



consequences of the preceding foreign and civil wars, and 
especially of the recent French invasion of 1527-29, and 
the revolt of many of the barons and the subsequent con- 
fiscation of their property ; of the plague, which, ori^nating 
in the French camp, had desolated Uke city of Naples ; and 
fhe state of confusion, bordering upon anarchy, wnich pre« 
vailed in the provinces. The first care of the new viceroy 
was to enforce the rigorous administration of justice with- 
out respect for persons, and he sent to the scaffold the 
commendator Pignatelli, the count of Policastro, and other 
noblemen, who had been guilty of oppression and other 
crimes. He pulled down the old da» arcades and other 
places which were the resort of thieves and murderers ; he 
abolished the abuse of making the palaces of the barons a 
place of asylum for criminals ; forbade the use of weapons, 
except the side sword, then worn by gentlemen ; he sen- 
tenced duellista to death, prescribed regulations for re- 
straining the disorders that took place at funerals and mar- 
riages ; and, lastly, by a ' bando,' or public edict, he inflicted 
the penalty of death on any one found in the night with 
ladders scaling the windows of houses, a practice which 
had become frequent among dissolute men, who thus in- 
troduced themselves into ladies' apartments. Don Pedro 
reformed the courta of justice, increased the number of 
judges, and made several regulations for the more humane 
treatment of prisoners and debtors ; and ako for the preven- 
tion of bribery and perjury. He raised an extensive building 
near Porta Capuana, where he placed all the higher courts 
of justice, civil and criminal. 

When Charles V., on his return from the Tunis expedi- 
tion in 1535, visited Naples, where he remained till March, 
1536, amidst the festivals and rejoicings with which he was 
greeted, he received hints and suggestions from several of 
the nobility against Toledo, but Charles stood firm in his 
good opinion of the viceroy, especially after having heard 
the deputies of the people, who explained to him that the 
nobility disliked Don Pedro because he would not permit 
them to oppress the lower orders, and to put themselves 
above the law, as they had been wont to do. It is reported 
that Charles, when he landed at Naples, on meeting the 
viceroy, said to him, ' Welcome, marquis ; I find that you 
are not become so large as I was told you were ;' to which 
Toledo replied, smiling, 'Sire, I am aware that you 
have been told that I was grown a monster, which I am 
not.' 

Toledo greatly embellished Naples; he enlarged the 
city, extended the walls, cleared, widened, and paved the 
streets, and made new drains and sewers ; he built the royal 
palace near Castel Nuovo, which is now called * Palazzo 
Vecchio,* and constructed the handsome street which 
still bears his name. He adorned the city with fountains, 
enlarged the dockyard, fortified the castle of S. Elmo, 
built new hospitals and churches, and, in short, he quite 
altered the appearance of Naples. He also di-ained the 
neighbouring marshes by opening the wide canal called 
dei Lagni, which carries the supei-fluous waters into the 
sea. 

In 1537, the Turks having landed at Castro and other 

E laces of the province of Otranto, Toledo summoned the 
arons with their militia, and marched with them and the 
regular Spanish troops against the enemy, who, finding the 
country prepared for defence, took again to their ships and 
sailed away. Toledo foitified the maritime towns of Apulia, 
built towers of defence along the coast, restored Pozzuoli, 
which was nearly depopulated in consequence of the 
earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and enlarged the 
• Grotta,* which leads to it from Naples. For all these and 
other services to the Neapolitans, as well as for the just 
though severe tenor of his general administration, Don 
Pedro de Toledo had become very popular, until the 
y«ar 1547, when his ill-judged attempt to establish the 
tribunal of the Inouisition after the fashion of his own 
country, Spain, rendered him universally obnoxious. The 
cause of this attempt was that the doctrines of the Re- 
formation had found their way to Naples, and made many 
converts, even among priests and monks. Charles V., who 
was at that time struggling in Germany with the religious 
and jpolitical dissensions arising out of the Reformation, 
dreaded a similar explosion in his Italian dominions, and 
the viceroyToIedo wished to save his master the additional 
trouble. Fope Paul III. was anxious to assist them in re- 

Sressing the spread of heresy to Italy : but the Neapo- 
tans, a lively, communicative people, had conceived a 



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gi eat horrOr of that gloomy and arbitrary court and its secret 
proceedings; they had heard of its deeds in Spain,, and 
they determined to resist its introduction into their country, 
even by force of arms if necessary. The tumult began 
about the middle of May, when the people tore down the 

E]acards containing the edict which sanctioned the esta- 
lishment of the Inquisition, from the gates of the arch> 
bishop's palace. A cry of ' To aims !* resounded through the 
streets and squares ; most of the nobles, who hated Toledo 
for their own reasons, joined the citizens in their resistance. 
The people turned out some of their municipal magis- 
trates, whom they suspected of being for the viceroy, and 
elected others without the viceroy's sanction ; and Toledo 
having resented this proceeding, the people took up arms, 
and attacked the Spanish soldiers who garrisoned the 
castles. The Spaniards fired with cannon into the city, 
and the people cut down all Spaniards whom they found 
straggling. The viceroy, having seized some of the head 
rioters, caused them to be summarily executed, which 
added fuel to the flame, and the citizens and nobles formed 
themselves into a union or patriotic convention, taking for 
their motto, * For the service of €rod, the emperor, and 
the city of Naples ;' stigmatising as traitors to their country 
those who did not join the union. The union sent as 
envoys to Charles Y. the prince Sanseverino and another 
nobleman, refusing meantime obedience to the viceroy, 
who remained in the castle with his Spanish soldiers and a 
few Neapolitan adherents, and the town was without any 
regular government. Frequent skirmishes took place in 
the streets between the viceroy's men and the people ; 
many individuals were killed, and houses were plundered. 
At last the answer came from Charles V., commanding 
the citizens to lay down their arms, with secret instructions 
to the viceroy to proceed leniently and prudently in the 
matter. 

On the 12th of August Toledo signified to the deputies 
of the city the will of the emperor that the Inquisition 
should not be established in Naples ; that the past should 
be forgotten, except as to some of the principal leaders 
of the insurrection, who were obliged to emigrate; and 
tliat the city should pay one hundred thousand crowns 
as a fine. And thus this serious affair was hushed up, but 
the Neaj>olitans gained their point, and the tribunal of the 
Inquisition was never established at Naples, though per- 
sons accused of heresy were tried by the common eccle- 
siastical court, and severaJ of them were put to death by 
the concurrence of the lay power. The pnnce Sanseverino, 
who haddispleased Charles V., thought it prudent to emi- 
grate to France, and was outlawed. [Tasso, Bernardo.] 

In July, 1552, a large Turkish flee^ under Dragut Rais 
and Sinan Pasha, anchored near Procida, at the entrance 
of the Bay of Naples, when the emigrant prince Sanseve- 
rino of Salerno was to have joined them with a French 
squadron ; but the viceroy, it is said, by means of a large 
bribe, induced the Turkish commanders to leave the coast 
before the arrival of the French. 

Towards the end of the same year the viceroy, although 
old and infiim, was desired by Charles V. to march to 
Siena in Tuscany, which republic had thrown off the pro- 
tection of the emperor and admitted a French garrison. 
Don Pedro having sent most of the troops by land, em- 
barked with the rest for Leghoi*n. On arriving there he 
fell seriously ill, and was removed to Florence. The duke 
Cosmo de' Medici had married his daughter Eleonora. He 
expired at Florence, in February, 1553, alter having admi- 
nistered the kingdom of Naples for more than twenty 
yeai-s. He b by far the most distinguished in the long list 
of the Spanish governors of Naples, and one of the few who 
are still remembered with feelings of respect by the Neapo- 
litans. 

(Giannone, Sioria Civile del Regno di Napoli; Botta, 
Sloria d'ltalia.) 

TOLE'DO, TABLES OF. The Moora brought astrono- 
my into Spain at the beginning of the eleventh century, 
and about the year 1080 tables were calculated for the me- 
ridian of Toledo, by Arzachel. Of these tables there was no 
specific account till the time of Delambre, and no printed 
publication of them has ever been made. It was usual to 
state that they were intended as an improvement on the 
tables of Albategnius, that their character never was very 
high, and that the Alphonsine Tables [Alonsinb Tables] 
were intended as an improvement upon them. Delambre 
(^Hint. Astron, MoyennSy p. 175) examined two manuscript 



Latin translations of the tables, which he found in the 
Royal Library at Paris ; and his report of their contents \a 
what might have been expected. The theory and nume- 
rical quantities employed are in almost every instance 
those of Rolemy, and there is only just enough of original 
observation to establish the fact that the Toledine observ- 
ers were very bad ones. 

TOLENTI'NO. [Macerata.] 

TOLERATION, TOLERANCE. The latter of these 
two words more commonly expresses a feeling or habit of 
mind, and the former an overt act, or a realization in 
greater or less degree of the feeling in the institutions of 
a poHtical society. This distinction is not always strictly 
observed, but will be found generally a correct one. The 
word tolerance suggests a consideration of the feeling, in 
its moral aspect of a virtue ; while the word toleration 
opens out for discussion the political questions of the tole- 
ration of opinions on government, morals, and religion, by 
the governing power m a state, and more especially of 
religious toleration. 

The virtue of tolerance in an individual, and the duty 
of toleration by the governing power in a state, depend, to 
a great extent, on the same principles. The general rea- 
sons for the one and for the other are the same, and so are 
the general reasons for the limits to both ; but the fields 
within which toleration is to be exercised by a private in- 
dividual and by the governing power in a state, and within 
which the respective exceptions arise, are different ; and 
while the rule of private tolerance is simple and compre- 
hensive, and of uniform application, the extent of state- 
toleration and the modes of its exercise must necessarily 
vary with the varying circumstances of political societies. 

The duty of one individual towards another is to be 
tolerant of every action honestly meant and every sincere 
opinion. Actions which proceed from bad motives, and 
opinions which are not put forth in truthfulness and for 
truth's sake, every individual is called upon to reprobate, 
without reference to the tendency of the action or of the 
opinion itself, but for the motive, which is inimical to 
general happiness. [Morals.] Motives then, which are 
moral habits or dispositions, are the grounds of tolerance 
or intolerance between individuals. The governing power 
in a state, on the other hand, has to consider actions and 
opinions in themselves, and without reference to the mo- 
tives in which they may originate. This is indeed tiie 
fundamental distinction between the provinces of morals 
and legislation ; that of the first embracing motives or dis- 
positions, and that of the second, overt acts. The private 
individual then is required to be tolerant of all actions and 
opinions, save those that proceed from vicious motives. 
Tne governing power in a state is required to tolerate all 
actions and opinions, save those that have a tendency de- 
trimental to the general happiness, which it is the business 
of that governing power to watch over and to promote to 
the utmost. In both cases, tolerance as a geneiul rule, 
and the respective exceptions, are dictated by that which 
is the fundamental principle alike of morals and of po- 
litics, and which is now understood by every one, whether 
he approve or object to the name, under the name of the 
greatest-happiness-principle. It is assumed that the facul- 
ties of thougtit, of feeling, and of action, with which man 
has been endowed by G^, have been given to be exer- 
cised, and with a design that their exercise should conduce 
to the happiness of individuals and of mankind. Any 
exercise of these faculties by an individual which has a 
contrary tendency, the moral affections of his fellow-men 
revolt si ; and men deal out to one another disapprobation 
of injurious feelings and motives, and support with their 
opinion the governing power, to which they yield political 
obedience, in the repression of injurious acts and injurious 
publications of opinion. Thus do the feelings of men ope- 
rate to turn back the gifts of Providence, which are used 
in a manner contrary to his purpose, to their original design. 
But apart from moral disaporobation of injurious motives 
and dispositions, and from the repression of injurious acts 
and ii^urious publications of opinion, by the governing 
power in a state, the great end of human happiness re- 
quires the fullest freedom of thought and action. An indi- 
vidual should be tolerant of all honest differences of opinion 
for the sake of truth, which is best promoted by discussion, 
and the promotion of which promotes human happiness ; 
and for the sake of peace and of th» maintenance of kindly 
and friendly feelings, which not only conduce directly to 



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happiness, but indirectly also to the improyement of the 
moral character, both of him who praotises tolerance, and 
of him towards whom it is practised. Peace, friendship, 
and the proper development of the moral dispositions, en- 
join also, the tolerance among individuals of honestly 
meant actions. And as to the conduct of the governing 
power in a state, the cause of truth and the principle that 
the exercise of the faculties which God has given must, as 
a general rule, conduce to good, require that every action 
and expression of opinion should be tolerated, save those 
which clearly contravene the happiness of the members 
of the particular political society. 

The scope of tolerance among individuals, as applied to 
opinions, has been well defined by Mr. Bailey, in the fol- 
lowing passage from his admirable * Essays on the Forma- 
tion and Publication of Opinions :' — * True liberality con- 
sists in not imputing to others any moral turpitude because 
their opinions differ from our own. It does not consist in 
ostensibly yielding to the opinions of others, in refraining 
from a rigorous examination of their soundness, or from 
detecting and exposing the fallacies which they involve, 
but in resraixling those who hold them as free from conse- 
quent culpability, and abstaining from casting upon them 
that moral odium with which men have been ready in all 
af[[es to overwhelm such as deviated in the least from the 
miserable compound of truth and error which they hugged 
to their own bosoms.' The importance of cultivating the 
viKue of tolerance in the education of individuals cannot 
be overrated. In a political society in which the bulk of 
the community possess power, or in which they influence 
indirectly a government that is not in itself democratic, 
and that reauires the control of a wise public opinion, the 
degree to which the duty of toleration is acted up to by a 
state will greatly depend on the degree to which tolerant 
feelings prevail among its individual members. 

It is the duty of the governing power in a state to tole- 
rate ail actions and opinions save those which have a ten- 
denc^r contrary to the happiness of its members. The 
practical question then to be solved is, What are the 
eases of exception? what are the actions and opinions 
which it is the duty of the governing power in a state to 
repress ? The proper solution of this question will be ne- 
cessary for any particular state, that its duty of toleration 
may be properly fulfilled. In the case of each particular 
state, there will be particular circumstances entering into 
this Question. But it is obvious that we must here content 
ourselves with a general answer to the question. 

It is the first duty of every gOTemment to protect, to the 
utmost of its power, the persons and the property of all 
and each of its subjects, and to repress all injuries to these. 
It follows that it should prevent the diffusion of opinions 
calculated to suggest or encourage such injuries. It ma^ 
often be a question, as with all other opinions which it is 
desirable to repress, whether active steps for the purpose 
may not rather have the effect of extending than of con- 
tracting the circulation of the obnoxious opinions ; but 
this is a matter of prudence, which does not affect the 
question of the desirableness of repressing such opinions, 
and of the duty of the state to pursue what may be the best 
method of repression. 

It is the auty of the governing power in a state also, 
watching over and availing itself of every means to forwaid 
the moral welftire of its members, to repress immoralities, 
whether of action or of publi^ed opinion. The same 
question will occur, as in the former case, as to whether 
prosecution in many cases will not thwart rather than for- 
ward its object ; but to abstain fix)m prosecuting on the 
ground of prudence is not to tolerate, and there will be no 
dispute as to the propriety of excepting from toleration 
in a state, <men acts of lewdness and indecency, the exhi- 
bition of inaeeent prints, immoral books, &c. 

We oome now to cases which present more difficulty, 
and in which there is more scope for the modifying influ- 
ence of differences in form of government and in other 
eircumstanoes of x>otitical societies, viz. the cases of opi- 
nions on government and on religion. The degree to 
which differences of opinion on these subjeets are to be 
tolera^^ is, in all states, a question of veiy great import- 
ance, and into which, in almost eveny differeirt state, some 
pecu^ elements enter. 

It may be 8f«ted generally however, that the mainte- 
nance of an existing gOYemment, or its protection against 
evertlsow or i^beluon, is required for the happiness of 



those who are under it, and that it will be the duty of the 
governing power to prevent acts tending to its own over- 
throw, or opinions likely to excite such acts. In different 
forms of government, the decrees to which for this purpose 
freedom of action and of opinion will be abridged will be 
different. The maintenance of a despot's power will 
require more extensive and more stringent restriction than 
the maintenance of a government in which a large portion 
of the community have a part. The degree to which 
restriction is reqmred by a form of government will be an 
important point in the consideration of its goodness as a 
form of government ; but there can be no question as to 
the duty of the goveminjf power to impose the amount of 
restriction necessary for its own safety. ' Disobedience to 
an established ^vemment, let it be never so bad, is an 
evil ; for the mischiefs inflicted by a bad government are 
less than the mischie& of anarchy.' (Austin's Province of 
Jurisprudence Determined^ p. 54.) But it will be a ques- 
tion, and in the cases of all governments open in any degree 
to popular influence,' a question likely to excite much and 
keen discussion, what is the requisite amount of restriction. 
And here there will be no difficulty as to overt acts against 
a government, such as rising in arms to alter it, &c. But 
as regards spoken and written opinions affecting the go- 
vernment, it must always be a nice problem to hit the 
precise point at which the safety of the government and 
the interests of free discussion are both sufficiently con- 
sulted. It will be the natural aim of those who possess 
the governing power, mingling their own personal feelings 
with public duties, to overstretch the proper limits of free 
discussion ; and, on the other hand, the mass of the com- 
munity, looking at the question from an opposite point of 
view, will be disposed to attach less importance than 
may be proper to the security of the government. In 
all governments in which it can be a question whether 
there sliall be more or leas restriction, there will probably 
be much discussion and dispute, ^.nd perhaps conflict, 
before the question is properly adjusted. In the case of a 
despotism there is of course no toleration of political opi- 
nion. But in constitutional governments, see the difference 
between the degree of toleration of political discusaon 
established among ourselves, and in France or in the Ger- 
man states, even the freest of them — ^for instance, Baden 
and Wiirtemberg. And see the struggles which the 
people of England have undergone to achieve the degree 
of freedom as to political meetings and the press, which is 
now enjoyed in this country. 

There remains to be considered the question of the tole- 
ration of religious opinions in a state, to which question 
the use of the wont toleration is often specially appro- 
priated. This question presents two aspecfai, accdraing as 
there exists or does not exist an established religion or 
church-establishment in a political society. We are here 
concerned only with the existence or non-existence of an 
established reugion as £Mts, and finding political socie- 
ties either with or without one, have to adapt the question 
of religious toleration to the two caaes. The question of 
the desiraUeness of an established religion has been 
already considered, so far as is compatible with the object 
oi this work, in the article Choiich. 

Where no particular sysAem of religion has been adopted 
by the governing power m a state, and distinguished firom all 
others, no question arises save that of the duty of repress- 
ing, in whatever may be the most efficacious mode, the 
publication of opinions hostile to the foundation of religions. 
This exception to the general toleration of all opinions on 
religion, which is imphed in the absence of an established 
religion, is thus expressed and amied by Dr. Paley, an en- 
lightened advocate of religions toleration by a church eat^n 
blishment : * Under the idea of religious toleration I include 
the toleration of all books of serious argumentation : but I 
deem it no infringement of religious liberty to restrain the cir- 
culation of ridicule, invective, and mockery upon religious 
subjects ; because this species of writing appties sol^y to 
the passions, weakens the judgment, and contaminates the 
imaginatioa of its readers ; has no tendency whatever to 
assist either the investi^tion or the impreasioo of truth : 
on the contrary, whilst it stays not to distinguidi between 
the auth(nitT of different religions, it destroys alike the in- 
fioenoeofali.' (Moral and Political Phiioeophy, p. 472, 
ed. 1830, 6 vols. 8vo.) The repression of profaneneas 
and blasphemy rests upon the flame grounds as that of in- 
decency and immorali^. 



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But where a church establishment exists, there has at 
once been made a distinction between one set of religious 
opinions and all others, and power and preeminence have 
been given to the holders of the favoured religion over 
those of all other religious denominations. They who 
are thus powerful and preeminent will, in human nature, 
be prone to use their advantages to the prejudice of those 
who dissent from their own reUgious views ; and the 
history of all states accordingly presents a series of strug- 
gles between the dominant reu^on and other sects ; the 
first striving to suppress by violent punishments, or by 
exclusion from civil privileges, all whose religious tenets 
are not those of the establishment, and the latter flighting 
for the rights of conscience and the cause of free cUscus- 
sion of truth. Here there is an inequality to begin with, 
which is submitted to. The holders of a particular reli- 
gion are taken under the protection of the governing 
power in the state, and by it used for the general educa^ 
tion of the nation, and for the performance of public 
ceremonies of religion ; the state endows its ministers, and 
confers upon them social honours, such as it is in the 
power of a government to confer. But together with this 
inequality there may and there ought to be toleration 
of ail other religions, so as to allow of the public profes- 
sion of them, and to'admit the holders of them to all offices 
and privileges, save those which are connected with the 
established church. This toleration is compatible with an 
#-.fficient establishment for religion, and is required, for 
ihe sake of truth and of the rights of individual con- 
science, by a public policy grounded on the general hap- 
piness. Let then a church establishment exist as a means 
by which the governing power in a state may most effectu- 
ally educate its people, and maintain and promote their 
civilization ; and at the same time let all who dissent from 
the established religion pursue in peace the worship which 
they severally approve of, and let all members of the state, 
of whatever religious denomination, participate equally in 
civil rights, except so far as such participation may tend 
to destroy the church establishment. 

There is no part of Dr. Paley's well-known treatise on 
* Moral and Political Philosophy ' of greater merit than the 
chapter * Of Religious Establishments and of Toleration.' 
Having contended for the existence of a church establish- 
ment, and having in the course of his argument for this 
purpose laid down the two propositions, that any form of 
(Jhnstianity is better than no religion at ail, and that, of dif- 
ferent systems of faith, that is the best which is the truest, 
he proceeds : — • Toleration is of two kinds ; the allowing 
to dissenters the unmolested profession and exercise of 
their religion, but with an exclusion from offices of trust 
and emolument in the state, which is a partial toleration ; 
and the admitting them, without distinction, to all the 
civil privileges and camicities of other citizens, which is a 
complete toleration. The expediency of toleration, and 
consequently the right of any citizen to demand it, as far 
as relates to liberty of conscience, and the claim of being 

Srotected in the free and safe profession of his reli^on, is 
educible from the second of those propositions which we 
have delivered as the pounds of our conclusions upon the 
subject. That proposition asserts truth, and truth in the 
abstract, to be the supreme perfection of every religion. 
The advancement, consequently, and discovery of truth, is 
that end to which all regulations concerning religion ought 
properly to be adapted. Now, every species of intoler- 
ance which enjoins suppression and suence, and every 
species of persecution wnich enforces such injunctions, is 
adverse to the progress of truth ; forasmuch as it causes 
that to be fixed by one set of men at one time, which is 
much better, and with much more probability of success, 
left to the independent and progressive inquiry of separate 
individuals. Truth results trom discussion and from con- 
troversy In religion, as in other subjects, truth, 

if left to itself, will almost always obtain the ascendency. 
If different religions be professed in the same country, and 
the minds of men remain unfettered and unawedby intimida- 
tions of law, that religion which is founded on maxims of 
religion and credibility will gradually gain over the other to 
it. . . . . The justice and expediency of toleration are 
found primarily in its conduciveness to truth, and in the 
superior value of truth to that of any other quality wnich 
a religion can possess : this is the principal argument, but 
there are some auxiliary considerations too important to be 
omitted. The confining of the subject to the religion of 



the state is a needless violation of natui-al liberty, and is 
an instance in which constraint is always grievous. Perse- 
cution produces no sincere conviction, nor any real change ■ 
of opinion : on the contrary, it vitiates the public morals, 
by driving men to prevaritation ; and commonly ends in 
a general though secret infidelity, by imposing, under 
the name of revealed religion, systems of doctrine which 
men cannot believe, and dare not examine ; finaJly, it dis- 
guises the character and wounds the reputation of Chris- 
tianity itself, by making it the author of oppression, cruelty, 
and bloodshed. 

'Concerning the admission of dissenters from the es- 
tablished religion to offices and employments in the public 
service (which is necessary to render toleration complete), 
doubts have been entertained with some appearance of 
reason. It is possible that such reli^ous opinions may be 
holden as are utterly incompatible with the necessary func- 
tions of civil government; and which opinions conse- 
quently disqualify those who maintain them from exer- 
cising any share in its administration This is 

possible ; therefore it cannot be laid down as a univerBal 
truth, that religion is not in its nature a cause which will 
justify exclusion from public employments. When we 
examine, however, the sects of Christianity which actually 
prevail in the world, we must confess that, with the 
single exception of refusing to bear arms, we find no tenet 
in any of them which incapacitates men for the service of 
the state. It has indeed oeen asserted that discordancy 
of religions, even supposing each religion to be free from 
any errors that affect the safety or the conduct of govern- 
ment, is enough to render men unfit to act together in 
public stations. But upon what argument^ or upon what 
experience, is this assertion founded ? I perceive no rea- 
son why men of different reUgious persuasions may not sit 
together upon the same bench, deliberate in the same 
council, or fight in the same ranks, as well as men of 
various or opposite opinions upon any controverted topic 
of natural philosophy, history, or ethics.* (PP- 470-3.) 

Such is the clear, cogent, and temperate statement of 
the question of religious toleration by aa eminent member 
of the Church of England. The question has been treated 
at greater length, from different points of view, and with 
differences of opinion in detail, but always with eminent 
advantage to the cause of toleration, whose progress in 
England has been materially aided by them, by Chilling- 
worth in his * Religion of Protestants a safe Way to Salva- 
tion,' by Jeremy Taylor in his * Liberty of Prophesying,' 
and by Locke in his * Treatises on Toleration.* 

The history of the literature of toleration generally, and 
in our own country in particular, and the history of reli- 
gious toleration itself in the several European states, and 
particularly in England, are subjects all of them interest- 
ing, but any one of which it would be impossible to treat 
within the limits of this article. The leading points of the 
history of religious toleration in our own country are indi- 
cated in the article Dissenters. 

TOLETA'NUS, RODERPCUS, or RODRI'GO DE 
TOLE'DO, an eminent ecclesiastic and historian, was bom 
at Rada, in Navarre, about a.d. 1170. His name was Ro- 
drigo Simonis, commonly Ximenez ; but he is better known 
as Hodericus Toletanus. On his return from Paris, where 
his parents sent him to complete his education, he attached 
himself to Sancho Y., king of Navarre, by whom he waa 
employed to negotiate a peace with Alfonso VIII. of Cas- 
tile. The manner in wnich he discharged this mission 
procured him the favour of Alfonso, by whom, in 1192, he 
was appointed bishop of Siguenza, and on the death of 
Don Martin, archbishop of Toledo, he was raised to the 
vacant see. He showed great zeal in the frequent wars 
with the Moors, and at the battle of Las Navas, where the 
Almohades, under Mohammed An-n4sir, were defeated by 
Alfonso, his pennon was the first that entered the dense 
ranks of the enemy. Indeed such were his courage and 
martial disposition, that even when the kin^ was at peace 
with the Moors, he would, at the head of his own vassals, 
make frequent inroads into the Mohammedan territory. 
He enjoyed so much favour with the kings of his time, 
especially with San Fernando, that nothing was under- 
taken without consulting him. His zeal for learning was 
no less ardent than his hatred of the infidel. He persuaded 
Alfonso to found the university of Palencia, and thereby 
avoid the necessity of sending youths to be educated in 
foreign countries* At the fourth Lateian council he is 



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said not only to have harangued the fathers in elegant 
Latin, but to have gained over the secular nobles and am- 
bassadors by conversing with each of them in his mother 
tongue. lie died in France, in 1247, after attending the 
council of Lyon, convoked by Innocent IV. His body was 
carried to Castile, and interred in the Cistercian monastery 
of Huerta. To him the history of his native country is 
more indebted than to any other man. He wrote several 
historical works, most of which are still inedited. His 

* Rerum in Hispania Gestarum Chronicon,' which contains 
a history of the Peninsula from the most remote period to 
his own time, is an invaluable production. It was printed 
for the first time at Granada, m 1545, together with the 
chronicle of Antonius Nebrissensis, and was subsequently 
published in the collection entitled * Hispania Illustrata,* by 
Andreas Schott, Frankfort, 1603-8, 4 vols. fol. His * His- 
toria Arabum,' or history of the western Arabs from the 
birth of the Mohammedan prophet to the invasion of 
Spain by the Almoravides, shows him to have been well 
versed in the language and history of the Arabs. This 
valuable work was first published, in 1603, in the second 
volume of Andreas Schott, * Hispania Illustrata,' and sub- 
sequently, in 1625, by Erpennius, as an appendix to his 

* Historia Sarracenica ' of Georgius Elmacin. There is a 
third edition. He also wrote a history of the Ostro- 
Goths, another of the Huns, Vandals, Suevi, Alans, and 
Silingi, which were first published by Robert Bell in the 
collection entitled * Rerum Hispanicarum Scriptores ali- 
auot,' Frankfort, 1579, 3 vols, fol., and subsequently by 
Schott ; a history of the Old and New Testament, entitled 

• Breviarium Ecclesi® Catholicae,' still inedited, and other 
works, the list of which may be seen in Nicolas Antonio. 

(Mariana, Hist, Gen. de kspana, lib. ii., cap. 22 ; Zurita, 
Annates de Aragon^ lib. ii., cap. 67 ; Nicolas Antonio, 
BibL Hist, Vetus, ii. 50.) 

TOLL, from the Saxon * tolne ;' in German, * roll ' (called 
in Law Latin * telonium,' • theoloniura," and * tolnetum,' 
mih many other variations, which may be seen in Ducange, 
all which Latin terms are derived apparently fVom rtXtavtov, 

• collection of tribute or revenue'), is a payment in, money 
or in kind, fixed in amount, made either under a royal 
grant, or under a prescriptive usage from which the exist- 
ence, at some former period, of such a grant is implied, in 
consideration of some service rendered, benefit conferred, 
or right forborne to be exercised, by the party entitled to 
such payment. 

The owner of land may in general prevent others from 
crossing it either personally or with their cattle or goods, 
by bringing actions against trespassers, or distraining their 
cattle or goods. [Distress.] These remedies cannot be 
resorted to where the owner of the land has acquiesced in 
its being used as a public way ; but in such case there may 
have been a royal grant, enabling the party to demand a 
reasonable compensation for the accommodation : this is 
toll-/rar^*ff. 

Where a corporation, or the owner of particular lands, 
has im memorial ly repaired the streets or walls of a town, 
or a bridge, &c., and, in consideration of the obligation to 
repair, has immemorially received certain reasonable sums 
in respect of persons, cattle, or goods passing through the 
town, such sums are recoverable at law by the name of 
toll-^Aorott^A. 

An antient toll may be claimed by the owner of a port 
in respect of goods shipped or landed there. Such tolls 
are port-tolls, more commonly called port-dues. The 
place at which these tolls were set or assessed was antiently 
called the Tolsey, where, as at the modern Exchange, tiie 
merchants usually assembled, and where commercial courts 
were held. 

Another species of toll is a reasonable fixed* sum payable 
by royal grant or prescription to the owner of a Fair or 
Market, from the buyer of tollable articles sold there. 
The benefit which forms the consideration of this toll is 
said to be the security afforded by the attestation of the 
sale by the owner of the fair or market, or his officers. It 
is not due unless the article be brought in bulk into the 
fair or market. Where however the proper and usual 
course has been to bring the bulk into tne fair or market, 
the owner of the fair or market may maintain an action 
a^nst a party who sells by sample, in order to deprive 
him of his toll. In some cases, by antient custom, a pay- 
ment, called turn-toll, is demandable for beasts which are 
driven to the market and return unsold. The term toll is 



sometimes extended to the compensation paid for the msb 
of the soil by those who erect stalls in the fair or market, 
or for the liberty of picking holes for the purpose of tern* 
porary erections ; but the former payment is more pro- 
perly called stalls^, and the latter picage ; and if the 
franchise of the fair or market, and the ownership of the 
soil on which it is held, come into different hands, the stal- 
lage and picage go to the owner of the soil, while the tolls, 
properly so called, are annexed to the franchise. 

If tolls are wrongfully withheld, the party entitled may 
recover the amount by action as for a debt, or upon an im- 
plied promise of payment, or he may seize and detain the 
whole or any part of the property in respect of whiqh the 
toll is payable, by way of distress for such toll. If exces- 
sive toU be taken by the lord, or with his knowledge and 
consent, the francnise shall be seised ; if without such 
consent, the officers shall pay double damages and suffer 
imprisonment. (Stat 3 Edw. I., c.31.) 

Grants of tolls were formerly of very ordinary occur- 
rence. But it seems to be very probable that many an- 
tient payments of this description, though presumed, from 
their being so long acquiesced in, to have a lawful origin 
under a rOyal grant, were in fact mere encroachments. The 
evil was nowever practically lessened by the exertion of 
the royal prerogative of granting immunities and exemp- 
tions from liability to the payment of tolls, either in par- 
ticular districts or throughout the realm; a prerogative 
exercised also by inferior lords who possessed jura regalia. 
Thus Reginald de Dunstanville, earl of Cornwall, granted to 
his burgesses ofTruveru (Truro) to be free of toll through- 
out Cornwall. (P/oc. de Quo Warranto, temp, Edw. I., 
II., III., 111.) If a party entitled to exemption was 
wrongfully compelled to pay toll, the remedy was by writ 
de essendo quietum de theolonio (of being quit of toll% 
which might be brought, either by the individual aggrieved, 
or by the exempted Ixxiy of which he was a member. (Beg, 
Brev,, 258 ; F. N. B., 226, b.) 

The term * toll ' is used in modem acts of parliament to 
designate the pajrment directed to be made to the proprie- 
tors of canals and railways, the trustees of turnpike-roads 
or bridges, &c., in respect of the passage of passengers or 
the conveyance of cattle or goods. 

The term toll is applied to the portion which an artificer 
is, by custom or agreement, allowed to retain out of the 
bulk in respect of services performed by him upon the 
article ; as com retained by a miller in payment of the 
mulcture ; also to the portion of mineral which the owner 
of the soil is entitled, by custom or by agreement, to take, 
without pajrment, out of the quantity brought to the sur- 
face, or, as it is technically called, to grass, and made 
merchantable, by the mining adventurer. To collect these 
dues the duke of Comwall, and other great landholders in 
the mining districts of the west, have their officers, called 
* tollers.' 

TOLLERS. [Toll.] 

TOTLIUS, CORNELIUS, a Dutch philologer, was bom 
at Utrecht about the year 1620. His father, who had two 
other sons, Jacob ana Alexander, possessed no means of 
giving his children a good education, but he had in G. J. 
Vossius a friend who gratuitously supplied the want. After 
(^omelius had for some years enjoyed the private instruc- 
tions of Vossius, he entered the academy of Amsterdam, 
and continued his philological studies under the auspices 
of his benefactor, who had formed a strong attachment to 
him, and made him his private secretary (famulus). In 1648 
Tollius obtained the professorship of eloquence and of the 
Greek language at the academy of Harderwyk. The yeai- 
after this event Vossius died, and Tollius delivered on the 
occasion the customary eulogy, which was printed under the 
title * Oratio in obitum G. J. Vossii,' Amsterdam, 1649, 4to. 
During his stay at Harderwyk Tollius exercised great in- 
fluence on the afiairs of the Academy, for the curators are 
said to have had such confidence in him that they never 
appointed a professor without his previous sanction. The 
year of his death is not certain, but it appears to have 
been soon after 1652 ; this year at least is the last in which 
any work of his appeared. 

The works of Tollius are not numerous, but he had 
formed the plans for an edition of Valerius Maximus and 
Phumutus, which his early death prevented him from 
executing. There is an edition of the work of J. P. Vale 
rianus, * De Infelicitate literatoram,* Amsterdam, 1647, 
12mo., with supplements by Tollius, which give some in- 



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teresting accounts of literary men» and was in its time very 
popular. The Supplements were translated into French 
by Coup6, and inserted in his * Soirees Litt^raires,' vol. xvi., 
p. 56, &c. He also edited Palaephatus, * De Incredibilibus,* 
Amsterdam, 1649, 12mo., with notes and a Latin trans- 
lation; Joannes Cinnamus, *De Rebus Joannis et Ma- 
nuelis Comnenomm Libri iv.,' with emendations and a 
Latin translation, Amsterdam, 1652, 4to. 

Tollius has been charged by his biographers with having 
appropriated numerous remarks and emendations on an- 
tient authors which he found among the papers of his 
benefactor Vossius, but how far this is true cannot now be 
ascertained. (Gasp. Burmann, Trajecium Eruditum, p. 367, 
&c. ; Saxius, Onoma^ticum Ltterarium, vol. iv., p. 528.) 

TOLLIUS, JACOB, a brother of Cornelius, was born 
about 1630, at Utrecht. He received his first education at 
Deventer, and afterwards studied under G. J. Vossius, who 
sho>yed him the same kindness which he had before shown 
to his brother Cornelius. The younger Tollius is charged, 
and apparently with justice, with having been very un- 
grateful towards his benefactor, inasmuch as he appro- 
priated to himself much which Vossius had written in 
illustration of the antient writers. After the death of Vos- 
sius, Tollius returned to Utrecht, and became a corrector of 
the press in the printing establishment of J. Blaeuw, at 
Amsterdam. He gave perfect satisfaction to his employer, 
both by his great knowledge and the conscientious dis- 
charge of his duties. In the meantime D. Heinsius, who 
was staying at Stockholm, and preparing for a journey to 
Italy under a commission from Queen Christina, offered to 
Tollius the place of secretary to the commission. Tollius 
accepted the offer, and set out for Stockholm in 1662. 

Being entrusted with the various papers and manu- 
scripts of Heinsius, his old piratical inclination revived ; 
when Heinsius discovered this, and, it would seem, some 
additional and more serious offences, Tollius was dismissed, 
and returned to Holland, where after a short time the in- 
fluence of his friends procured him the office of rector of 
the gymnasium at Gouda. Here he devoted all his leisure 
hours to the study of medicine, and in 1669 he obtained 
the degree of Doctor of Physic. Some dispute between 
him and the curators of the gymnasium, and his free and 
unreserved mode of dealing with them, became the cause 
of his being deprived of his office at Gouda in 1673. After 
this he for some timepractised medicine, and gave private 
lessons in Latin and Greek at Nordwyk. Finding that he 
could not gain a subsistence, he a^n obtained an appoint- 
ment as teacher at Leyden, but m 1679 he gave up his 
place for that of professor of history and eloquence in the 
university of Duisburg. His reputation as a mineralogist 
was also great ; and in the year 1^B7 the elector of Branden- 
burg commissioned him to travel through (Germany and 
Italy for the purpose of examining the mines of those 
countries. It appears that he faithfully discharged this 
commission. In Italy he was most hospitably received by 
Cardinal Barberini; and Tollius, who had hitherto not 
been promoted in his own country as he thought he de- 
serve^ secretly embraced the Roman Catholic reli^on. 
His long stay in Italy created in Germany some suspicion 
of his having renounced Protestantism ; and on hearing 
this he hastened, in 1690, from Rome to Berlin. His re- 
ception by the elector however was of such a nature that 
he thought it advisable to leave Berlin and return to Hol- 
land. Tolliua, being now again without means and em- 
ployment, opened a school at Utrecht, but it was closed by 
order of the city authorities. His friends were displeased 
with his conduct, and forsook him one after another; 
he sank into deep poverty, and died June 22, 1696. 

The v/orks of Touius are rather numerous, and are partly 
philological, partly alchvmistica], and partly on his travels. 
Among liis fdchymistical works are his * Fortuita, ih quibus 
praeter eritica nonnulla, tota fabularis historia, Graeca, 
Phoenicia, Aegyptiaca, ad chemiam pertinere asseritur,' 
Amsterdam, 1688, 8vo. He publishea an edition of Au- 
sonius, Amsterdam, 1671, which is the Variorum edition of 
Ausonius, and is still very useful ; and also an edition of 
Longinus, Utrecht, 1694, 4to., with notes and a lAtin trans- 
lation. Tollius translated into Latin the Italian work of 
Bacchini, * De Sistris,' Utrecht, 1696, and the account of 
antient Rome, by Nardini, both of wliich are incorporated 
in Graevius, * Thesaurus Antiquitatum Romanarum,' vols. iv. 
and vi. He is also the author of 'Grustus Animadver- 
lionum Criticarum ad Longinum cum Observatis in Cice- 
P.C. Nd, 1566. 



ronisOrationem pro Archia,' Leyden, 1667, 8vo. The works 
relating to his travels are :—* Insignia Itinerarii Italici, 
quibus continentur Anticjuitatee Sacrae,' Utrecht, 1696, 4to., 
and * Epistolae Itinerariae, observationibus et figuris ador- 
natae.' This work was edited, after the author's death, by 
H. C. Hennin, Amsterdam, 1700, 4to., and is of greater use 
and interest than the former. There are also some dis- 
sertations on antient poets, by Tollius, in Berkelius, * Dis- 
sertationes selectae cnticae de Poetis,* Leyden, 1704, 8vo. 

(Casp. Burmann, Trajectum Eruditum^ p. 368, &c. ; 
Saxius, Onamasticum Literarium, vol. v., p. 189, Sec.) 

TOLMEZZO. [Udine.] 

TOLN A, a county in Hungary, in the circle beyond the 
Danube, is bounded on the north by Vespium and Stuhl- 
weissenburg, on the east by Pesth, on the south by Ba- 
ranya, and on the west by Szumg. Its area is 1365 square 
miles, and the number of inhabitants 173,682, chiefly Hun- 
garians and Grermans. The eastern part of the county, 
between the Danube and the Sarwitz, is for the most part 
a plain ; beyond the Sarwitz there are mountains and hills 
with broad and fertile valleys. The principal rivers are, 
the Danube, which separates this county from that of 
Pesth, the Sarwitz, and the Kapos. In the abovemen- 
tioned plain, which is one of the largest in Hungary, there 
is a good deal of sandy soil. On the whole however the 
country has a very fertile soil, as the abundance and excel- 
lence ofits productions evince. The climate too is healthy, 
except on the marshes on the banks of the Sarwitz. The 
county produces wheat of very fine quality, maize, millet, 
potatoes, rapeseed, and poppv ; from the two last j^reat 
quantities of oil are made. The cultivation of the vine is 
very considerable. The dark red wine of Szekszard (op 
Sexard) in particular, especially the Ausbruch, is cele- 
brated for its strength and aromatic flavour. There ia 
much fruit of various kinds : vast quantities of tobacco are 
grown ; also flax and madder. Oxen and swine are very 
numerous, and of late years great attention has been paid 
to the breed of sheep, which has been improved by the 
introduction of merinos. The fisheries in the rivers are 
very productive, especiallv that of the sturgeon in the 
Danube. The productive land in the county is stated as 
526,703 acres ; of which 244,008 acres are allotted to agri- 
culture, 44,455 to the vineyards, 7812 to horticulture, and 
165,130 acres are covered with forests. The great extent 
of these forests seems to have led tiie owners to fancy that 
they were inexhaustible, so that, as the author of the * Statis- 
tical and Geographical Description of Hungary, Croatia, 
and Slavonia' says, * Count Festetits has not hesitated 
to fell large tracts for the purpose of making potash, and 
this in sight of that county in which the inhabitants are 
in want of wood for fuel, and obliged to use the dung of 
the cattle.* There are no minerals worth noticing in this- 
county. No manufactories are to be found here, nor are 
there any superior schools. 

The principal towns are — Szekszard, the chief town, 
situated near the river Sarwitz, over which there is a long 
and veiy handsome bridge ; it is tolerably well built, and 
has above 8000 inhabitants. The principal buildings are 
the Roman Catholic church and the county-hall, situated 
on a hill. 2, Foldvar, on the Danube, pleasantly situated 
partly on a hill, partly on the declivity of it ; the popula- 
tion is above 9000, who are engagea in agriculture, the 
cultivation of the vine, and the sturgeon fishery. It is the 
chief town of the district of Tolna, and has a Roman Ca- 
tholic school. 3, Tolna, on the Danube, with about 2000 
inhabitants (though Blumenbach says 4700), was formerly 
a more considerable place than it now is. A diet was held 
here in the year 1518. The inhabitants live by the fishery 
and the manufacture of potash : there are numerous mills 
on the Danube : a great deal of strong glue is made here. 
4, Paks, a large and handsome market-town on the Danube, 
with 7300 inhabitants ; much wine is made here, and the 
fishery employs many of the inhabitants. Many nobles 
and Jews live in this town. 5, Ozora, a market-town, with 
3200 inhabitants, belonging to Prince Esterhazy : a large 
castle is used partly as a magazine, partly as a prison : 
here is a considerable stud and extensive sheep-walks. 

(Blumenbach, Gemaldeder Oesterreichiscfien Monarchie ; 
Neueste Betchreibung von Ungern ; Hassel ; Stein ; Can- 
ni^ich.) 

T0L0ME1, CLA^UDIO, bom at Siena, of a noble 
family, in 1492, studied the law in his native town, and 
afterwards went to Rome, where he founded an academy 

Vol. XXV.— F 



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called ^ Delia Virtii,' of which Caro, Molzo, Flaminio, and 
other learned men of Rome became members, and one of 
the purposes of which was the illustration ofVitruvios and 
the encouragement of architecture. Tolomei afterwards 
conceived the idea of introducing into the Italian poetry 
the Latin metre of U)e hexameters and pentametet^, and 
he published rules and specimens for the purpose : ' Yersi 
e Ee&^ole della nuova Poesia Toscana,' Vhmet 153Q. But 
this innovation, which had been already attempted by 
Leone iBattista Alberti, did not succeed, and the Italian 
hexameters and peqtameters soon fell into oblivion. Here 
is a specimen of one of the distichs : — 

* Scco 1 1 ehiaro ri | o. piea | ec4»lo | d'aoqne lo 1 avi; 
EcGo di I verdi er | b« | cvca la | tena xi | de. 

Tolomei was for a time in the service of the cardinal 
IppoUto d'Este, who sent him on a mission to Vienna in 
1532. He afterwards attached himself to the court of Pier 
Luigi Famese, son of Pope Paul III., and duke of Castro, 
and followed him to Piacensa, when Pier Luigi was 
created duke of Parma and Piacenza. After the tragical 
death of Rer Luigi, in 1547, Tolomei returned to Rome, 
where he lived in straitened circumstances, until his 
countrymen of ISiena chose him, in 1552, for their ambas- 
sador to Henri II. of France, who protected the independ- 
ence of that renublic, threatened oy the Medici an4 hy 
Charles V. Tolomei repaired to Gompi4gne, where he 
delivered an oration to the king in presence of his court, 
which was afterwards published : * Ora^ione recitata di- 
nann al R6 di Francia Eprico II. d Compiegne,' Paris, 1^53. 
He died soon after his return to Rome, in 1554. He wrote 
several other orations in halian, one of which, entitled 
* Orazione della Pace,' Rome, 1534, h^ been most praised ; 
a dialogue upon the Italian language ; and several volumes 
of letters, which are the most mtereeting part of his writ- 
ings — * Lettere di Claudio Tolomei, libri yu.,' 4to., Venice, 
1547, afterwards repeatedly reprinted. |Ie is one of the 
best letter-writers in the Italian language ; his letters em- 
brace a variety of subjects, scientinc apd philosophical, 
and his stvle is comprehensive and full of meaning. His 
correspondence was choice, and yet exteosiYe* The edition 
of 1547 contains an important letter to his friend Gabriele 
Cesanu, about the manner of makinff the government of a 
state durable and permanent, which Tetter has been left out 
in the subsequent editions. In another letter, addressed to 
Count f^ando, he suggests the plan of several philolo^ciU 
and archaeological works for the illustration of Vitruvins. 

(Cogmian^, SecoU della Letteramra JuUianq ; Tiraboschi, 
Sioria della Letteraiura, Italtana,) 

TOLO'StA, a district of the province ol Guipuscoa, in 
Spain. Tolckif^ supposed to be the antient Iturisa, is not 
only the capital or tne district, but that of the whole pro- 
vince. It is situated in the middle of a deep valley formed 
by the two mountains of &nio and Loasu, and an the banks 
of two small rivers called Oria and Arages, which join their 
watere close to the town : 43* 8' N. Tat., 2^ ^2' W. long. 
The town is well built, and clean, )ike most tQwns in Bisjcay ; 
the streets are tolerably wide and straight. There i^re three 
squares, the principal of which (Pimi^ MaYor^, which 
serves also as aji ^rena for bull-fights^ is very fine. Tolosa 
has few antient buildings, and none that is worthy tlie 
attention of the sjrtist. Xlurii^ the Vta pivU wiur the Pre- 
tendei* Don Carlos often resided in Tolpsa. The po.pulaUon, 
according to Minanp (vol. viii., p. 46^2), amounted only to 
600Q souls in 1827. 
TOLSEY. [Toll.] 

TOLU, BALAAM QF. [MYnoap»RMwO 
TOLUCA. ^MBx^cAN Statbs, vol. xv., p. 1^.] 
TOMAHAW]^, an Indiai;^ hfitchet. Dr. Webs^r, of 
New York, who nves the above definitio);i in his 'Dic- 
tionary of Uie EngTish Language,' gives the word also as a 
verb, meaning ' to cut or kul with a hateh^ called a toma- 
hawk.' Catun, in his recent work on the Itf aimers. Customs, 
and Condition of the I^orth American Indians (vol. i., p. 2&^ 
plate 99^, states that the tomahawks of Indian manu* 
facture are, like other native weapons, headed with stoQe* 
but that the ordinacy inetaji blades pr heads are « of ^viliz«d 
manufacture, made expessly ^x Indian use, cairied into 
the Indian country by tnousa^ and tens of ^bousanda, and 
sold at an enormous price.* The handles are nsually made 
by the Indians themselves, and are often highly omai]g#Q.te4- 
Some tomahawks are formed with a bowl fof burning to- 
bacco in the head, and a hole through the handle to serve 
{or a pipe, ' These,* Catlin observes, * aie the most valued 



of an Indian's weapons, inasmuch as they are a matter oi 
luxury, and useful for cuttinp^ his firewood, Su5., in time of 
peace, and deadly weaprons m time of war, which they use 
m the hand, or throw with unerring and deadly aim.* 
TOMATO. [SoLANUii.] 

TOMB (in Greek, i^/ifoc; Latin, J\Mba; Italian, Tpmba; 
French, Tomi^e and roxn^Mu) signifies, in its strict meaning, 
a mass of masonry or stone-work raised immediately over a 
grave or vault used for interment ; but it is often applied, in 
a wider sense, to any sepulchral structure, works of 
either of these two classes constitute an important branch 
of archaeological study, inasmuch as they supply so many 
and such various materials for it, not only as regards the 
arts of painting and sculpture, but the objects described 
bv them, and a number of utensils and manufactured arti- 
cles discovered in such repositories. It b sufficient to 
mention the tombs of Egypt and of Etruria, in both of 
which interesting discovenes have been made of late 
years. The Christian catacombs [Catacx>mb8] have like- 
wise furnished much towards the nistory of art ; and the 
tombs and sepulchral monuments of the middle ages, 
down almost to our own times, are valuable monuments, 
either as specimens of architecture and sculpture, singly 
or combined ; or as handing down to us inscriptions and 
dates, and portraits and effigies of historical personages. 

Of primitive sepulchres there are two classea— both ot 
such nigh antiquity, that it is doubtful which is entitled to 
precedence — one of which may be distinguished bv the 
general term HypoMcean, that is, subterraneous and ex- 
cavated ; the other, oy that of Hyper g€ean^ that is, above- 
ground, or raised mounds or tumuli heaped over the dead. 
Monuments of the first kind are very numerous in Egypt, 
where thev occur in eveiy variety, from the simple rock- 
hewn tomb to the extensive roval sepulchres consisting of 
numerous ^leries and chambers. The other class pre- 
sei^ts itself m the Pyramids, which, though far more artifi- 
cial in form and construction, bad no doubt a common 
origin with the Tumulus [TtncuLUs], which occurs under 
various designations in every part of the globe. 

The extraordinary labour bestowed in excavating or con 
structinff these antient sepulchres is perhaps not so surpris 
ing as the lavishness with which the antients embellished 
the suhtenraneoua abodes of the dead, not only adorning 
them with polychromy and paintings, but depositing in 
them the most costiy and exquiaiteljr-wiought articles. In 
this respect there was a stnldng similarity between the 
practice of the ligyptians and that of the Etrurians , nor is the 
coincidence the less remarkable from such practice being 
contrary to that of the comparatively modem Greeks and 
Romans, whose tombs and sepulchres were chiefly archi- 
tectural erections intended for external display. Of 
Egyptian architecture and art some of the most astonish- 
ing memorials are entombed within the earth. Among 
these are what are called the * Tombs of the Egyptian 
Kings,* at Bibfin el Molouk, in one of which Belzom dis- 
covered the sarcophagus, or tomb, proverly so termed, 
which is now in the Soanean Museum. In respect to the 
architecture of these subtetraneous works, the arrangement 
of their plans is precMely the reverse of that of the tem- 
ples, in which the parts ara successively contracted in 
space, that W reached bdng^ the smallest of all [Eoyftian 
Architsctu&b, p. 316] ; whereas in these tombs the en- 
trance passages are narrow, and the first chambers are 
smaller than those to which they lead. The niunerous 
painting found in these tombs describe with minuteness 
the social life and manners of the peoj^e, their bamjuets, 
their festivals, their amusements, their costume, their fiir- 
niture, their arts, and the various utensils and implements 
employed in them. These recorda prove not only the per- 
fection the mechanic arts had attained, but also the luxu- 
rious reitnement of those remote ages. The same remark 
applies to the paintings and frescoes in the subterraneous 
tombs and sepulchral chambera diaeovered since 182? at 
Cometo, on the site of the antient l^rquinii, at Vuki, 
ToscaneUa, Bomarzo, Ceie^ Val d*Aaso, and other jik^es 
Tfit the antient Etcuria. The number of these tomba is very 
great. About two thousand have been opened, and from 
viese h»ye bisen obtained, beaidea upwards of Ave thousand 
painted tenraoottea and vases, an immensa quantity of 
other articles of aJmost every deflcnptioii,*~militanr 
weapons, tripoda and aaoiifioial uAenaila^ eandelabia of au 
patterns end dimeDsions, saroophagi, coudies, sculptiures^ 
mscriptio«s, &c<» together with biacekts, nngs, ear-rings» 



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find other ornaments of dress, some of tliem of the most 
tastefu] design and ex^site workmanship.* The mater 

S^rtion of these antiqmties are deposited m the new Museo 
regoriano at Home; but no inconsiderable number of 
them have found their wav into other collections, espe- 
cially those of Berlin and Munich. If not the most valua- 
ble part of the spoils obtained from the Etrurian tombs, 
the paintings on their walls were not the leKst interesting, 
especially when first discovered ; for fiance that time they 
have all suffered by exposure to the air. While they are 
fix the most part more carefully and better ^xefeuted than 
the Egyptian paintings, they are equally curious, inasmuch 
as they are almost the only existing records of a people 
respecting whom history has preserved very little. One of 
the most interesting sepulchral chambers yet opened is 
that which has been named, froiA the subjects represented 
on its walls, the * Camera del Triclinio e del Ballo.' In the 

* Triclinio,' or banquet scene, are three touches, vdth a 
male and female figure upon each, crowned ^th wreaths 
of ivy and myrtle, and richly attired. Everything bespeaks 
luxurious refinement, — ^the embroidered table-^loth, and 
draperies on the couches, the rich dj^esses of the attendants, 
the quantity and variety of the vessels heaped up on the 
sideboard, and the number of dishes with which the table 
is set out. Nor does the other scene convey a less favour- 
able idea of the gaiety and liveliness of an Etruscan dance. 
The subjects of some of the paintings that have been disco- 
vered are however of a very different character ; and as a 
contrast to the above <nay be mentioned those in what is 
distin^bhed by the name of the * Camera de' Morti,' at 
Tarqoinii ; One of which represents a profession of the 
dead, conducted by genii to tneir final judgment. These 
and other paintings are described in Mrs. Ilamilton Gray's 

• Tour to the Sepulchres of Etruria;* and a very interesting 
account of the tombs and their contents has been given 
by Carlo Awolta, in the * Ahnali dell* Instifuto di Cor- 
nspondenza Archeologica, per Panno 1889.' Of Etruscan 
art generallj, Winckeimann speaks hi the third book of 
his * Geschichte der Kunsrt,' but in his time only a few of 
the tombs had been opened. 

At other places in Efcrtma— Orfchia, the nlodeth Norchia, 
and Axia, now called Castel d'Asso — the tombs kr^ hewn 
out on the sides of rocks and hills, and present an archi- 
tectural fix)ntispieee or fefade forming their entrance, as is 
tne case with many Egyptian tombs, and likewise with those 
which are found in Lycia and other parts of Asia Minor. 
Many of the Lycian tombs have columns and entablatures 
to their fa^des wrought out of the solid rock. Some of 
the Lycian tdm-bs however are upright insulated structures, 
either plain or decorated with plasters and other oma- 
mefttd, with rooft whose section is a pointed arch, after 
the fashion of some of the Indian monuments, owing to 
which they present a 8trikin]g combination of Oriental and 
Grecian forms. Of sepulchres with templenshaped fngades 
there are two example at Orchia, one of them a tetra- 
style, the other a diiityle in antis. Both partake of the 
Grecian Doric character, yet deviate from it jgreatly in two 
particulars : first, in the great height of the pediment ; 
secondly, in the great width of the intercoluiinns. What 
now remains of the columns themselvea is ohly sufficient 
to show their number and situation ; yet that they were 
hewn out of the rock, like the entablature an\l pediment, 
scarcely admits of question. 

Vitruvius says nothing on the subject of sepulchred and 
tombs« either 6recian or Roman ; yet sepulchnd edifices 
are still very numerous throughout LatiUm and Magna 
Graecia, aind many of them muit originallt have been Very 
conspicuous objects, and not a little reinarkable on account 
of the studied architectural decoration bestowed on th^m 
externally ; for beisides subterraneous sejmlchral chambers 
or vaults (which were usually very carefully finished inter- 
nally, and not unfireouently ornamented with painting and 
stucco-work, and witli marble or mosaic pavements), there 
is another and quite distinct class, condistm? of structures 
raised above-ground, insulated, and apparently solid. These 
may be desCTibed as geneWlly 6f nearly cubical fbrm, 
though some are of much loftier proportions. There are 
besides varieties of this claits, in which either a Conical or 
cylindrical superstructure is raised upon the square portion, 
which then becomes a basement ; or else the superstmc- 

* The PrinoMS of Otnino a aaU to hw appearad fome low yean ago at a 
Dall attired with eoeOy ornaments fhat had been found in some of the andent 
tombs ot EiniTiiv 



ture is abo square, but is distinguished from the lower 
part by pilasters,, pannels with inscriptions, and other archi- 
tectural decorations : some of these have an upper sepul- 
chral chamber, others a subterraneous one a^, or one 
below the level of the ground. 

What is called the • Sepolcro di Nerone,' near Ponte 
Molle, may be taken as a specimen of the usual character 
of Roman tombs partaking of the cubic fbrm. Like the 
generality of them, this is somewhat more than a perfect 
cube, the dimensions being 20 feet by ^ in height, or, 
including iti covering, 27 feet. At each angle is a large 
acroterium presenting two quadrant-shaped surfaces, 
meeting at right angles at the external edge of two 
adjoining sides; a species of ornament almost peculiar 
to antient altard and tombs. Of larger tombs of this class 
there is one in the Via Portuenst^ a double cube in 
height, the measurements beiuff respectively 44 and 80 
feet. In the example previously mentioned, the upper 
part is rather less in height than the_ l^sertient, but here it 
IS about a third more, and is also decorated with four 
pilasters on each front, with a small pediment, not support- 
ing, but placed between the large acroteria at the angles. 
Of circular tombs we have a well-known fexample in that 
of Manutiutf Plancus at Gaeta; a lo^^ circular tower 
(nearly solid within), about 60 feet in diameter, and 10 
feet more in height; therefore, owins to its size, it is rather 
a mausoleum than a mere tomb. The same may be said 
of that of Csecilia Metella at Rome ; which structure, 
otherwise called II Capo di Bove, from the ornaments in 
its Doric frieze, exceeds the one just mentioned in size, 
it being 90 feet in diameter, and its entire height about 
130 feet. It does not however partake so much of the 
character of a mere tower as the tomb at Gaeta, because it 
consists of two nearly equal masses, viz. a square one with 
a cylindrical superstructure, and is therefore an example of 
that compound-form class which we have above pointed 
out Among the tombs at Pompeii there is one which is 
circular in the upper part of its exterior, and internally has 
a dome of v^ry peculiar shape, which does not show itself 
on the outside, but is cut out of the solid mass. Other 
sepulchral structm-es at Pompeii are very numerous, 
forming what is called the * Street of Tombs.* Instead of 
cemeteries, or public burying-gronhds, it was the custom 
in antient Italy to erect tombs on each s2de of the principcd 
roads leading from a cit^, as was the case with the via 
Appia and otheti in the immediate vicinity of Rome. 

The tombs of the middle ages are within building^, 
churches, chantries, cloisters, &c., and exhibit almost every 
variety of form and enrichment, from the primitive stone 
coffin or Christian sarcophagus, to those lavishly decorated 
catqfaled monuments wnich are so many piles of archi- 
tecttare'tad scnlpture. Those of the ilrst-mentioned kind 
are, for the most part, very little raised above the floor, 
and their upper surface is en doe ddne, or forms a ridg^ 
shaped Kd. The next class consists of Altar or Twle 
Tombs^ 6ofnparatively plain, although with panelling oi 
other architectura] decoration on their sides. The next 
in order iA the Effigy Tomb, flrst introduced in the thir- 
teenth eentory, with a recutnibent figure of the deceased 
upon it, extended, with the hands slightly raised, and 
joined as if in the attitude of prayer. Examples of this 
kind ar^ very numerous, and nighly interesting, both on 
account of their execution as works of sculpture, and the 
infoormatioTi they afford in regard fo the costume 6f the 
Tpefiod^ In some cases there is a small canopy over the 
head of the figure, placed, similarly to that effigy, in a 
horizontal direction. This will be best understood from 
the annexed representation of the monument of £leanor 
Bohun, ynfe of Thotnaa of Woodcock, duke of Glou- 
cester. 

This is not indeed exactly a specimen of the class just 
referred to, it being a monumental inlaid brass (a species 
of monument very common in this country during the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centnries); but although not 
executed in relief, it will serve to explain the usual 
character of sculptured recumbent effigies, and the design 
of the ornamental parts. 

Altar and effigy tombs were usually placed between the 
piers of an arch, or within a recess in a wall, and m either 
case the whole tomb was frequently covered by an arch 
forming a sort of canopy over it ; of which kind is that 
of Aymer de Valence in Westminster Ab!)ey ri334). In 
course of time this mode of architectural decoration came 



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to be greatly extended. Instead of a single arch, three 
01 more small arches were intioduced, which, with the 



-^Bg>7nna ^F m J m mA JU i ^^J i^ gK^J>Ta g 




columns either supporting or placed between them, en- 
closed the figure on the tomb, giving the whole the ap- 
pearance of a shrine or screen. Manj of the French 
monuments of the period of the Renaissance are in this 
style of design, large and lofty insulated architectural 
masses, with a profusion of highly enriched pilasters and 
arches, and numerous dlegorical figures, oeside other 
statues and bas-reliefs, so that the aeposito, or actual 
tomb, is the least portion of the entire composition. 

In Italy there are man^ examples of what maybe called 
Fapade monuments, which are extensive architectural 
compositions, consisting of two or more orders of columns, 
with pediments, niches, statues, panels, and various other 
architectural decorations. Of such * macchine colossali,* 
as Cicognara terms them, the monument of the doge 
Valier by Tirali and that of the doge Pesaro by Longhena 
may be auoted as instances. In both of them the figures 
are merely accompaniments to the architecture, and that 
which should be the principal one is almost the most 
insignificant among them. In the Catafalc tomb, even 
when equally extravagant in point of accumulated em- 
bellishment, there is at least a certain degree of character 
that stamps it at first sight for what it is, whereas in those 
of thekindjustreferred to there is nothing to indicate a 
sepulchral monument. This last remark applies very 
forcibly to those two celebrated works of Michael Angelo, 
the tombs of Giuliano and Lorenzo de' Medici, each of 
which has, besides the figures of those personages, two 
naked semi-recumbent figures, a male and female, in- 
tended or supposed to be intended to express day and 
night (or sleep), and morning and evening. To say no- 
thing of the obscurity and unmeaningness of such allegory, 
the statues themselves are very ill calculated to awaken 
religious sentiment. Thev are masterly academical pro- 
ductions, the triumph ot the artist, the admiration of 
connoisseurs ; but nothing more. Infinitely superior both 
in feeling and in taste are many other Italian tombs of 
about the same period, which consist of Jittle more than a 
simple depositor or sarcophagus, with either a recumbent 
or semi-recumbent figure of the deceased upon it ; such 
for instance as those of Giov. Andr. Boccaccio in the 
doistep of Santa Maria della Pace, and of Angelo Marzi { 



in the church of the Annunziata at Florence. Al- 
though they have abandoned the architectural caricatura 
formerly in vogue for such purposes, instead of returning 
to the simple and natural expression of Christian monu- 
mental works, later sculptors have frequently given us 
allegorical compositions and groups of mythological 
figures, and the likeness of persons intended to be recorded 
is shown only in a medallion. In this vicious taste are 
many of the monuments in St. PauPs and Westminster 
Abbey, while others are chiefly remarkable for the fan- 
tastic conceits into which the artists have fallen, and 
which render them equally unbefitting the purpose they 
are designed for and tne place where they are erected. 

TOMBis, VAULTS, TOMBSTONES, TABLETS. In 
previous articles [Coffin ; Interment] the various modes 
of disposing of the dead have been discussed ; it is our 
intention here to show what rights the subjects of this 
country have, 1st, to burial, and 2ndly, to a permanent 
commemoration of themselves by means of monuments. 
It must be borne in mind that we treat here only of parish 
churches and churchyards, or of the paiish burying-^rounds 
subsidiaiy to the churchyard. The cemeteries which the 
necessities of an increasing population have caused to be 
established in the neighbourhood of many of our most 
densely inhabited towns are private property, regulated at 
the pleasure of the proprietors. 

Bv the 68th Canon of 1603 it is ordered that no minister 
shall refuse or delay, under pain of suspension by the bishop 
for t}u*ee months, to bury any corpse tnat is brought to the 
church or churchyard (convenient warning being given him 
thereof before), in such form as is prescnbed by the Book 
of Common Prayer, unless the deceased were excommuni- 
cated majoriexcommunication€,W[id no man able to testify 
of his repentance. The Kubrick further excludes irom 
Christian burial those who have not been baptized or who 
have died by their own hands ; and this latter class are 
defined to be such as have voluntarily killed themselves, 
bein^ of sound mind, of which fact a coroner's jurv are 
considered by ecclesiastical authorities to be the fitting 
judges. Thus the ecclesiastical law not only gives to the 
clergyman the right, but imposes on him the duty to bury, 
with only three exceptions, all who shall be brought within 
the precincts of his church. Nevertheless the ecclesias- 
tical courts have admonished a minister and church- 
wardens to abstain from burying strangers in the church- 
yard, when the practice of doing so threatened to interfere 
with the rights of the parishioners ; for the common law 
gives to the people the right of being buried within the 
churchyard of their own parishes : * Ubi decimas per- 
solvebat vivus, sepeliatur mortuus ;' and although tlie free- 
hold of the churchyard, as of the church, is in the parson, 
he holds it only for the benefit of his paiishioners, and 
subject to their right of interment in it. 

This right of sepulture however applies only to the body : 
the Canon and the Kubrick alike talk as though studiously 
of the * corpse' alone, never mentioning the coffin. In 
former times the use of coffins was confined to the richer 
classes, and these were ollen of stone or of other durable 
materials [CoffinJ ; but the practice and no doubt the 
intention was that in the great majority of cases the process 
of decay, and therefore the occupation of the earth, should 
not be needlessly protracted. To use the words of Lord 
Stowell, * A common cemetery [by which he means a 
churchyard or parish burying-ground] is not res unius 
cetatisy the property of one generation now departed, but 
is likewise the common property of the living and of 
generations yet unborn, and is subject only to temporary 
occupations.' On this doctrine are based the main points 
of the law concerning burials. 

The establishment of churchyards is attributed to Cuth- 
bert, archbishop of Canterbury, who in the year 750 intro- 
duced into this country the custom, then existing at Home, 
of devoting an enclosed space round the sacred edifice to 
the interment of those who had been entitled to attend or 
had been in the habit of attending worship within its walls. 
Theretofore, notwithstanding a canon which forbade it {De 
non sepeliendo in Ecclesiis), the clergy interred persons of 
peculiar sanctity or importance wiflun the walls of the 
church, especially in the side aisles of the nave, so as to 
remind the faithful of their example and of the duty of 
praying for their souls : and hence the rule that a body 
cannot now be buried in the church without the consent 
of tlie incumbent, as he is supposed to be alone able^ to 



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TOM 37 

Judge whether the deceased possessed the qualities which 
give him a title to that distinction. The churchyard was 
antientJy held among the res sacra, and no fees were 
taken for the use of it : nevertheless the payment of fees to 
the cleigyman dates, in this country at least, from the 
Reformation, and the non-payment of those fees is held 
bv the ecclesiastical courts a sufficient ground for the 
clergyman to withhold his offices, or at alfevents to pre- 
vent the erection of an^ monument or tablet for which he 
had previously given his consent ; that consent being sup- 
posed to imply the payment of the usuaj or a stipulated 
lee. The fee is regarded by ecclesiastical writers not as a 
pnce paid for the burial, but as an offering to the minister ; 
and the claim to it is founded on custom. The church- 
wardens are also entitled to a fee for burials in the church, 
since on them falls the expense of repairing the pavement. 
It is even maintained that an incumbent is entitled to a 
fee upon the burial of his jwirishioner whohaa died in his 
parish and is removed for interment elsewhere. Sir H. 
Spelman preserves a vestry constitution of 1627 containing 
a table of fees for burial in the chancel, the nave, and the 
churchyard ; the interments in the church)^ being differ- 
ently chaiged as they were 'coffined' or *uncoffined.' 
These fees are not imposed at the discretion of the parson 
or of the parish ; they are matter of ecclesiastical juris- 
dicUon, and if they deviate from the amounts established 
by custom, must be approved by the ordinary after con- 
sulting the minister and the parishioners. In London and 
its neighbourhood, and in some other populous towns, 
the churchyard or parish buryinv-ground has been usually 
purchased or enlaiged, or at all events is maintained at 
great cost by the parishioners ; and although (as we have 
said) the freehold is in the parson, yet, by acquiescence 
confirmed bv usage, parishes have acquired a concurrent 
right over the churchyard, and participate in the burial 
fees ; which are greater according as the ground is more 
widely or more permanently occupied. Thus for a brick 
grave a greater fee is paid than for an ordinary grave ; 
and Lord Stowell in 1821 approved a table of fees for the 
parish of St. Andrews, Holbom, whereby for the interment 
of an iron coffin 10/. is charged beyond the usual fee of 
1/. \Qs.: he mentions also in his judgment without 
positive disapprobation that 25/. extra u charged for 
burials in iron coffins by the parish of St. DunstanVin- 
the-West. (2 Haggard's Consistory Reports, 364.) 

A vault cannot properly be made either in the church 
or churchyard, without the consent of the ordinary signified 
by a faculty, that is, a licence or permission, for that pur- 
pose ; and this he does not grant until he has given the 
parson and parishioners an opportunity to express their 
opinions. A vault may be attached by prescnption to a 
mansion ; or ag[ain, the proprietors of a mansion may have 
a prescriptive right to be interred and to erect a tablet or 
tombstone in the aisle or chapel appurtenant to that man- 
sion. But it would seem that the right adheres to the 
mansion, not to the family ; who if they cease to be pa- 
rishioners reUnquish their right to the vault, the use of 
which may be granted to others. The heir however in this 
and in all cases may maintain an action of trespass at the 
common law against any one, even the parson or ordinary, 
who disturbs the remains, or removes or defaces the monu- 
ment of his ancestor, or the hatchment, pennon, or coat 
armour suspended over his grave. In some parishes the 
parishioners have a prescriptive right to place a stone over 
a grave in the churchyard upon payment of a certain fee 
established by custom ; but nothing of height can property 
be erected without the consent of the ordinary ; nor can a 
tomb or tombstone be repaired without the leave of the 
churchwardens ; although the granting of that leave is a 
mere formality incumbent on those officers. 

The placing of a monument in the church or a tablet on 
its walls is also within the jurisdiction of the ordinary ; 
for the fixing of it in the chancel the consent of the rector 
is required, yet a lay rector has not a right to erect a 
monument or construct a vault there without a faculty 
from the ordinary. To remove without the ordinary's 
corisent a monument or tablet once erected is an offence 
which subjects to prosecution before the ecclesiastical 
courts the pai-ty committing it, even though he should 
have himself erected the monument, and should have the 
consent of the incumbent for its removal. 

As the erection of a tombstone, so the inscription upon 
it is a matter of ecclesiastical discipline, and an epitapn is 



TOM 



unquestionably unlawful which is contrary to the canons 
or constitutions of the church in force at the time when 
the inscription is made. Tlius when in a recent case 
the inscription * Pray for the soul of A. B.' was objected 
to in the Ecclesiastical Court as recognising the doctrine 
of purgatory, the judge (whilst he deemed that prayers 
for the dead are not contrary to the canons, and therefore 
that the epitaph was not unlawful) distinctly affirmed the 
doctrine, that any new epitaph opposed to the doctrines of 
the Church of England might be removed, and the inscrip- 
tion of such an epitaph would subject the party who in- 
scribed it to ecclesiastical censure. 

(Haggard^s Consistory Reports, i. 14, 205; ii. 333; 
Curteis's Ecclesiastical Reports, i. 880 ; Bum's Ecclesiasti- 
cal Law, article * Burial ;' and Rogers's ditto.) 

TOMLINE, GEORGE, eldest son of George and Susan 
Pretyman, was born on the 9th of October, 1750, at Bury 
St. Edmund's, Suffolk, and was educated at the grammar- 
school in tliat town, which was the place of education at 
that time of most of the gentlemen s families in Suffolk. 
At the age of eighteen he was sent to Pembroke Hall, 
Cambridge. He took his degree of A.B. in January, 1772, 
and obtained the high honour of senior wrangler, and at 
the same time the first of Dr. Smith's mathematical prizes. 
In the year 1773 he was elected Fellow of his college, 
and was immediately appointed tutor to Mr. Pitt. He 
was ordained deacon by Dr. Younge, bishop of Norwich, 
and priest by Dr. Hinchliffe, bishop of Peterborough. In 
1775 he proceeded M.A., and in 1781 discharged the im- 
portant office of moderator in the university. He resided in 
college till 1782, when he left it for the purpose of acting 
as private secretary to Mr. Pitt, on his appointment to the 
chancellorship of the exchequer. When Mr. Pitt was made 
first lord of the treasury, Tomline became his secretary, 
and he continued with him till he became bishop of Lin- 
coln and dean of St. Paul'^. Dr. Pretyman 's fli-st prefer- 
ment was a sinecure rectory of Corwen in Merionethshire, 
to which he was collated m 1782 ; and in 1784 he was 
appointed to a prebendal stall in Westminster, the first 
preferment of which Mr. Pitt had the disposal. In 1785 
ne waa presented by the king to the rectory of Sud- 
bourn-cum-Offord, in his native county of Suffolk. In 
January, 1787, he was advanced to the bishopric of Lin- 
coln and the deanery of St. Paul's, which were vacated by 
the promotion of Dr. Thurlow to the see of Durham, the 
first bishopric which became. vacant after Mr. Pitt was 
minister. In 1813 he refused the see of London, and con- 
tinued bishop of Lincoln 32.^ years, in which time he per- 
formed the visitation of that most extensive diocese in the 
kingdom eleven times, at the regular intenal of three 
years, which was never done by any of his predecessors. 
In July, 1820, he was translatecf to the see of Winchester, 
in which he continued till September, 1827, the time of 
his death. His publications, besides single sermons, are 
'The Elements of Christian Theology,* in two volumes, 
now a standard work ; * A Refutation of Calvinism,' in one 
volume ; and * Memoirs of Mr. Pitt,' in three volumes, 8vo. 
Bishop Pretyman in 1803 assumed the name of Tomline, 
Marmaduke Tomline, Esq., having, without any relation- 
ship or connection, left him the valuable estate of Riby 
Grove in Lincolnshire. 

TOMMA'SI, GIUSEPPE MARFA, bom of a noble 
family at Alicata in Sicily, in 1649, entered the congrega- 
tion of the Teatini at Palermo, in 1664. He was sent to 
finish his studies at Rome, where he became accjuainted with 
Cardinal Francesco Barberini, who, perceiving in him a 
particular disposition for the study of ecclesiasticai history 
and antiquities, encouraged him in this pursuit, and 
obtained for him access to the archives of the Vatican and 
other repositories of church history. In 1680 Tommasi 
published the collection ' Codices Sacramentorum nongen- 
tis Annis Vetustiores,' which he illustrated with introduc- 
tory notices. In 1683 he published an edition of the 

* PsaJterium,' and in 1686 a collection of ' Antiphonaries ' 
and * Responsoriales' of the Roman church, illustrated with 
learned comments and valuable documents. He afterwards 
edited the antient mass-books, a Latin version of the Greek 
ritual for Good-Friday, a new edition of the * Psalterium,* 
a collection of minor works of the fathers in three volumes, 
to serve as an introduction to theological studies, and 
another book also to assist the students of divinity, entitled 

* Indiculus Institutionum Theologicarum.' Tonamasi and 
hi» contemporary Cardinal Bona of Mondovi. autlior of 



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• Reram Liturgicarum Libri duo,' and • Da Divina Paahao- 
dia,' are among the principal illustratora and expounders 
of the liturgy and ceremonies of the church. 

In 1712 Tommasi was made a cardinal, a dignity which he 
at first declined, until the pope expressly commanded him 
to accept it. He died in the beginning of the following year. 

CHraboschi, Storia delta Letteratura Italiana, vol. viii., 
part i., b. 2.) 

TOMSK. rSlBKRIA.] 

TON or TtJN. In modem English s^lUng the ton is a 
weight (twenty hundredweight, or 2240 pounds averdu- 
pois) and the tun is a measure of wine (two pipes, or 252 
gallons). Accordingly, some hare supposed that the mea- 
sure was derived from the weight, and in fact a tun of 
water weighs about a ton. But a very little consideration 
of the manner in which tonna and tunna were used is 
enough to convince any one that the weight was derived 
from the measure. These words are not classical, but they 
occur frequently in middle Latin (see Ducange, in verb.), 
and dways as signifying a large cask. The hollow empty 
sound made by striking a large cask may have given rise to 
the name : we have ofren heard them say ton as plain as a 
cask could speak. The diminutive is tonnella, which was 
often used, but not mufeh in England : the Commissioners 
of Weights and Measures found it only in Cardiganshire, 
standing for sixteen bushels of lime. The modem use of 
the woiS tunnel is now familiar enough. The old taxes of 
tonnage and poundage are enough to create a suspicion 
that the ton was originally a measure. This phrase would 
be tautology if tonnage meant a tax upon weight : we 
must understand tonnage and poundage to be a tax on 
measure and a tax on weight.* 

There are many local tons of weight which have sprang 
up in modem times. 

TONBRIDGE. [Ksnt.] 

TONE. The technical use of this word may be seen in 
ScALS, Tbtrachord, &c., in which it signifies a musical 
interval. In common language it refers to the quality of 
a musical sound, as when we speak of a fine-toned instra- 
ment. 

TONGA ISLANDS. [Friendly Isla!^ds, vol. x., 
p. 476.] 

TONGUE. The human tongue has a very complex 
structure, in correspondence with the variety of its offices 
as an organ both of sensation and of voluntary motion. 
The sensations which are perceived by means of the tongue 
are of two kinds, namely, that of taste and that of touch or 
tact ; its motions are chiefly subservient to speech and to 
the prehension and swallowing of food. The sensitire 
apparatus of the tongue is contained in the membrane 
wnich covers it : its motor apparatus forms its interior. 

The form ana other external characters of the tongue 
may be easily observed by the aid of a mirror. Its surface 
Ls covered by a membrane continuous at the sides and 
lower part with that which lines the mouth and cheeks, 
and covered by a fine cuticle which is constantly kept 
moist by the saliva and by the secretion from the tongue 
itself. The membrane on the inferior surface of the tongue 
is thin, smooth, and transparent; at the middle Hne it, 
forms a vertical fold which extends nearly to the tip of* 
the tongue, and is named the frsenum linguae. The mem- 
brane on the sides and upper part of the tongue is thicker 
and more vascular, and bears the parpillse, the most sensi- 
tive parts, which are thickly set over its whole surface. 

The papillae of the tongue are of three different kinds : 
— 1, The papillae vallatae, or magn«, are usually seven or 
nine in numoer, but sometimes are as many as twenty or 
as feW as three. They are situated at the back part of the 
tongue, in two rows forming an angle, like the letter V, 
with its apex directed backwards. Each of them has the 
form of a tmncated cone, and consists of a number of fine 
cylindrical proces^s closely held together. They are set 
in rather deep depressions of the membrane, so that they 
seem to be surrounded by fossae which are bounded by 
elevated rings. 2, The fungiform or lenticular papillae 
are smaller, but much more numerous than the preceding, 
and are scattered at irregular distances firom each other 
over the v/hole of the upper surface and sides of the 
tongue. They vary in form, some being hemispherical, 
some nearly cylindrical, and some having narrow stems 
which support larger summits, so as to have somewhat the 
shape of mushrooms. These also, like the preceding kind, 
are composed of numerous delicate filaments closely united. 



3, The conical and filiform papilln cover all the remain- 
ing parts of the upper surface and sides of the tongue. 
They are so thickly set that at fitst Sight the tongue seems 
nearly smooth. They form little elevations on the mem- 
brane vrith sharp jpoints which are directed backwards, so 
that the tongue feels smooth when the finger is passed 
over it from before backwatds, but rough when it is passed 
in the opposite direction. 

All these papillae are very vaicularj and receive fila- 
ments of the sensitive nerves of the tongue. Their stmc- 
ture is similar to that of the sensitive papiDse of the skin 
[Skin], except that the cuticle ctfvenng them is much 
thinner ; and their chief office is also simflar, but it is pro- 
bable that each kind of papillae is subservient to a different 
kind of sensation. The conical patpillse moreover ire not 
merely sensitive organs : by the roughness which they 
give to the tongue, they make it a more secure instrament 
of prehension ; and by their being directed backwards, they 
fit it for the conveyance of food and drink towards the 
throat. In the cat tribe and many other animals, similar, 
but much larger and stronger, papillae serve both for the 
lapping up of liquids and for the raising or scraping up of 
the smaller particles of food. The lion, tiger, and many 
other camivora use them like rasps for tearing off the last 
fibres that adhere to bones; and they are employed by 
numerous mammalia as combs for the cleaning of their 
skins and hair. They are the better adapted for all these 
purposes by being covered by a much harder cuticle than 
that which invests the papillw of the human tongue. 

The interio»> of the tongue is composed entirely of 
muscles, and of the fat and cellular tissue which lie between 
their fibres. These muscles are named, after the parts to 
which they arc attadied, the hyo-glossi, stylo-glossi, genio- 
hyo-glossi, and Imguales. Tlie hyo-glosa are the two 
muscles which form the outer and lower parts of the tongue. 
They arise from the sides of the hyoid bone [Larynx ; 
Skslxton], whence they proceed upwards and outwards 
to the sides and root of the tongue. In the latter mtuation 
their fibres mix with those of the stylo-glossi muscles, 
which arise from the styloid processes of the temporal bones, 
and pass forwards, expanding towards the rides and apex 
of the ton^e. Both the stylo-glossi and the hyo-glossi 
muscles, when they contract, draw the tongue backwards 
and dohRrnwards ; the former, acting alone, make the upper 
surface of the tongue concave ; the latter make it convex ; 
those of one side, acting alone, draw the tongue to the side 
of the mouth. The genio-hyo-glossi are two tnuscles 
whose fibres arise from processes on the posterior surface 
of the lower jaw, and thence proceed, expanding in a fan- 
sh^e, nearly straight backwards and upwards, to the 
under part and root of the tongue. The greater part of 
the fibres of each muscle enter the tongue ; but a small 
portion of them pass somewhat downwards, and are fixed 
to the hyoid bone. Their office is to draw the tongue for- 
wai^ (as in putting it out of the mouth), or, when the 
hyoid bone is fixed, to draw the tip of the tongue back- 
wards and downwards. The linguales are two slips of 
muscular fibres lyings near the dorsum of the tongue, be- 
tween the hyo-glos8i and genio-hyo-glossi, and mnning 
straight fi^m beforfe backwards, llieir office is to Shorten 
the tongue and draw it backwards. 

But besides these muscles, and variously intermingled 
With their fibres, the tongue contains numerous other irre- 
gular fasciculi, of which no description can be given. It 
18 also variously influenced by the muscles which move 
the soft palate and its arches and the hyoid bone. From 
the variously combined actions of them all, the tongue is 
made capable of more rapid, more varied, and (for its siz6) 
more extensive motions than any other organ in the body ; 
but it is unnecessary to describe them, since each person 
may observe them in himself. 

At the posterior part, or root, of the tongue, numerous 
small glands are imoedded in its substance. Thev have a 
structure similar to that of the labial, palatine, and others of 
the smaller salivary glands, and probably secrete a similar 
fluid, which serves to lubricate the passage for the food 
ftt)m the mouth to the fauces. 

For its movements and its double sensibility the tongue 
is supplied with three different pairs of nerves :— 1, The 
hypoglossal, or lingual, or ninth pair of nerves [Brain], are 
distributed almost exclusively in the muscles of the tongue : 
they are its motor nerves; and when they are paralysed, 
eompressed, or divided, the tongue is rendered immoveable^ 



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but its seosatiDM are unimpaired. 2, The Ungual (or, as 
thev are sometimes ealled, the gustatory) branches of the 
fifth pair of nerves are those on which the sensibiUty of 
the tongue to all common impressions of touch, heat, cold, 
&c. depends. They are distributed most abundantly in 
the papillae at and neai the tip of the tongue, and they 
endow it with a sensibility more acute than that pos9eBsed 
by any part of the skin. Professor £. H. Weber has 
proved this bv an experiment rNBUVB], showing that 
with the tip of the tongue two bodies may be perceived to 
be separate, though they be placed so close to each other 
that tney are felt as only one body by the finger ; and the 
same fact may be observed in. the acuteness with which a 
minute body, suoh as a portion of hair, is felt by the 
tongue, though it is quite imperceptible to the finger. 
3, The gustatory, glosso-pharyngial, or eighth pair of 
nerves, of which a considerable part is distributed in the 
tongue, are probably those on wnich the peculiar sense of 
taste depends. There are indeed some facts which it is 
difficult to explain, except by supposing that the lingual 
branch of the fifth is also a nerve of taste ; but on the 
whole it is more probable that the functions of the two 
nerves are distinct, and that the fifth is in the tongue, as 
it is in eveiy other part in which it is distributed, a nerve 
of common sensation, and the glosso-pharyngeal the nerve 
of taste. The numerous facts on which the Question has 
been discussed may be found in Miiller's ' Physiology,' 
in Carpenter's ♦ Physiology,' and in Valentin's essay * De 
Functionibus Nervorum.' The best experiments are those 
by Panizza and Valentin, both of whom favour the opinion 
wtiich is here expressed, and which is besides corroborated 
by a majority of the oases in which the tongue has been 
partially paralysed, and by the fact that the sense of taste 
IS acute at the back of the tongue and the soft palate, in 
which the glosso-phaiyn^eal alone is distributed. 

Much of the uncertainty of this auestion has arisen 
ftom the difficulty of determining wnen a substance is 
merely tasted and when it is felt. In ordinary eating we 
confound the impressions derived at once ftom smell, taste, 
and touch. We speak of the taste of cinnamon-bark and 
similar aromatic substances as if it was a simple c|ualitv ; 
whereas if the nostrils be closed while we are eating the 
bark, we perceive none of its flavour or odour, but only its 
hardness and toughness by the sense of touch, and a 
burning sensation, which is also probably the resiilt of an 
impression produced on the nerve of common sensation by 
the essential oil. Many similar examples will present 
themselves to the reader, who, with a little reflection, will 
easily analyse the sensations produced by most of the sub- 
stances that are eaten or drunk. 

The quality by which substances are capable of exciting 
the sensation of taste is altogether unknown, nor has even 
a probable hj^othesis been formed. The best examples 
of merely sapid substances are the various alkaline and 
metallic salts, and the inodorous bitters. By experiments 
with these the sense of taste is found to be subject to 
many of the same rules as the other senses, and to be 
especially analogous to that of smell. [Smxll.] A eertain 
force of application of the stimulus heightens the percep- 
tion of it. Men instinctively press the tongue against the 
roof of the mouth and gmack it, to obtain a clear sense of 
taste, as they insmre quickly in the act of smelling. Con- 
trast of tastes also commonly makes that which is last 
perceived more obvious, as the eye passing firom one 
colour to another, or the nose from one odour to another, 
perceives each in succession the more acutely ; and there 
are subjective sensations of taste, as there are of sight and 
hearing. Such are those produced by the contact of two 
different metals with each other and with the tongue, and 
those which are perceived in various diseases ; but the 
circumstances on which they depend are as yet unknown. 

TONIC. [Analeptics.] 

TONNAGE AND POUNDAGE. [Sotsidy.} 

TONNEINS. [Lot rr Garonne.] 

TONNERRE. [Yonnb.] 

TONNINGEN, a small town in the Dt^nish duchy pf 
Sohleswig, is situated in 54" 20' N, lat. and 8** SCy E. long., 
near tne mouth of the river Eider. Since the completion 
of the canal of Kiel it has become a place of great activity, 
being the harbour at the western extremity of the canal, 
where all vessels stop, as Kiel is for the eastern. It has a 
Metty convenient harbour, with several lyharfs, and is de- 
fended by thi-ee batteries : the depth of the water in the 



I 



harbour is twelve feet, and many vessels from the Baltic are 
laid up there for the winter. From 500 to 600 ships come 
here annually, and the town has 50 ships of its own. The in- 
habitants, about 2500 in number, have a considerable export 
trade in com and other productions of the country. There 
nte in this town a board of quarantine, an extensive pubUo 
xnagazine, and a royal custom-house. The blockade of the 
Elbe by the En^isn, in consequence of the occupation of 
Hanover by the French, gave for a short time extraordinary 
importance to rdnningen, by making it the channel for the 
immense maritime commerce of Hamburg, all goods oon* 
signed to that city being landed at Tonningen, whence they 
were forwarded by land. The hundreds of waggons from 
Tonningen loaded with merchandise which crowded all the 
streets of Hamburg both day and night, gave that city an 
air of bustle and activity which it never had before, so 
that unexperienced persons might have fancied that its 
commerce had all on a sudden been considerably in- 
creased. The effect of this state of things on Tonningen 
may be appreciated from the fact that the import duties 
received at the custom-house, which had previously 
amounted to 20,000 or 25,000 dollars, rose during the 
blockade of the Elbe to 250,000 in a year. 

(Stein, Geographiiches Lexicon; H. E. Lloyd, Ham- 
burg.) 

TONQUIN, or TONKIN. [China, vol. vii., p. 307.1 

TONQUIN BgAN. [Coumarouna.I 

TONSILS. The tonsils are two complex glands, one of 
which lies on each side of the fauces, between the arches- 
of the soft palate. They are of an elonnied oval form, 
and each is comjposed of a number of smaller glands aggre- 
gated together in one mass, and usually opening by several 
orifices on the surface of the mucous membrane. They 
form a oontinuous layer with a great number of similar 
glands, which are contained m the substance of the palate, 
in the root of the tongue, and in the space between the 
tongue and the epiglottis ; and with these, the tonsils form 
a complete ring of glandular tissue around the aperture lead- 
ing from the mouth to the pharynx. Tlie nature of the fluid 
secreted by them is not certainly known. It bean a gene- 
ral resemblance to saliva, and probably serves chiefly to 
lubricate the food for its passage from the mouth to the 
ktomach. 

The tonsils are very subject to inflammation. In its 
acute form this disease constitutes the most frequent kind 
of sore-throat. It is often called cynanche ton^laris, and 
may be distinguished from the otner kinds by the tonsils 
being enlarged and forming bright red tumours projecting 
from the sides of the back of the mouth. Its treatment is 
the same as that of the other varieties of acute cynanche. 
[QuiNSY.J Either after acute inflammation, or independ- 
ently of it, the tonsils are also very subject to a chronic 
enlargement, which gives rise to a permanent difficulty of 
swallowing, with a peculiar nasal tone of voice, and often 
considerable dyspnoea. With the last symptom there is 
often combined a peculiar loud snoring during sleep ; and, 
in children, it produces a deformity of the chest by the 
elevation and increased convexity of the sternum, which 
are the oonsequenee of the habitually increased efforts of 
inspiration. This disease is very fVequent in scrofulous 
persons, especially during childhood, and may sometimes 
be cured by attention to the general health, and by the use 
of powerful astringent or acid gargles ; but, hi general, the 
({uicke^t and best remedy is to cut off the prominent por- 
tions of the tonsils, an operation which is scarcely painful, 
and may l)e perfbrmed either with a blunt-pointed knife, 
or with an instrument lately invented, called a guillotine. 
With the latter the enlarged tonsil is first passed through 
a ring, then fixed by a needle which is run through its 
centre, and lastly is cut off by the stroke of a sharp blade 
driven through its base. The operation seldom neeos to l>e 
repeated; the wounded surf^e quickly heals, and the 
toiisil ceases to grow. In very acute oases of inflammation 
of the tonsils abscesses are fk'cquently formed within them. 
They should be opened early, and the after-treatment may 
be similar to that for other sore-throats. The tonsils also 
usually partake of the inflammations and other diseases, 
such as cancer, syphilis, the local affection in scarlet fever, 
&<3., which attack the adtacent parts. 

TONSILS, DISEASES OF THE. [Quinsy.] 

TONSTALL, or TUNSTALL, CUTHHERT, was born 
at Hatchford, in Yorkshire, in 1474 or 1475. It has been ' 
commonly stated that he was a natural son of a gentleman . 



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of antient family, who, according to one account, was Sir 
Richard Tonstall. His mother is said to have been a lady 
of the Conyers family. It has been doubted however 
whether there be any foundation for this story. About 
1491 he was sent to the university of Oxford, where, ac- 
cording to some authorities, he was entered a student of 
Baliol College ; but the plague soon drove him to Cam- 
bridge, where he is known to have eventually become a 
fellow of King*s Hall (now incorporated with Trinity Col- 
lege). After this he went abroad and studied at Padua, 
and having there taken the degree of doctor of laws, re- 
turned to England with the highest reputation for classical, 
legal, and scientifi c, as well as for theological learning. His 
first patron was Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury, who, 
in 1511, made him his vicar-general, collated him to the 
rectory of Harrow-on-the-Hill, and also introduced him at 
court. In 1514 he was promoted to a prebend in the 
cathedral of Lincoln ; in 1515 he was admitted archdeacon 
of Chester ; and in May, 1516, he was appointed master of 
the rolls, an office at this date often held by clergymen. 
Towards the close of this same year he was sent to Brussels 
as cluef commissioner to Charles, the young king of Spain 
and the Low Countries (afterwards the emperor Charles v.), 
with whom he concluded two treaties of alliance and com- 
merce ; and here he made the acquaintance of Erasmus, 
who describes him, in one of his letters, as not only the most 
eminent Greek and Latin scholar among his countrymen, 
but also a person of the most comprehensive judgment and 
the nicest taste, and withal of remarkable modesty and the 
most agreeable and cheerful manners, yet without going 
beyond the bounds of a becoming gravity. Erasmus adds 
that, much to his delight, he boarded at the same table 
with Tonstall. In 1517, within ten days after his return 
home, he was sent on a second embassy to Charles. In 
1519 he was collated to a prebend in the cathedral of York ; 
and in 1521 to another in that of Salisbury, of which diocese 
he was also at the same time elected dean. The next year 
he was promoted to the bishopric of London : his conse- 
cration took place on the 9th of October, his enthronization 
on the 22nd. He now resigned his office of master of the 
rolls ; but in May, 1523, he was introduced into the govern- 
ment by being made lord privy seal. After this ne was 
employed in various diplomatic missions : having been sent 
to Spain on an embassy to the emperor in 1525 ; having 
accompanied Cardinal Wolsey in his embassy to France in 
1527 ; and having along with Sir Thomas More represented 
the English king at the negotiation bf the treaty of Cam- 
bray in 1529. At Antwerp, on his return from Cambray, 
Tonstall, as the story is related by the old chronicler Hall, 
purchased from an English merchant named Packington 
all the copies that remained unsold of Tyndal's translation 
of the New Testament, and bringing them home with him, 
made a bonfire of them in Cheapside — ^the effect of which 
was to enable Tyndal to publish next year a second and 
more correct edition with the bishop s money. In 1530 
Tonstall was translated to the bishopric of Durham ; and 
now, or soon after this, be appears to have resigned the 
privy seal. In the religious changes that now began to be 
enforced by the royal authority, his mild and compliant 
temper carried him nearly as far as Henry himself went : 
he supported the divorce of Queen Catherine (although it 
has been supposed that he latterly somewhat changed his 
opinion on that question) ; he preached and wrote in favour 
of the king's assumption of ecclesiastical supremacy ; and, 
along with Heath, bishop of Rochester, he revised the 
English translation of the Bible which was published by 
authority in 1541. But, from habit, conscientious belief, 
or love of quiet, he appears to have retained to the last an 
attachment to most of the doctrinal theology of the antient 
church. Yet. like the generality of the other bishops, he 
acquiesced in the additional innovations of all kinds that 
were made in religion on the accession of Edward VI., in 
1547 ; and accordingly' he not only preserved his seat in 
the privy council, but was dso maae a member of the 
king's council in the north. In May, 1551, however, 
he was accused before the council of being privy to the 
design of an insurrection in the north; upon which 
he was in the first instance commanded to keep his 
house ; and afterwards, on a letter in his handwriting, 
deemed to be confirmatory of the charge, being found 
among the papers of the Duke of Somerset, which were 
seized in December of that year, he was committed to the 
Tower, and a bill waa brought into the House of Lords to 



deprive him of his bishopric. But, although the bill was 
passed by that house, all the influence of the new head of 
the government, the Duke of Northumberland, proved 
insufficient to satisfy the objections of the Commons, and 
they refused to proceed with it. The precise nature of 
the charge is not known ; and it seems highly impro- 
bable, from Tonstall's character, that he should have 
involved himself in any insurrectionary or other trea- 
sonable scheme. In the Lords the bill was strongly 
opposed by Cranmer, who ' spoke so freely against it,* 
says Burnet, ' that the Duke of Northumberland and 
he were never after that in friendship togjether.' The 
duke however was not to be cheated of his prey: the 
parliament was dissolved in April, 1552 ; but on the 2lst 
of September thereafter a commission was issued to the 
chief justice of l^e King^s Bench and seven others, em- 
powering them to call Tonstall before them, to examine him 
touching all manner of conspiracies, &c., and, if they found 
him guilty, to deprive him of his bishopric ; and by this 
tribunal he was in fact deprived on the 14th of October. 

He remained a prisoner in the Tower for the remainder 
of King Edward's reign ; and the bishopric of Durham 
having been dissolved by act of parliament, in April, 1553, 
Northumberland obtained a grant of the greater part of its 
jurisdiction and revenues, with the title and aignity of 
Count Palatine. In a few months however the accession 
of Mary again changed everything ; and Tonstall, released 
from prison, was reinstated in his bidiopric, which the 
queen erected anew by letters-patent. His own sufferings 
had not given Tonstall any taste for persecution ; and he 
principally distinguished himself throughout this reign by 
the moderation of his conduct and the aversion he showed 
to the violent courses urged by the court and followed with 
little reluctance by most of his right reverend brethren. 
No burnings of heretics took plfloe in his diocese ; and, 
suspected on this account to be naif a Protestant at heart, 
he lived under a cloud in so far as redded the favour of 
the court. Nevertheless when Elizabeth came to the 
throne he refused to take the oath of supremacy ; and he 
was deprived on that account, in July, 1559. Being com- 
mitted to the charge of his friend Parker; already nomi- 
nated, though not admitted, archbishop of Canterbury, and 
in possession of Lambeth, Tonstall Mived there,' says 
Lloyd (in his * State Worthies '), ' in sweet chambers, warm 
bed!s, by warm fires, with plentiful and wholesome diet, 
at the archbishop s own table ; differing nothing from his 
foimer grandeur, save that that was at his own charges, and 
this at another's ; and that he had not his former suite of 
superfluous servantfi — that long train, that doth not warm, 
but weary the wearer thereof.' Tonstall only ei\joyed 
Parker's hospitality for a few months : he died on the 18th 
of November, 1559. 

The character of Tonstall may be collected from this 
sketch of his history. He will scarcely be allowed the 
credit of principle by the more severe class of mo- 
ralists ; but although not made to be a martyr, he had 
evidently many excellent moral qualities. Intellectually 
he was rated very high in his own day : Erasmus, More, 
Warham, Cranmer, and Parker were all among his ad- 
mirers and attached friends. Besides various scattered 
letters, speeches, and other short compositions, some in 
print, some in manuscript, for a list of which we must refer 
to the 'Biographia Britannica,' Bishop Tonstall is the 
author of the following works, published by himself: — 
1, *ln I^udem Matrimonii, ' &c. (a Latin Oration pro- 
nounced at the betrothment of the Princess Manr and 
Francis, eldest son of the king of France), 4to., Lond., 
1518 ; 2, * De Arte Supputandi Libri Quatuor' (a treatise 
on Arithmetic), 4to., Lond., 1522, and frequently re- 
printed at Paris, Strasburg, and elsewhere on the Con- 
tinent, as well as in England. The writer of * Notices of 
English Mathematical and Astronomical Writers between 
the Norman Conquest and the year 1600,' in the * Com- 
panion to the Almanac for 1837,* says, * In point of sim- 
plicity this work stands alone in its a^e, and is perfectly 
free mm all the extraneous matter which was often intro- 
duced into the scientific works of the day.' 3, A Sermon 
preached on Palm-Sunday, 1538, before King Henry VIII. 
on Philippians, ii. 5-12 (in support of the royal su- 
premacy), 4to., Lond., 1539, and t^ain 1633 : 4, * De Ve- 
ritate Corporis et Sanguinis Domini Nostri Jesu Christi in 
Eucharistia' (in defence of Transubstantiation), 4to., Paris, 
1554 ; 5, ' Compendium et Synopsis,' &c., an abridgment 



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of Aristotle'g Ethics, 8vo., Paris, 1554; 6, * Contra Impios 
Blasphematores,' &c., a defence of Predestination, 4to., 
Antwerp, 1555 ; 7, • Godly and Devout Prayers in English 
and Latin.' 8vo., 1568. 

TONSURE (from the Latin, iondere, *to clip') is the 
name given to a distinguishing mark of the clergy of the 
Roman Catholic church, formed by cutting off a portion 
of the hair from the head. Mention is made of polled or 
shaven crowns in connection with the clerical character in 
tlie earliest ages of the church ; but it seems to be clear 
that this has nothing to do with the modern tonsure : the 
practice of shaving the head or wearing the hair too short 
IS in fact condemned in priests by Jerome and others of the 
Fathers. (Bingham's Orieines Ecclesiasticae^ b. vi., c. iv., 
8. 16.) What IS now called the tonsure was probably in- 
troduced not earlier than the latter part of the fifth cen- 
tury. Various explanations of its mystical meaning have 
been proposed : one theory is, that it is a sign of adoption 
by the church ; another, that it is intended to symbolize the 
clerical subjection and obedience ; another, that it is a me- 
morial of the Saviour's crown of thorns, &c. According to 
the existing and long-established practice, the tonsure is 
Ibrmed by clipping away the hair from a circular space on 
the back of the head. The application of the scissors by 
the bishop to remove the first tuft is the initiatory rite by 
which nersons are received into the dericd oi-der. Of 
course the clerical crown, as it is called, must be preserved 
by repeated trimming when necessary ; and the practice, 
we believe, is to enlarge it as the wearer rises in eccle- 
siastical station and dignity. The present however was 
not the universal form of the tonsure in former times. 
When the missionaries who had come over to Britain from 
Rome encountered in the seventh century the Scottish and 
Irish priests, they were horrified by observing that instead 
of a circular tonsure on the occiput, they were distin- 
guished by a tonsure in the shape of a crescent on the 
forehead. The Roman missionaries asserted that this was 
the sort of tonsure worn by Simon Magus and his disciples. 
The true form of the tonsure and the proper mode of cal- 
culating Easter were the chief subjects of theological con- 
troveray in this island in the latter part of the seventh and 
the beginniM of the eighth centuries. 

TONTINE, a species of life annuity, so called from 
Lorenzo Tonti, a Neapolitan, with whom the scheme ori- 
ginated, and who introduced it into France, where the 
first tontine was opened in 1653. The subscribers were 
divided into ten classes, according to their ages, or were 
allowed to appoint nominees, who were so divided, and a 
proportionate annuity being assigned to each class, those 
who lived longest had the benefit of their survivorship, by 
the whole annuity being divided amongst the diminished 
number. The terms of this tontine ma^ be seen in the 
French < Encyclopedic' ('Finance' division, vol. iii., p. 
704). In 1689 a second tontine was opened in France. 
The last survivor was a widow, who, at the period of her 
death, at the age of 96, enjoyed an income of 73,500 livres 
for her original subscription of 300 livres. The last Fi'ench 
tontine was opened in 1759. They had been found very 
onerous, and in 1763 the Council of State determined that 
this sort of financial operation should not be again adopted. 
Tontines have seldom been resorted to in England as a 
measure of finance. The last for which the government 
opened subscriptions was in 1789. The terms may be seen 
in Hamilton's ' Hist. Public Revenue,' p. 210. There 
have been numerous private tontines in this country. 
Hamilton remarks (p. 61) that * Tontines seem adapted to 
the passions of human nature, from the hope every man 
entertains of longevity, and the desire of ease and affluence 
in old age ; and they are beneficial to the public, as afford- 
ing a discharge of the debt, although a distant one, without 
any payment.' Some payments, on account of subscribers 
to English and Irish tontines, remain still a small charge 
upon the public debt. 

TOOKE, JOHN HORNE, was the son of John Home, 
a poulterer in Newport-street, Westminster, where he was 
bom on the ^th of June, 1736. The name of Tooke he 
assumed afterwards for reasons mentioned below. He was 
educated at Westminster and Eton schools, at the former 
of which he remained two, and at the latter five years. 
In 1755 he went to St. John's College, Cambridge, and 
took his degree of B.A. in 1758. After leaving Cam- 
bridge he officiated for a short time as usher in a school at 
Blackheath, and in 1760 took deacon's orders, and obtained 
P. C, No. 1557. 



a curacy in Kent. He entered the church through the 
wishes of his father, but against his own inclinations. He 
had wished himself to study for the bar, and with this view 
had entered his name at the Inner Temple in 1756. In 1760 
he received priest's orders ; and in the course of the same 
year was inducted to the chapelry of New Brentford, which 
his father had purchased for nim. He was however never 
happy in discharging the duties of his profession, and 
gladly embraced the opportunity of leaving New Brent- 
ford lor more than a year upon two different occasions, in 
order to travel on the Continent as tutor to the sons of 
gentlemen in his neighbourhood. What he thought of his 
profession may be seen from a letter of his to Wilkes, 
whose acquaintance he made in Paris in 1765, and to 
whom he thus writes : • You are now entering into corre- 
spondence with a parson, and I am greatly apprehensive 
lest that title should disgust ; but give me leave to assure 
you, I am not ordained a hypocrite. It is true I have suf- 
fered the 'infectious hand of a bishop to be waved over 
me ; whose imposition, like the sop given to Judas, is only 
a signal for the devil to enter. I hope I have escaped the 
contagion ; and, if I have not, if you should at any time 
discover the black spot under the tongue, pray kindly 
assist me to conquer the prejudices of education and pro- 
fession.] 

On his second return from the Continent in 1767, Home 
took an active part in the political contests of the day, 
and it was greatly owing to nis exertions that Wilkes was 
returned as member for the county of Middlesex in 1768- 
Home's opposition to the ministry was unceasing, and 
he soon became one of the most popular men of the day. 
He was the founder of the *• Society for supporting the Bill 
of Rights,' in 1769, in which he was closely associated with 
Wilkes ; but in the following year a quarrel took place 
between them, which led to an angry ^per war, in conse- 
quence of which Home lost much of his popularity. 

In 1771 he took his degree of M.A., which was granted 
to him, notwithstanding the opposition of many of the 
members of the university, and amon^ others of ur. Paley. 
His quarrel with Wilkes drew upon him in the same year 
the attack of Junius, whom he answered with considerable 
success. ' 

His occupations were now so entirely opposed to the 
clerical profession, and his dislike to it had become so 
great, that he resigned bis living in 1773 with the view of 
studying for the bar. That he might not want the means 
of doing so, four of his friends presented him with joint 
bonds to the amount of 400/. a year, which were to con- 
tinue in force till he was called to the bar. While pro- 
secuting his legal studies, he afforded great assistance to 
Mr. William Tooke, an old friend of his, in resisting an 
inclosure bill, which would have greatly deteriorated the 
value of some property which Tooke had purchased at 
Purley, near Godstone in Surrey. In return for his services 
Mr. William Tooke made him his heir ; and it was upon 
this occasion or shortly afterwards that he assumed the 
name of Tooke, by which he is commonly known. 

On the breaking out of the American War, Tooke vehe- 
mently attacked tne conduct of the ministry, and opened 
a subscription for the widows and orphans of the Ameri- 
cans, * murdered,' as he said, ' by the king's troops at Lex- 
ington and Concord.' The ministry prosecuted him for a libel 
in 1777 ; he was found guilty, condemned to pay a fine of 
200/., and to be imprisoned for twelve months. While in 
prison he published his letter to Mr. Dunning, wliich is 
occupied with a critical examination of the case of * The 
King and Lawley,' which had been quoted as a precedent 
a^nst him in his trial : this examina,tion leads him to ex- 
plain the conjunctions and prepositions of the English 
language. This letter formed the basis of a considerable 
part of the first volume of the « Diversions of Puriey.' 

Shortly after his release from prison, he applied in 1779 
to be called to the bar, but he was rejected by the benchers 
on the ground of his being a clergyman. This blighted 
all his prospects in life, and he soon afterwards retired 
from London to a farm in Huntingdonshire. He had how- 
ever previously published, in conjunction with Dr. Price, a 
Samphlet against the American War, entitled * Facts ' ad- 
ressed to the landholders, stockholders. Sec. of Great 
Britain. Tooke did not remain long in Huntingdonshire, 
and on his return to London he took an active part in 
advocating the cause of parliamentary reform, which 
Mr. Pitt then espoused. He published a letter in 

Vol. XXV. — G 



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tavour of it in 1782, addressed to his friend Mr. Dunning, 
then Lord Ashburton. He continued to advocate Mr. 
Pitt's party steadily for some years, and when Mr. Fox 
came into power by the coalition ministry, as it was called, 
he published his celebrated ♦ Two Pairs of Portraits,' 1788, 
in which he contrasts the character and conduct of Lord 
Chatham and Lord Holland, and of Mr. Pitt and Mr. Fox 
respectively. Two years previously to this he published 
the first volume of his * Bvia nnpoivrof* or the ' Diver- 
sions of Purley,' in octavo, the latter of which names was 
given to the work in compliment to the residence of his 
friend Mr. William Tooke. 

In 1790 Tooke became a candidate to represent the city 
of Westminster in parliament ; and though he spent nothing 
upon the contest, he polled nearly 1700 votes. In 1794 he 
was arrested on a charge of high treason, mainly as it 
appears on account of his connection with the * Constitu- 
tional Society.* Nothing however of a treasonable nature 
could be proved against him, and he was accordingly ac- 

nted after a triS which lasted six days, during which he 
nguished himself by his calmness, intrepidity, and 
presence of mind. His domestic affairs having become 
very much embarrassed, his friends came forward to his as- 
sistance and settled on him a pension of 600/. a year. In 
1796 he again offered himself as a candidate for Westmin- 
ster, and polled on this occasion upwards of 2800 votes. 
His desire of obtaining a seat in parliament was at length 
gratifi.ed, though not exactly in a way which best accorded 
with the principles of a person who had been such a 
strenuous advocate of parliamentary reform. He was re- 
turned in 1801 for the borough of Old Sarum by Lord 
Cameiford. He retained his seat till the dissolution of 
parliament in the following year, but was disquahfied 
itom sitting again in consequence of an act of parliament, 
which was passed while he was in the house, enacting that 
in future no one in priest's orders should be a member of 
the House of Commons. 

Mr. Tooke now retired into private life, and passed the 
remainder of his life at Wimbledon, where he had already 
resided for many years. He had published a second edi- 
tion of the * Diversions of Purley ' in 1798, in one volume, 
quarto, and this was now followed by the second volume in 
1805. He died on the 18th of March, 1812, in the 77th 
year of his age. He was never married, but had several 
illegitimate children, to one of whom he left his property. 

Mr. Tooke was a man of great powers and consider- 
able attainments. He was well read in English, French, 
and Italian Hterature, possessed a tolerable knowledge of 
Latin and Greek, and had studied Anglo-Saxon with some 
diligence. In private he was much beloved, and his 
conversational powers are particularly celebrated by all who 
knew him. He is however principally known in the 
pesent day by the * Diversions of Purley,' a work which 
has exercised con^erable influence upon almost all works 
on the English language published since its appearance. It 
is written m the form of a dialogue : the principal speakers 
in the first volume are Mr. Tooke himself, and his friend 
Dr. Beadon, the Master of Jesus College, Cambridge ; Mr. 
William Tooke is occasionally admitted to take pari; in the 
dialogue : in the second volume the only speakers are the 
author and Sir Francis Burdett. The first volume is divided 
into ten chapters : the first treats * Of the Division and 
Distribution of Language ;' the second contains * Some Con- 
siderations of Mr. Locke's Essay on the Human Understand- 
ing ;' the third treats ' Of the Parts of Speech,' in which all 
words necessary for the great purposes of speech are re- 
solved into * words necessary for the communication of our 
thoughts,' and * abbreviations employed for the sake of 
dispatch ; * in respect to the former we are told that in 
English and in all languages there are only two sets of 
words necessary for the communication of our thoughts, 
and that these are nouns and verbs. The fourth chapter 
treats * Of the Noun.' and the fifth * Of the Article and In- 
terjection.' The substance of the three next chapters, *■ On 
the word That,' 'Of Conjunctions,' and * Etymology of 
English Conjunctions,* had been previously given in the 
letter to Mr. Dunning. The tenth chapter speaks * Of Ad- 
verbs.' In the second volume, the first chapter treats • Of 
the Rights of Man ;' the second, third, fourth, and fifth, * Of 
Abstraction ;' and the sixth, seventh, and eighth, * Of Ad- 
jectives and Participles.' It is impossible to read this work 
without deriving information from it. It contains many 
happy explanations and conjectures, but the young student 



cannot be cautioned too strongly against receiving all the 
conclusions of the author. The great fault of the book is the 
love of hypothesis, and the absence to a great extent of 
that historical mode of investigation withwit whidi ety- 
mological studies are worse than useless. A useful edition 
of the work has been published by Richard Taylor, with 
notes, London, 1840. 

(Stevens's Life of Tooke.) 

TOOKE, REV. WILLIAM, F.R.S., was bom on the 
18th of January, 1744, and educated at a private academy 
at Islington, kept by Mr. Shield, where he had for school- 
fellows the indefatigable and amiable antiquarian Mr. John 
Nichols, and Dr. Ed. Gray of the Briti^ Museum, See. 
R. S., with each of whom he kept up a cordial intimacy 
during their lives. He was ordained a clerg3rman of the 
church of England in 1771, by the then bishop oi London, 
and shortly afterwards obtained the situation of minister of 
the English church at Cronstadt, the naval arsenal and 
commercial port of St. Petersburg. In 1774 he was ap- 
pointed chaplain to the factory of the Russia Company at 
St. Petersburg, in which situation he remained for eighteen 
years. He often preached in the chapel of the French Pro- 
testants at St. Petersburg in the French language, of which 
he was a complete master ; and after his return to London 
he preached on several occasions in that language on be- 
half of the French Protestant School and Workhouse in 
London. He returned to England in 1792, in consequence 
of succeeding to a considerable property by the death of a 
maternal uncle, which enabled him to dispense with all 
professional exertion. He died in London, November 17, 
1820, in his seventy-seventh year, much esteemed by a 
large circle of literary friends. By his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of Thomas Eyton, Esq., of Llangynhavil in Den- 
bighshire, he had a daughter and two sons, who survived 
him._ 

Mr. Tooke was the author of several works, of which the 
most important are those relating to Russia, namely, a 
' Life of Catherine II.,' 3 vols. 8vo. ; * A View of the Rus- 
sian Empire,' 3 vols. ; and * A History of Russia, from the 
Foundation of the Empire to the Accession of Catherine 
II.' Mr. Tooke was also a joint editor with Archdeacon 
Nares and Mr. Beloe, of the ' General Biographical Dic- 
tionary,* in 15 vols. 8vo., 1798 ; his portion of the work 
was the first five volumes. Besides this he published, early 
in life, * Othniel and Achsah,' an Oriental tale from the 
Chaldee, in 2 vols., and long afterwards four volumes 
of miscellaneous essays under the titles of ' Varieties of 
Literature,' and ' Selections from various Foreign Literary 
Journals.' He translated Zollikofer a sermons from the 
German, in 10 vols. 8vo., and Lucian's works, in 2 vols. 
4to., with the notes of Wieland. The Lucian however is 
not a translation from the original Greek, but from Wie- 
land's version ; and where the latter did not give the mean- 
ing of the Greek, recourse was had to the onginsd. 

(Nichols's Literary Anecdotes; and Gentletnan's Maga- 
zine for May, 1816; November, 1820; and December, 
1839.) 

TOON-WOOD is extensively employed in India for 
making furniture and cabinet-work. It is sometimes called 
Indian mahogany, and sometimes Indian cedar. It is of a 
reddish-brown colour and rather coarse-grained. The tree 
has been named Cedrela Toona by botanists, and is sup- 
posed to be the same which yields the so-called, cedar- 
wood of New South Wales, which is also red in colour 
and coarse-grained. These somewhat resemble what is 
called Havannah or Barbadoes cedar, which is the wood of 
another species of the same genus— the Cedrela odorata of 
Linnaeus. This wood is imported in considerable quanti- 
ties from the island of Cuba, and is often used for the in- 
sides of drawers and wardrobes. The cigar-boxes from 
Havannah are said to be made of this kind of cedar. 

The genus Cedrela ha^ been so named fix)ra Cedrua, and 
belong to the natural family of CedrelacesB, which is 
sometimes considered only a tribe of Meliaceae. Many of 
the Cedrelacew are remarkable for the excellence of the 
timber which they yield, as, for instance, the mahogany, 
the satin-wood, and the chikrasee of India. Many of the 
species are remarkable for their bitterness and astringency, 
and hence several are employed as stomachics and febri- 
fuges ; as Khaya Senegalensis, on the banks of the Gambia ; 
Seymida febrifuga, in India; and Cedrela febrifuga in 
Java, as well as C. toona in India. 

TOONGOOSES. [Siberia.] 



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TOORBUT. [Persia.] 

TOORINSK. [Siberia.] 

T00R8HISH. [Persia.] 

TOPAZ occurs massive, in imbedded and rounded crystals. 
Primary form a right rhombic prism. Cleavage easy, 
parallel to the base of the primary form, more difficult in 
the direction of its latei-al faces. Structure lamellar at 
right angles to the axis of the prism. Fracture uneven, 
slightly conchoidal. Hardness : scratches quartz. Elec- 
tricity—positive by friction; those crystals which possess 
di£Perent faces of crystallization at opposite ends, acquire 
different kinds of electricity at the two extremities when 
heated. Colour; white, yellow, bluish, and greenish. 
Lustre vitreous, transparent, translucent. Specific gravity 
3*499. Fragments exposed to heat emit a olue, green, or 
yellowish phosphoric light. By the blow-pipe on charcoal 
does not fuse, out witK borax it melts into a transparent 
glass. Topazes occur generally in primitive rocks, and in 
iuany parts of the wond, as Cornwall, Scotland, Saxony, 
Siberia, Brazil, &c. &c. 

The following analyses have been given of this mineral : 
(1) Saxon topaz by Klaproth, (2) Brazilian topaz by Kla- 

Sroth, (3) Saxon topaz by Berzelius, (4) Brazilian topaz by 
ierzelius : — 

(1) (2) (3) (4) 

Silica . . . a5 44-5 34-24 3401 

Alumina . . rj9 47*5 57*45 58-38 

Fluoric acid . 5 70 7*75 7*79 

Oxide of iron ... 0-5 



99 99-5 99-44 100-18 

TbPLITZ. [Tkplitz.] 

TOPOGRAPHY (from the Greek Toiroy^afj>ia, which is 
from roTTcc, * a place,' and yp40,«v, • describe '). Perhajw 
the nearest corresponding combination of English words 
would be 'place-description.* Tlie word Topography is 
limited by usage to the description of cities, towns, villages, 
castles, churches, and other artificial structures, including 
notices of everything belonging to the places or connected 
with them ; for instance, not only the site, construction of 
the streets, public buildings, &c. of cities and towns, but 
the number of inhabitants, trade, history, and so forth. 
The word occurs in the Greek writers. Cicero {ad Attic. ^ 
i. 13) uses Topothesy {Toiro9i<rid) as synonymous vnih 
topography, though topothesy should nave a diflPerent 
meaning. (See an * Essay on the Study of Geography,* 
by George Long, in the Schoolmaster^ vol. ii.) In the 
Greek * topography ' has a wider meaning than it has with 
us. But a aescription of a given place, with reference to its 
physical character, hardly comes within our notion of a 
topographical description, which is generally, at least, 
limited as above stated. 

TOPSHAM. [DEyoNSHiRE.] 

TORBAY. [DKvoNsniRK.] 

TORCELLO. [Venice.] 

TORDENSKIOlD, Vice-Admiral in the Danish navy. 
His name was Peter Wessel before he was ennobled by 
King Frederick IV. Born on the 28th October, 1691, at 
Trondhieni in Norway, of obscura parents, he was at an 
early age bound apprentice to a barber, but his strong de- 
sire for a seafaring life induced him to leave his master and 
tjo to Copenhagen as cabin-boy. There he entered the 
service of the East India Company as a common sailor, 
and in his third voyage distinguisned himself so much, 
that by the recommendation of his captain he obtained an 
appointment as midshipman in the royal navy. In the 
year 1709, immediately after the battle of Pultawa, Den- 
mark declared war against Sweden, and from that time 
Wessel's brilliant career commenced. From 1709 to 
171 1 he commanded a small privateer, and made many 
prizes. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant in 1712, 
and shortly afterwards had the command of a small frigate, 
in which he cruised against the Swedish traders with such 
effect, that it is said the Gothenburg and Calmar mer- 
chants offered him a hundred thousand crowns if he would 
resign his command. On the 5th of June, 1712, he met a 
Swedish frigate of nearly double the size of his own, under 
English coloiu-s. Tordenskiold hoisted the Dutch flag, 
and by a skilful manoeuvre laid alongside the enemy 
within hailing distance, and the Swedish captain, still be- 
lieving him to be Dutch, hailed him. The answer was a 
destructive broadside. A most obstinate engagement 
ensued, in which Tordenskiold had decidedly the advan- 



tage, when he unfortunately found that his ammunition 
was exhausted. Upon this he hailed the Swedish captain, 
telling him the roughness of the sea alone prevented him 
from boarding the frigate and taking her ; but that if he 
either would lend him some powder or pledge his word to 
await his return within three days off the Drammen, he 
would promise to carry him as a prize to Copetahagen. 
Both proposals were declined, but the Swedish captain ex- 
pressing a lively wish to become personally acquainted 
with his gallant adversary, Tordenskiold went on boaid to 
him, and drank to the king of Sweden*6 health. Upon his 
return to Copenhagen he was tried by a court-martial, but 
honourably acquitted ; and King Frederick, pleased with 
his chivalrous conduct, promoted him to the rank of cap* 
tain. During his stay in Copenhagen he submitted to the 
king personally a plan for attacking the Swedish coast, 
which the Admiralty however, being somewhat alarmed at 
the young man's rapid promotion and increasing favour, 
rejected with p*eat disdain. He left Copenhagen April 
24, 1715, his frigate then being attached to the fleet under 
Admiral Gabel, who despatched him for the purpose of 
reconnoitring the Swedish fleet, commanded by Admiral 
Wachtmeister, on the coast of Norway. Here, by his ex- 
traordinary seamanship, together witn a boldness rarely 
surpassed, he was principally instrumental in destroying 
four, ships of the hue and three frigates, besides a large 
frigate which he captured, and in which, as a due reward 
for his eminent services, he was sent to Copenhagen as 
bearer of the glorious tidings. For this exploit he was 
raised to the rank of commcxlore, and a short time after 
wards he was appointed to the command of a squadron 
destined to cruise in the Baltic for the purpose of inter- 
cepting transports with fresh supplies of troops for Charles 
XII., then in Pomerania. 

On the 7th of August, 1716, off the island of Rugen, he 
came in sight of the Swedish fleet commanded by Wacht- 
meister. Charles XII. himself stood on an eminence on 
the island to see the victory of his flag, as to which there 
could scarcely be a doubt, as the Swedish fleet amounted 
to more than double the number of ships of Torden- 
skiold's squadron. The great conqueror however was to be 
disappointed. Much better acquainted with the bearings 
and tne ground he was on, and much more skilftil in sea*- 
manship, Tordenskiold, contrary to all reasonable expecta- 
tions, soon gained the weather side of the enemy, and then 
kept up his fire with such precision and rapidity, that in 
one hour three of the Swedish ships of the line and two 
frigates had struck, and the loss of the enemy in killed 
and wounded, besides one vice-admiral, amounted to more 
than three times that of the Danes. A gold medal was 
struck in commemoration of this victory, which the king 
permitted him to wear suspended by the blue ribbon of 
the Order of the Elephant, a distinction only twice granted 
before. 

In the battle of Dyneskiln, July 17, 1717, and in that of 
Stroemstaedt, he fought with the same gallantry and 
success. In December, 1717, the king raised him to noble 
rank by the name of Tordenskiold (shield against thunder). 
The immediate cause of this new honour is characteristic, 
and deserves mention. On a very cold day Tordenskiold 
went on shore with a party of officers to dine with the 
king. By a sudden pitch of the boat he lost a golden 
snuff-box, with the king*s portrait set in diamonds, and 
presented to him by his majesty. He immediately ex- 
claimed, * Rather die than lose that which my sovereign 
has given me f* and before his friends could prevent it, he 
threw himself overboard, and dived several times after it, 
till he at last was taken up senseless. 

On the 26th of July, 1717, he took Marstrand, one of 
the most important Swedish fortifications in the Kattegat. 
The peace of Fredriksborg having been signed (July 23, 
1720), Tordenskiold had a great desire to visit foreign 
countries. King Frederick gave his consent very reluctantly. 
At Hamburg, where he was received with princely hon- 
ours, his travelling companion, a wealthy young man 
ftom Copenhagen, lost large sums at play to a Swedish 
colonel, De StsSil ; and after his ready cash was exhausted, 
gave drafts upon his father to the amount of 30,000 
crowns. Tordenskiold, upon being informed of it, declared 
his intention to call the gambler to a strict account ; but 
the colonel having left Hamburg, Tordenskiold went to 
Hanover to be presented to George II. There, the d^ 
after his arma), he met Colonel Stahl at a dinner ytattf 

62 



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with one of the ministers. He immediately expressed 
his indignation and reluctance to dine at the same table 
with him. A violent quarrel ensued, and a hostile meet- 
ing was appointed for the following dajr at a place some 
miles distant from the capital. Tordenskiold went without 
a second, and only armed with a light dress-sword. Co- 
lonel Stahl used a heavy sword, with which he shivered 
his aidversary's 'blade at the first onset, and then ran him 
through the heart : he expired in a few minutes, recom- 
mending his soul to Heaven, and charging his faithful 
valet to take his body to Copenhagen, where it was depo- 
rted in a chapel of the navy church (Holmens Kirke) : 
the king himself attended the funeral. The general im- 

gression at the time was that foul play had been practised 
y instigation from a higher quarter. 

{Peter Tordenskiolds Liv, og Levnet, 3 vols. 4to., Kioben- 
havn, 1747; the same in German, Copenhagen, 1753; 
Peter Suhm's Hut one af Dannemark^ Norge^ &c., 1 vol. 
8vo., Kiobenhavn, 1787 ; Histoire de Dannemarc, par M. 
P. H. Mallet, 9 vols. 8vo., Paris and Geneva, 1788.) 

TORDESI'LLAS, a small town of the province of Val- 
ladolid in Spain, situated on the right bank of the Douro, 
live Spanish leagues south-west of Valladolid, in 41° 28' 
N. lat. and 5® 2' W. long. Tordesillas, which some Spanish 
authors suppose to have been called * Turris SvUana,' or 
* Tunis Syll SB,* under the Romans, is now a wretched town, 
scarcely containing 4000 inhabitants, although in the 
palmy days of Spain, during the reign of Ferdinand and 
Isabella the Catholic, its population is said to have 
amounted to 50,000. The town is commanded by a fine 
castle, where the mother of Charles V., Joanna, took up 
her abode, and died in 1555. Tordesillas is the birthplace 
of the celebrated Alonso Fernandez de Avellanada, the 
continuator of * Don Quixote.' Not far from Tordesillas is 
the town of Villalar, where the ComunerOs under Padilla 
were defeated by the imperial troops in 1522. (Miiiano, 
Diccionario Geoera/lco, viii. 472.) 

TORELLI, LAELIO, was bom at Fano, on the 28th of 
October, 1489. His family was noble, and had settled in 
that town about the beginning of the fourteenth century. 
While yet a mere boy he was entrusted to the care of his 
maternal uncle, Jacopo Costanzi, a professor in the uni- 
versity of Ferrara, under whom he made a respectable 
progress in the Greek and Latin languages. He subse- 
quently studied law in the university of Perugia, and 
obtained the degree of doctor in his twenty-second year. 

From 1511 to 1531 Torelli remained in the civil service 
of the Roman government. Soon after taking his decree 
he was appointed podestil of Fossombrone, and in a short 
time chief-magistrate of his native town. Scanderbeg 
Comnena, who had lost his hereditary states by becoming 
a convert to the Romish faith, received from the pope by 
way of compensation the seignorage of Fano. By his in- 
solent abuse of power he rendered himself odious to his 
new subjects,- and was expelled by a conspiracy, of which 
Laelio Torelli was the chief. Clement VIII. was at first 
much irritated, regarding the rebellion as directed against 
the papal government ; out Laelio, by explaining its real 
object, succeeded in pacifying him, and was soon after 
appointed governor of Benevento. This post he occupied 
for eighteen months, at the end of which, returning to 
Fano, he became involved in the contest between that 
town and the Malatesti family ; and about the year 15^ 
or 1528, found it advisable to seek an asylum in Florence. 

In 1531 he was appointed one of the five auditors of the 
Rota of Florence, and he continued from that time till his 
death in the service of the Medici family. During far the 
greater part of this time he was attached to Cosmo, the 
first grand-duke of Tuscany, who became duke of Florence 
six years after this first appointment of Torelli, and died 
only two years before him (in 1574). From being a mem- 
ber of the Rota, Torelli rose to be podesti of Florence ; 
he was subsequently appointed chancellor by the grand- 
duke, and in 1546 his principal secretary. His official 
duties did not entirely withdraw him firom literary pur- 
suits. He was an active member of the Florentine Aca- 
demy, and in 1557 was elected into its council. His re- 
Sutation as a statesman and man of letters procured him 
le honour of being elected a senator : his name was 
inscribed in the register of the patricians of Florence in 
1576. He died the same year, m the month of March, 
having survived all his children. 

Torelli published, in 1545, three legal tracts, entitled 



< Laelii Taorelli Jurisconsult! Fanensis, ad Grallum et 
Legem Velleam, ad Catonem et Paulum Enarrationes ; ejus- 
dem de Militiis ex casu, ad Ant. Augustinum epistola,* 
dedicated to his son Francesco. They were printed at 
Lyon ; the Antonius Augustinus (bishop of Tarragona), to 
whom the third is addressed, printed it in 15^1 as an 
appendix to his * Emendationes ;' and Zilettus included 
them in his great collection, ' Tractatus Tractatuum ' 
(1633-1642). A Latin eulogium of Duke Alexander de' 
Medici, delivered by Laelio m 1536, and a panegyric of 
Count Ugo, the founder of an abbey at Florence, in Ita- 
lian, are said to have been printed. But the work which 
has preserved the name of Laelio Torelli is his edition of 
the Florentine manuscript of the Pandects. It was printed 
at Florence by Lorenzo Torrentino, printer to the grand- 
duke, in 1553. From the dedication to Cosmo I., which is 
written by Francesco Torelli, we learn that the preparation 
of the transcript and the supervision of the press had occu- 
pied all his own and his father's leisure hours for the ten 
preceding yeare. Francesco claims for his father the 
honour of projecting the edition, and gives Cosmo the 
credit of defraying the expense of the sumptuous pub- 
lication. The orthography and all the little peculiarities 
of the MS. are said to have been strictly adhered to. The 
Greek passages were revised by Peter Victor. The trans- 
lations of these passages are taken from Antonius Au- 
gustus, Haloander, and Hervagius. This edition is a fine 
specimen of typography, and worthy of the important 
monument it was the means of rendering more accessible 
to the public. The pope, the emperor, and the king of 
France gave the printer letters of protection against any 
piracy of the work for ten yeai-s, and Edward VI., the king 
of England, for seven. With regard to the Florentine (or 
Pisan) manuscript, the inquiries of Savi^ny, Blume, and 
others have established tnis to be the oldest copy of the 
entire Pandects of Justinian that exists. Leaving out of 
view the story of its discovery at Amalfi, the assertion of 
Odofredus that it was transmitted to Pisa by Justinian, and 
the statement of Bartolus that it was * always ' at Pisa 
(semper enim fuit totum volumen Pandectarum Pisis et 
adhuc est), establish for this MS. of the Pandects an an- 
tiquity beyond what can be claimed for any other. Borgo 
dal Borgo has produced evidence to the extraordinary care 
taken for its preservation by the government of Pisa ; and 
the government of Florence has watched no less anxiously 
over its safety since it was transferred to that city in 1406, 
after the capture of Pisa by the Florentines under Gino 
Caponi. The Florentine MS. must always remain one of 
the most important authorities for the text of this portion 
of the Corpus Juris, and Torelli appears to have dischai-ged 
the office of editor with a full sense of the importance of 
his task. 

The contemporaries of Laelio Torelli are unanimous in 
their testimony to the integrity and disinterestedness of his 
character. 

(Manni, Vita di Z. Torelli; Savigny, Geschichte des 
Romischen Rechts im Mittelalter ; Laelii Taurelli Juriscon- 
stdti Fanensis, ad Galium et Legem Velleam, ad Catonem 
et Paulum Enarrationes; ejusaem de Militiis ex casu^ 
Lugduni, 1545 ; Digestorum, seu Pandectarum Libri Quin- 
quaginta ex Pandectis Florentinis rejpraesentati : Mo- 
rentiae in officina Laurentii Torrentmi Ducalis Typo- 
graphi, 1553.) 

TORELLI, GIUSEPPE, an Italian mathematician, was 
bom at Verona, in 1721. Having received the rudiments 
of education in that city, he was sent to the university of 
Padua, where he distinguished himself by his assiduity in 
cultivating both literature and science, and where he 
obtained a doctor's degree. Engaging in no profession, he 
prosecuted the study of the antient and modem laneuaffes, 
and at the same time he applied himself particularly to 
the writings of the Greek geometers. He is chiefly dis- 
tinguished by his edition in Greek and Latin of all the 
works of Archimedes, in the preparation of which he was 
engaged during the greater part of his life, and for which 
his talents as a mathematician, as well as the extent of his 
classical attainments, particularly qualified him : he had 
not however the satisfaction of enjoying the fmits of his 
labours, for he died in 1781, almost at the moment of the 
completion of the work. The manuscript was sold after 
his death to the university of Oxford, and, under the 8UT>er- 
intendence of Dr. Abram Robertson, the work was pub- 
lished, in 1792, by the curators of the Clarendon Press. 



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This splendid edition contains the notes of the antient 
commentators, and the observations of TorelU himself on 
the tract ' De Conoidibus et Spheroidibus ;' and to these 
are added the various readings which occur in the manu- 
script copies of Archimedes in Paris and Florence, together 
with a commentary by the Oxford editor on the tract relat- 
ing to floating homes. 

TORENIA, a small genus of plants of the natural family 
of Scrophularinese, found in India, the tropical parts of New 
Holland, and in South America. T. asiatica, a species 
found in almost every part of India, is described by Rheede 
as having the juice of its leaves employed as a cure for 
gonorrhoea on the coast of Malabar. 

TOREUTIC. [Phidias; Sculpturb.] 

TORFAEUS, or TORMO'DUS, his assumed literary 
names after having been introduced to the learned world 
as a Latin author. His real Icelandic name is Thormod 
Tliorveson. Little or nothing is known about his early 
life. He was bom at Engoe, a small island on the southern 
coast of Iceland, of poor parents, who however were in 
sufficiently good circumstances to give him an outfit (for 
the institution, like all public schools in Iceland, was a 
free-school) for the Latin school at Skalholdt, where, ac- 
cording to Iceland custom, he became a good classical 
scholar ; so much so, that upon his arrival in Copenhagen, 
his choice and fluent Latin surprised the professors there. 
In the year 1654 he was entered as a free student at the 
university of Copenhagen, where he remained till the year 
1657. In the year 1659 he was captured and made pri- 
soner by a Swedish privateer on his return from Christian- 
sand in Norway. This circumstance appears to have 
given him some notoriety, for immediately after his re- 
lease and return to Copenhagen, king Frederick III. ap- 
pointed him interpreter of Icelandic manuscripts, and a 
short time afterwards sent him to Iceland for the purpose 
of collecting manuscripts, which, with the assistance of 
his warm fnend and patron, Brynl\julf Swendson, bishop 
of Skalholdt, he accomplished so well, that the collection 
which he brougrht back, and which is still preserved in the 
Royal Library in Copenhagen, is considered the best in 
the world for* antient Scandinavian history and literature. 
The king gave him, shortly after his return, as a reward 
for his zeal, and to enable him to pursue his studies, a 
small appointment at Stawanger in Norway. This office 
however he resigned in the year 1667, upon being appointed 
keeper of the king's collection of antiquities. He made 
soon afterwards another voyage to Iceland, for the purpose 
of taking possession of some little property, to which he 
had succeeded after the death of nis father and of his 
elder brother ; and after his return the same year, he went 
to Amsterdam for some literary purpose. During his 
voyage back he was shipwrecked at Skagen ; and on his 
joiuney by land to Copenhagen, he was insulted and 
attacked in a small town in Setuand by one of his country- 
men, whom, in defending himself, he accidentally killed. 
This circumstance caus^ great excitement. He surren- 
dered himself immediately, was tried, and sentenced to 
death. However, by an appeal to a superior court, and 
an * appellatio ad tronum,' or appeal to the throne, as it is 
termed in Danish jurisprudence, his sentence was com- 
muted into a fine, whicn he paid, and was released ; but 
as it was impossible for the king to retain a man in his 
service with a blemish on his reputation, he was dismissed, 
and lost his salary. He then retired to a small farm in 
Norway, the property of his wife, where he lived without 
any official employment till the year 16S2, when Christian 
v., having succeeded to the Danish throne, recalled him, 
and appointed him royaJ historiographer, and an assessor 
in the consistory, or board of education, with a salary suffi- 
cient to enable him to live independently and to pursue 
his studies. This appointment he kept till his death. He 
commenced his most important work, the * History of Nor- 
way,' and finished it as far as the Union of Calmar, when, 
unfortunately, ill health compelled him to surrender his 
favourite task to his friend Professor Reitzer. He was 
married twice : his first wife died in the year 1695 : he 
married again in 1709; and in the year 1719 he died, very 
far advanced in vears, without issue. His works, printed, 
as well as in MS., are very numerous, and exhibit deep 
knowledge and indefatigable research into antient Scandi- 
navian history. The mSS. he left are preserved at the 
Royal Libraiy in Copenhagen : as to his published works, 
it will be sufficient to mention the most important, which 



are : — ^*HistoriaRerumOrcadensium, libri iii.,'fol.,Hafniae, 
1715 ; * Series Dynastarum et Regum Daniae k Skialdo ad 
Gormum Grandovem,' 4to., Hafniae, 1712 ; ' Historia Rerum 
Norvegicarum ad Annum 1387,' 4 vols, fol., Hafniae, 1711. 
A very accurate account of his later works, together with 
a collection of private letters, which show at least that he 
wrote elegant Latin, is to be found in a work published by 
the celebrated Danish historian Peter Suhm, under the 
title * In Effigiem Thormodi Torfaei, una cum Torfaeanis,' 
&c., 4to., Hafniae, 1777 ; Peter Suhm's * Smaae Skrifter 
Off Afhandlin^er,' Kiobenhavn, 1788 ; Eber's * Bibliogra- 
phisches Lexicon,' Leipzig, 1819 ; ' Allgemeines Histori- 
sches Lexicon,' Leipzig, 1747. 

TORGAU is a strongly fortified town in the govern- 
ment of Merseburg, in the Prussian province of Saxony. 
It is situated in a low country, containing numerous meres 
and ponds, on the left bank of the Elbe, over which there 
is a bridge 860 feet long and 20 feet wide, half of stone and 
uncovered, and half of wood and covered. There are in Tor- 
gau four churches, in one of which is the tomb of Catherine 
Bora, the wife of Luther, and valuable paintings by Lucas 
Cranach ; a gymnasium, and several schools ; a district tri- 
bunal which has ten towns in its jurisdiction, and various 
public offices. The inhabitants, 7000 in number, besides the 
garrison of between 2000 and SCiOO men, had formerly exten- 
sive manufactories of woollens, and breweries ; at present 
they have still some manufactures of woollen cloths, stock- 
ings, linen, leather, and soap, and derive a principal part of 
their subsistence firom shipbuilding, dyeing, and a con- 
siderable trade in com, timber, and lime. The fortifica- 
tions are now very strong, including the fort of Hartenfels 
standing on a rock, wmch was formerly detached, and 
used as a house of correction : in 1809 it was resolved 
to convert the town into a fortress, on which occasion 900 
houses were pulled down. In the year 1760 a decisive 
victory was obtained by Frederick ll. of Prussia over the 
Austnans in the vicinity of Torgau- In November and 
December, 1813, it was besieged by the Prussians, capitu- 
lated on the 26th of December, and was given up by tlie 
French garrison on the 10th of January, 1814. 

It was at Torgau that Luther and his friends signed, in 
1530, the Torj^au Articles, which were the basis of the Augs- 
burg Confession ; and here too the Torgau book, which was 
directed against Crypto-Calvinism, was signed by above'' 
8000 clergymen. 

(Miiller, Lexicon; Btein^ Lexicon ; Hassel; Cannabich.) 

TORI^NO, the Intendenza or Province of, is bounded on 
the north by the province of Ivrea, west by the provinces 
of Susa and Pinerol, south by the provinces of Saiuzzo and 
Alba, and east by those of Asti and Vercelli. The province 
of Turin forms part of Piedmont proper. It extends on 
both banks of tne Po, and along the watercourses of the 
Dora Rtpuaria, the Sangone, the lesser Stura, the Oreo, 
and other streams which come from the Alps and flow into 
the Po. The valley of Lanzo, north-west of Turin, which 
is drained by the lesser Stura, and reaches to the foot of 
the lofty Mount Iseran, which divides it from Savoy, is one 
of the finest and most picturesque districts in Piedmont. It 
supplies Turin with cattle and the produce of the dairy. 
It nas also mines of iron and other minerals. 

The province of Turin contains 136 communes, 169 
parishes, and 343,000 inhabitants. (Serristori, Statistica,) 
The principal towns, besides the capital, are : — 1. Rivoli, 
west of Turin, on the high road to Susa, has 5300 inhabit- 
ants ; manufactories of linen and woollens, and a king's 
palace. The country around is interspersed with counts- 
nouses. 2. Chieri (pronounced Ker in Fiedmontese, Qui ers 
in French), a well-built town of 12,000 inhabitants, situated 
on the hills of Monferrato, six miles east of Turin, has se- 
veral churches and convents with good paintings, and 
some noblemen's palaces, and a very fruitful territory. It 
is one of the chief markets for silk in Piedmont. Chieri 
was a republic of some importance in the middle ages, 
which long maintained its independence, whilst Turin, 
Susa, and other towns of Piedmont acknowledged their 
feudal counts or lords. The French historical families of 
Broglie and Crillon are originally from Chieri, as well as 
the families of Belgiojoso andBalbi, which have remained in 
Italy. (Denina,Qi2idro htorico delP Alia Italia.) 3. Mon- 
calieri, on the right bank of the Po, south of Turin, on the 
high road to Alessandria and Genoa, has a royal palace, 
and 7300 inhabitants. 4. Carignano, a town of 7000 in- 
habitants, in a fertile plain on the left bank of the Po, 11 



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miles south of Turin, on the high road to Nice. 5. Car- 
magnola, on the right bank ol' the Po, ha* 12,000 inhabi- 
tants, and is a great market for silk. 6. Chivasso, a town of 
7000 inhabitants, on the left bank of the Po, near the con- 
huence of the river Oreo, 12 miles north-east of Turin, on 
the high road to Milan, in a plain abounding with com 
and cattle. 7. Rivarolo, in the valley of the Oreo, has 5000 
inhabitants. 8. Poirino, on the road to Alessandria, has 5600 
inhabitants. There are besides these, many towns of between 
2000 and 3000 inhabitants in the neighbourhood of Turin, 
such as Pianezza, Caselle, Lanzo, Montanaro, Gassino, 
Viii, Vinovo, and others. The province of Tnirin is alto- 
gether one of the most fertile and thickly inhabited districts 
in Italy. (Calendario Sardo ; Denina ; Neigebaur.) 

TOKl'NO, TURI'N in French, the capital of Piedmont, 
and the residence of the king of the Sardinian States, is 
situated in 45° 5^ N. lat. and 7° 44' E. long., on the left or 
western bank of the Po, which here runs in a northern di- 
rection, and at the confluence of the Dora Ripuaria, which 
flows from the valley of Susa. It lies in a wide and fertile 
valley, between the lower offsets of the Cottian Alps on the 
west, and the hills of Monferrato» which rise immediately 
above the right or eastern bank of the Po. The valley 
0]>en8 to the north-east into the wide ]^lain of Lombardy. 

Turin is one of the most regularly-built towns in Europe ; 
most of the streets being in straight lines and intersecting 
each other at right angles, and the squares being also of a 
regular form. The streets are kept cleaner than in most 
other Italian cities, being washed during the night by water 
drawn from the Dora. The buildings, though massive and 
lofty, are, generally speaking, plain, chiefly built of brick, 
and their appearance is uniform and monotonous. The 
town is about one mile and a quarter in length and little 
more than half a mile in its greatest breadth ; it was for- 
merly surrounded by ramparts, which have been razed of 
late years, and additional buildings and promenades have 
been constructed in their place. The citadel, which is re- 
gularly constmcted, and one of the strongest in Italy, lies 
outside of the town to the westward. The principal streets 
of Turin are those leading to the four entrances of the 
town, which are— Poila del Po, on the road to Alessandria 
and Genoa ; Porta Susina, on the western or Mont Cents 
road ; Porta Nova, on the southern road to Saluzzo and 
Nice ; and Porta Vittoria, leading to Ivrea, Vercelli, Novara, 
and the other northern provinces. Several of the princi- 
pal streets and squares are lined with arcades, which are 
much frec^uented by loungers. 

The principal square is the Piazza Castello, in the 
centre of the town, so called from an old castle or palace 
which stands in the middle of it, and which was formerly 
the residence of the dukes of Savoy. It has a handsome 
fa9ade, ornamented with sculptures. The northern side of 
the square is formed by the modem royal palace, a vast 
stmcture, with gardens at the back of it : the apartments 
are handsome, and contain a rich collection of Flemish 
and Italian paintings and a library. Adjoining to the 
palace is the cathedral of S. Giovanni Battista, with the 
annexed handsome rotunda chape], Del Sudario, cased 
with black marble, and adomed with gilt bronzes. On the 
eastern side of tlie square is the great theatre, one of the 
largest and finest in Italy, constructed by the architect 
Alfleri. Another remarkable building of Turin is — the 
University, built by king Victor Amadeus at the be- 
ginning of the eighteenth century. It is a fine building, 
with a spacious court, surrounded by arcades, which are 
lined with antient bassi-rilievi, and inscriptions fixed in 
the walls, many of which are valuable, and have been 
illustrated by Maifei and others. The library of the uni- 
versity contains above 112,000 volumes and about 2000 
MSS., among which are the palimpsests, from the mo- 
nastery of Bobbio, containing fragments of Cicero's ora- 
tions 'Pro Scauro' and others, which have been deciphered 
and published by Professor Peyron. The Gallery of Antient 
Statues contains some remarkable objects, such as a Mi- 
nerva, in bronze, discovered in 1829 near Voghera; a 
sleeping Cupid, a bust of the emperor Julian, and the 
Isiac Table. The Cabinet of Medals, one of the richest in 
Europe, contains 30,000 pieces. The Egyptian Museum, 
which is in the building of the Royal Academy of 
Sciences, consists chiefly of the collection made by M. 
Drovetti, long time consul in Egypt, which was purchased 
by King Charles Felix, and is one of the richest in Europe. 
It contaiiB among others the colosaal statue of OggmBody^Mf 



15 feet high ; those of Thothmes II. and of Amunoph II. : 
and that of Remeses II., or Sesostiis, which is considered 
one of the handsomest specimens of Egyptian sculpture ; a 
collection of Egyptian paintings on stone, a quantity of 
utensils, articles of dress and ornaments, numerous mum- 
mies, and a vast collection of papyri and MSS. on linen, 
found in the catacombs of Thebes : among others, a fune- 
ral ritual, 60 feet in length ; and the fragments of a chro- 
nological table of the dynasties of the kings of Egypt 
previous to the eighteenth dynasty. 

The university consists of five faculties,-— divinity, law, 
medicine, surgery, and arts. Among the contemporary 
professors, Boucheron, professor of Greek and Latin; 
Peyron, of Hebrew and the Oriental languages ; Plana, 
of mathematics ; Giobert, of chemistry ; are well-known 
names. There are also belonging to the university a 
museum of natural history, a museum of anatomy, a chemi* 
cal laboratory and hydraulic apparatus, and lastly, a rich 
botanical garden at the Valentino, outside of the town, 
near the banks of the Po. About 2000 students attend 
the various courses. Altogether the University of Turin 
ranks as one of the first in Italy. The Royal Academy of 
Sciences, begun as a private society in 1759, and instituted 
as an academy in 1783, consists of forty members, besides 
non-resident and corresponding members: it is divided 
into two classes, mathematical and physical sciences, and 
moral, historical, and philological sciences. Lagrange, 
Bertrandi, Cardinal Gerdil, Count Morozzo, the chemist 
Moion, Count Balbo, the Orientalist Derossi, Count Xaviet 
Maistre, the antiquarian Fea, Manno, the historian of Sar- 
dinia, Cibrario, the Chevalier della Marmora, and other well- 
known names, are or have been members of this society. 
The Academy has published about 30 volumes of Memoirs. 

Turin has also an academy of the fine arts, a philhar- 
monic academy, and an agncultural society, * Reale So- 
ciety Agraria,^ and a military college, * Regia Militare 
Accademia,' newly Organized, under the direction of the 
Chevalier Saluzzo. There are communal schools, divided 
into classes, in each district of the tovm ; and also schools 
for drawing applied to the mechanical arts ; and schools . 
for the deaf and dumb and the blind. 

The charitable institutions of Turin are : — 1, the Great 
Hospital of S. Giovanni Battista, for the infirm ; 2, the 
Spedale di Carit^, an asylum for destitute children and 
a^ed persons ; 3, Spedale della Maternitil, or lying-in hos- 
pital ; 4, the Reale Albergo di VirtA, a house of industry 
for young men, who are taught various trades; 5, the 
house for the insane ; 6, Opera di S. Luigi Gonzaga, a 
charitable institution, which administers out-door relief to 
infirm and otiier disabled poor persons, and has besides an 
hospital for persons afflicted with incurable chronic dis- 
eases, which is considered as a model of cleanliness and 
I)roper arrangement; 7^ Monte di Piet4, which lends 
money to the poor without interest upon pledge. There are 
two penitentiaries, one for men and the other for women. 

Turin is an archbishop's see, whose province extends 
over the sees of Alba, Acqui, Asti, Cuneo, Fossano, Mon- 
dovi, Ivrea, Pinerolo, Saluzzo, and Susa. Hie metropo- 
litan diocese contains the chapters of Turin, Moncalieri, 
Rivoli, Chieri, Carmagnola, Sandalmazzo, Giaveno, and 
Savigliano ; and the clerical seminaries or colleges of 
Turin, Giaveno, Brd^ and Chieri. The archbishop has a 
ciuia, or court for ecclesiastical suits, consisting of a vicar- 
gen^ral and a pro-vicar, a chancellor, pro-chancellor and 
notary, a fiscal advocate, a counsel for the poor, besides 
secretaries. 

Turin contains a great number of churches, few of which 
are remarkable for their external architecture. Those 
worthy of notice are : — S. Filippo Neri, by the architect 
Giuvara, with several good paintings ; the Consolata ; the 
Corpus Domini, which is very richly decorated ; Santa Te- 
resa, Santa Cristina, La TrinitA, and S. Carlo Borromeo. 
There are convents of Franciscans, Dominicans, Cister- 
cians, Carmelites, Bamabites, Servites, Somaschi, Jesuits, 
Fathers of the Oratory, Brothers of the Christian Schools, 
missionaries of the Congregation of St. Vincent de Paule^ 
besides several nunneries. In the suburb, on the right 
bank of the Po, fkcing the bridge, is the fine new church 
* Delia Gran Madre di Dio,' raised by the municipality of 
Turin» in memory of the restoration of the dynasty of 
Savoy, in 1814. It is an imitation of the Pantheon of 
Rome : it is cased with marble, and adomed with marble 
piUonv Higher up oa the liiU ie the Oapiiehin chureh 



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and oonvent * Del Monte,* beautllUlly situated, like most 
Capuchin convents are, and enjoying a splendid view of 
the plain of Turin, the town, and the nver, and of the 
crescent of the snow-capped Alps, from the lofty pyramid 
of Mount Viso on the west, to the picturesque ffroup of 
Mount Rosa on the north-east. On a higher hill on the 
same side of the Po, but farther north, about 2000 feet 
above the sea, and ^ve miles from Turin, is the Royal 
Basilica of La Superga (super terga montium), the St. 
Denis of Piedmont, containing the tombs of the princes of 
the house of Savoy. It was built from the design of Giu- 
vara by king Victor Amadeus, in memory of the raising of 
the siege of Turin by the French, in September, 1706. 
It is a nandsome structure ; its lofty dome is seen at a 
great distance, and is the first object that strikes the tra^ 
veller on approaching Turin. A congregation of twelve 
secular priests is attached to the service of the church. 
Every year, on the 8th of September, a great festival takes 
place at Superga : high mass is performed, at which the 
court generally attends, and multitudes from Turin and the 
country around repair to the spot. After church service, 
the people spread about in the fields to eat, stroll, and 
dance the monferina, the lively national country-dance. 

The city of Turin has a municipal body, which enjoys 
considerable privileges, and directs the internal or civic 
administration of the town ; it consists of a Corpo Decu- 
rionale, or council of about sixty members : two syndics ; a 
vicario, who is at the head of the police department ; a 
treasurer, and numerous accountAuls, commissaries, in- 
spectors, and secretaries. The municipality of Turin has 
considerable revenues ; it levies the * octroi,' or duty at the 
gates upon provisions, and a tax upon mills ; it adminis- 
ters the municipal domains, and the city of Turin is styled 
in public documents * I'ill strissima citti di Torino, Con- 
tessa di Grugliasco, Signora di Beinasco.' There is a 
board of commissioners, styled * Consiglio degli Edili,* which 
superintends all new buildings and streets, and the repairs, 
embellishments, and additions which are made in the town 
or suburbs. Turin has two insurance companies and an 
organized body of firemen. 

The manufactories of Turin are of some importance ; 
they consist of woollens, silks, hosiery, leather, paper, 
chinaware, carriages, a manufactory of arms, and a royal 
manufactory of tapestry or Gobelins. 

Turin has several theatres, besides the royal theatre 
already mentioned: the theatre of .Carignano, for the 
opera ; the theatre d'Angennes, for dramatic pieces unac- 
companied by music ; and the New Theatre. Piedmont 
has produced some of the best modern Italian dramatists 
— Alfieri, Federici, Olivieri, Nota, Pellico, and Marchisio. 
The nobility have a casino, or assembly-room. The coffee- 
houses of Turin are numerous, but, generally speaking, 
not so roomy or elegant as those of Milan or Naples. Be- 
sides the buildings already mentioned, the palace of 
Caiignano, by the architect Guarini, is large, but in bad 
taste ; the palace Blrago di Borgaro, after the design of 
Giuvara, is m a better style ; and that of the marquis de 
Pri6 has a gallery of paintings. The royal country-house 
called * Vigna della Regina * is a pretty villa finely situated 
on the hifl on the right bank of the Po. The royal hunt- 
ing palace and park of Stupinigi, four miles from Tuiin, 
are very fine ; the palace was begun by Giuvara, and en- 
larged by Alfieri, the architect. At La Veneria, once a 
royal residence, about eight miles north of Turin, is the 
royal riding-school, stud, and veterinary college. The 
king of Sardinia has also palaces at Monealieri, on the 
south side of the Po, about five miles from Turin, and at 
Rivoli, ten miles from the capital, on the high road to 
Susa and Mont Cenis ; besides the royal palaces of Cham- 
bery and Genoa, which he uses when he visits those parts 
of his dominions. 

The population of the town of Turin, which at the be- 
ginning of the eighteenth centuiy amounted to about 
42,000, had risen to 76,000 in 1796, just before the French 
revolutionary invasion, after which it fell to about 65,000, 
at which amount it remained till the restoration. In 1816 
it had risen again to 73,500, not including the suburbs. By 
the census of 1830, including the suburbs, it amounted to 
116,000; and by that of 1833, to 119,909, out of which 
number there were 888 priests, 453 monks, and 227 nuns. 
(^Serristori, Statistiea deli* Italia.) 

Diligences after the French fashion set off from Turin 
three times a week for Milan, Genoa, and France, besides 



numerous post-coaohet, called ^yelooiferi,' which ron be- 
tween the capital and most provincial towns of the Sar- 
dinian territories. Living at Turin is reasonable, pro- 
visions of every sort are good and abundant, and the 
cooking is a medium between French and Italian cookery. 
The manners, habits, and dress of the people partake 
likewise of French and Italian. The national character is 
sociable, steady, and intelligent. There is a tone of 
formalitjr and etiquette maintained by the court, which 
communicates itself to the upper ranks of society. The 
common language of conversation among the natives is 
the Piedmontese dialect ; but Italian is the written and 
ofiioial language, and educated people speak both Italian 
and French. The climate of Tunn is colder in winter 
than that of Genoa or Rome, but is much milder than that 
of Savoy or Switzerland. Upon the whole, Turin is a 
pleasant residence for a person of quiet habits ; but being 
on the threshold of Italy, it is less noticed than it deserves 
by travellers, who hurry on to the south, to Genoa, 
Florence, Rome, and Naples, cities more thoroughly 
Italian than Turin. 

The antient Taurini were a tribe of the Ligures, who 
inhabited the country between the Po and the Cottian 
Alps. They are the first people whom Hannibal met 
after descending the Alps : they appear to have resisted 
him, and he took their town by force previous to advancing 
to the Ticinus. (Livy, xxi. 39.) They and the other 
Ligurians north of the Apennines were subdued by the 
Romans about 166 b.c, but their neighbours the moun- 
taineers of the Cottian Alps were not reduced till the time 
of Augustus. Augustus sent a Roman colony to the town 
of the Taurini, which then took the name of Augusta Tau- 
rinorum. Under the Longobards Turin was the head town 
of a duchy : under the Carlovingiansit wajs a county of con- 
siderable extent and importance, and afief of the kingdom of 
Italy. In the tenth century we find Odelric Manfredi, count 
of Turin, styled marquis of Italy, who was the father of the 
marchioness Adelaide. [Amadeus I.] Adelaide married 
Oddo, count of Maurienne, and from this marriage the 
house of Savoy derives its origin. During the war of the 
investitures between the popes and the emperors of Ger- 
many, most of the large towns in north Italjr established 
their independence as municipal communities, in which the 
respective bishops had however a great infiuence ; and 
Turin was among the number, but in the early part of the 
twelfth century the emperor Lotharius reduced it again to 
subjection; and although he respected its municipal 
liberties, he appointed again a count for its political 
s:ovemor. We find Amadeus III. of Savoy, count of 
Maurienne, about the middle of the twelfth century dating 
his diplomas from the town of Turin, of which he is styled 
marquis. The emperor Frederic I. made over, in 1159, to 
Charles, bishop of Turin, all the rights of the empire over 
that town, namely, the • distrietum ' or jurisdiction, the 
* fiscum,' or fiscal duties, and * teloneum,' or customs, the 
walls of the city and all civil rights within and without for 
ten miles around. (Cibrario, Storia della Monarchia di 
Savoia, and the authorities therein quoted.) The bishops 
and commune of Turin remained for about a centuiy alter 
independent of, often at variance with, the counts of 
Savoy, who at last asserted again their suzerainty over the 
town and the right of appointing its chief magistrate. 
From that time the history of Turin is merged into that of 
the dynasty of Savoy, whose permanent residence it be- 
came ultimately. [Sardinian States.] 

Tesauro has written * Istoria della CittiL di Torino,' 1679, 
with a Continuation by F. M. Ferrero, 1712; Rivautella 
and Ricolvi have published ♦ Marmora Taurinensia Illus- 
trata,' 2 vols. 4to., 1743-47 ; Milanesio, * Cenni Storici sulla 
diik e CittadeMa di Torino,' 1826 ; Paroletti, * Turin et ses 
Curiositfe,' 1819, a guide-book; Borson, 'Catalogue rai- 
sonn6 du Mus^e d*Histoire Naturelle de PAcadJmie de 
Turin,' 1811 ; Peyron, * Papyri Grseci R. Taurinensis Musei 
^gyptii editi atque illustrati,' 1826. See also Milliii, 
Voyages eji Savoie et en Piimont^ 1816; and Val6ry, 
Voyages LittSraires en Italie, 

TORl'NUS, ALBA'NUS, the Latinised name of Alban 
Thorer, a Swiss physician, who was born in 1489, at Win- 
terthur, in the canton of Zurich. He studied polite litera- 
ture at Basle with zeal and assiduity, and, after teaching 
rhetoric for some years, he at last determined on taking the 
degree of Doctor of Medicine at Montpellier. Upon his 
return to Basle, in ISSTT, he was appointed professor of 



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practical medicine, and soon acquired an extensive prac- 
tice. He died February 23, 1550, at the age of sixty-one. 
Like several of his contemporaries, he employed himself in 
translating the works of the Greek medical writers into 
Latin, of which he published the following : * Polybi 
Opuscula aliquot nunc primum e Graeco in Latinum 
conversa, nempe de Tuenda Valetudine, sive de Ratione 
Victus Sanorum lib. i., De Seminis Humani Natura Ub. i., 
de Morbis, sive Affectibus Corporis libri ii./ Basil., 1544, 
4to. Alexander Trallianus, Lat., Basil., 1533, fol. The 
first Latin translation of Paulus yEdneta, Basil., 1532, 
fol., which was afterwards improved and several times 
reprinted. This translation was severely criticised by 
mnther of Andemach {Guinierus Andernacus), which 
drew from Thorer a very angry and somewhat abusive 
answer entitled * Epistola Apotogetica, quti Calomnias Im- 
pudentissimas refeflit,' Basil., 1539, 8vo. The first Latin 
translation of two works of Theophilus Protospatharius, 
with the title * Philareti de Pulsuum Scientia Libellus, item 
Theophili de Exacta Retrimentorum Vesicae Cognitione 
Commentariolus,' &c., Basil., 1553, 8vo. In his translation 
of Theophilus * De Urinis,' he is charged by Guidot (Not. 
in Theoph. De Urin., p. 234 ; et Alloq, ad Led,) with 
having altogether omitted the pious epilogue to the work, 
and with having altered two other passages (in the Preface, 
and in cap. 8) so as to destroy the acknowledgment of 
our Lord's Divinity contained in them. Fabricius mentions 
also {Biblioth, Grneca, vol. xiii., p. 44, ed. Vet.) a trans- 
lation of Theophilus's * Commentary on the Aphorisms of 
Hippocrates,' but this is probably a mistake. (See Fabric, 
Biotioth, Graeca, vol. xii., p. 649, ed. Vet. ; Choulant, 
Handbuch der Bucherhunde fur die Aeltere Medicin .) He 
also retouched the old Latin translation of Yahia Ibn 
Serapion Ben Ibrahim [Serapion], and published it with 
the title * Jani Damasceni Therapeuticae Methodi libri vii., 
partim Albano Torino, partim Gerardo Cremonensi Meta- 
phraste,' Basil., 1543, fol. lie published a Greek edition, in 
one volume, of several of Hippocrates's works, viz. * Prog- 
nost.,' * De Nat. Hom.,' * De Loc. in Hom.,' ' Jusjur,' Basil., 
1536, 8vo., and prefixed a Life of the author. He inserted 
a Latin translation of the Letter of Diodes Carystius to 
King Antiochus, * De Secunda Valetudine Tuenda,' in the 
second edition of his translation of Alexander Trallianus, 
Basil., 1541, fol. He also edited a collection of medical 
works w^ith the following title : * De Re Medica huic 
Volumini insunt, Sorani Ephesii Peripatetici in Artem 
Medendi Isagoge hactenus non visa. Oribasii Sardiani 
Fragmentum de Victus Ratione, quolibet Anni Tempore 
Utih, antea nunquam editum. C. Plinii Secundi de Re 
Medica libri v. accuratius Recogniti, et Nothis ac Pseud- 
epigraphis Semotis, ab Innumeris Mendarum Millibus 
Pide Vetustissimi Codicis Repurgati. Lc. Apuleji Ma- 
daurensis, Philosophi Platonici, de Herbarum Virtutibus 
Historia. Accessit his Libellus Utilissimus de Betonica, 
quem quidam Autonio Musae, nonnulU Lc. Apulejo adscri- 
bendum autumant, nuper Excusus,' Basil., 1525, fol. 
Besides these medical works he edited also Apicius, ' De 
Re Culinaria,' Basil., 1541, 4to. ; S. Epiphanius, ' De Pro- 
phetarum Vitis,' Basil., 1529, 4to. ; Agapeti ' Scheda 
Regia/ Lat., Basil., 1541, 8vo., at the end of Onosandri 
' Stiategicus ;' and Emmanuel Chrysolorae, * Epitome 
Grammatices Graecae.* (JSee Fabric, Biblioiheca Graeca^ 
vol. xiii., p. 44, ed. vet. ; Biogr. Med, ; Choulant, Handb, 
der Bucherkunde /iir die Aeltere Medicin,) 

TORMENTIL, Tormentilla officinalis (Smith), erecta 
(Linn.), a small perennial plant, growing in the whole of 
Europe and the north of Asia, in forests, bogs, and heaths. 
Linnaeus constituted this genus, but it is sometimes regarded 
as a species of the genus rotentilla. The root, or rather the 
rhizoma, is officinal. As the plant flowers in June and 
July, the best time to collect the rhizomata is in April and 
May. Those gathered in autumn, while they remain moist, 
are phosphorescent. The roots of the Tormentilla (Poten- 
tilla) reptans (Linn.), of the Potentilla Commarum, those 
of the common strawberry, and also of the Polygonum 
Bistorta, are frequently confounded with those of the true 
tormentil — errors of no great importance as far as their 
medical employment is concerned, as they possess proper- 
ties similar in kind, but inferior in degree. In Italy the 
root of the geranium striatum is substituted for it. 

The rhizomata of the genuine plant are large in propor- 
tion to the branches they bear. They lie obnquely in the 
earth ; old ones are knotty or resemble knobs, from 1^ to 



2 inches thick ; younger ones are cylindrical, irregularly 
branched, the branches 1 to 2 inches long, and from one- 
fourth to one-half inch thick, curved and twisted. The 
colour externally is a rusty or reddish brown ; if very old, 
mixed with black. The epidermis and liber are very thin, 
but firm. The central part presents several, at least two, 
concentric circles ; the texture is close and firm, more of a 
homy than fibrous texture, greatly resembling rhubarb. 
The colour of the interior, when fresh, is a rose-red or 
fleshy colour ; but when dried, it incUnes more to a reddish 
or brownish yellow; in very old specimens it becomes 
white. The fracture is uneven. It can be easily powdered. 
The powder is of a bright brownish-red. The rose-odour 
of the fresh root is utterly lost by- drying. Taste purely 
and stron^y astringent. Specimens wnich are dark exter- 
nallv, and woody and white within, are to be rejected. 

Meissner very carefully analyzed it, and found it to con- 
sist, in the hundred parts, of — ^volatile oil, a trace ; myricin 
0*20; resin, 0*42; cerin, 0*51; tannin, 17*4; colouring 
matter, 18-05; ditto altered (oxydized?), 2*58; gummy 
extractive, 4*32 ; gum (pectin ?), 28*20 ; extractive, 770 ; 
woody fibre, 150 ; water, 6*45. 

Starch, though not found by Meissner, exists in it, as the 
tincture of iodine tinges the root a blackish-blue. No gallic 
acid is said to exist in it ; while its presence is asserted by 
some, it is maintained to be ellagic acid by others. The 
colouring-matter resembles that found in the cinchona 
barks; it also has some resemblance to indigo. Water 
distilled from the fresh root has an agreeable rose-like 
odour. This plant contains more tannin than any other, 
except catechu and galls. An intimate relation subsists 
between the tannin and extractive and catechu. An in- 
fusion strikes a blackish-green (forming a tannate of iron) 
with sesqui-chloride of iron ; on which account an ink has 
been recommended to be maide with it and sulphate of iron ; 
but where galls are to be had, this is not advisable. 

Tormentn is the most powerful of our indigenous astrin- 
gents, and more easily assimilated than oak-bark or galls. 
Though improper in active haemorrhages, in passive dis- 
charges it is very useful, and may be given with aromatics, 
or opiates, or chalk, as in the compound powder of chalk. 
Infusion made with cold water is preferable to the decoc- 
tion. The extract made in the common way soon spoils. 
But valuable as this substance is in medicine, it is of still 
greater utility in the arts and in agriculture. It may be 
most beneficially employed to tan leather, both where the 
oak grows and where it is absent, since one pound and a 
half of powdered tormentil is equal in strength to seven 
pounds of tan. It is used in Lapland and the Orkney Isles, 
both to tan and to dye leather, and in the latter parts to 
dye worsted yarn. By long boiling the tannin is converted 
into gum, and in times of scarcity the poor may collect 
and obtain much nourishment from the root. But the 
great service this plant renders in husbandry is its chief 
merit. Where it grows abundantly in wet pastures, the 
rot in the sheep is unknown. It should therefore be ex- 
tensively introduced into the irrigated meadows as a pre- 
ventive of that destructive disease. Where the heather has 
been burned on the Highland hills, this plant springs up 
spontaneously with the tender grass. [Anthelmintics.] 

TORMENTILLA (from tormentum), a genus of plants 
belonging to the natural order Rosaceae. This genus pos- 
sesses an 8-parted calyx, of which four pai-ts are ex- 
ternal, and apparently accessory; the petals are 4, and 
inversely heart-shaped ; the stamens are 16, and not 
half so long as the corolla ; the styles are lateral and deci- 
duous ; the carpels are seated on a small haiiy receptacle. 
The species are herbaceous plants with dissected and axil- 
lary and terminal flowers. The genus as thus constituted 
is well marked, although many authore refer it to Poten- 
tilla. Of the three species of Tormentilla, two are natives 
of Britain and Europe generally, and one of North America. 

T, erecta. Upright Tormentil, has an ascending, branched 
dichotomous stem ; temate leaves, with those on the stem 
sessile ; the leaflets are oblong, acute, and deeply cut ; the 
stipules are large and also cut ; the pedicels are solitary, in 
the bifurcations of the stem ; the petals are obcordate, and 
of a yellow colour. It is abundant in barren pastures, 
road-sides, and bushy places in Great Britain and other 
countries of Europe. It has been occasionally found with 
five petals, and also with double flowers. 

T, reptans. Creeping Tormentil, has procumbent, slightly 
branched stems; leaves divided into from three to five 



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leaflets, which are deeply toothed, and hairy, as well as the 
petioles ; the stipules are lanceolate and entire. It is a 
native of £iirope, in much the same situations as the last. 
It is not so common in Britain as the last, but has been 
recorded as growing in many localities in Yorkshire, Essex, 
Norfolk, and Oxfordshire. 

T. humt/Usa, Trailing Tormentil, is a native of North 
America. It has short filiform procumbent stems bearing 
the flowers; the leaflets are five, deeply toothed, and 
covered beneath with a white tomentum. [Tormentil.] 

TORNADO, a whirlwind (from tamar, Spanish, * to turn'), 
a sudden and violent storm of wind, accompanied by 
thunder, lightning, and heavy torrents of rain : it frequently 
occurs in the West Indies, on the western coast of Africa, 
and in the Indian Ocean, particularly about the time of the 
equinoxes, or, in the latter region of the earth, at the 
changes of the monsoons. The storm continues in one 
place for a few hours, during which time the wind rapidly 
changes its direction ; and it is described as blowing at 
once, or in succession, fVom all the difierent points of the 
compass. Tornado is however a general term, and, besides 
a whirlwind, it is employed to designate what is called a 
typhoon or hurricane. 

It has been supposed that the electric fluid, when col- 
lected in vast quantities in the atmosphere between the 
tropics, occasionally creates an extensive and partial rare- 
faction ; the ambient air then rushes towards the region 
where this rarefaction has taken place, and the particles in 
their rectilineal course, being struck obliquely oy currents 
flowing in directions which are determined by the ranges 
of mountains or the line of the sea-coast, acquire, by the 
laws of dynamics, circular or spiral motions. Thus there 
is formed a vortex by which terrestrial bodies within its 
influence are violently displaced, or the ocean is strongly 
agitated : on land, forests, plantations, and buildings are 
destroyed ; and at sea, ships are engulfed or driven on 
shore : the effects are of course the greatest near the cir- 
cumference of the vortex, and the space within which they 
are felt varies in extent ; sometimes the diameter of the 
area is seveml miles, and at other times it does not exceed 
one hundred yards. 

From accounts of the tornados, the tjrphoons, or hurri- 
canes which occur on the coast of Africa, it appears that 
there the approach of the storm is foreboded in the morn- 
ing by the appearance, over the land, of dark clouds which 
move towards the^ sea, while a gentle breeze is blowing 
1o wards the shore : soon afterwards the rain comes down 
in torrents, and the lightning darting from the clouds 
resembles showers of electric matter. While the tornado 
u passing over a ship, which may be four or five hours 
from the first appearance of the clouds, the flashes cease, 
but the rain continues, and a loud crackling noise, occa- 
sioned by the electric fluid descending along the masts, 
is distinctly heard amon^ the rigging. After the squall 
lias passed beyond the ship, the Hghtnmgs again appear to 
descend in sheets as they did on its approacn. 

A less extensive whirlwind is frequently preceded by a 
remarkable tranquillity of the atmosphere and a sultry 
heat ; when suddenly, within a circle of one or two hun- 
dred yards only in diameter, a revolving motion of the air 
commences, and is accompanied by thunder and rain : the 
velocity of the rotation gradually increases, and at length 
its violence is such as to tear up trees and destroy buildings 
which may be within the vortex. The whirlwind does not 
continue fonder than half an hour, but in that short time 
the damage is immense, and the loss of life is firequently 
considerable. 

Dr. Franklin observed that great storms have a progres- 
sive movement on the surface of the earth, and he found 
that one which occurred in North America in 1740 advanced 
at the rate of about one hundred miles in an hour towards 
the north-east ; but Colonel Capper, of the East India 
Company's service, who during twenty years had studied 
the phenomena of the atmosphere about Madras, first sug- 
gested the idea that all storms are tornados or whirlwinds 
of great extent, and showed that it might be possible to 
ascertain the place of a ship in a vortex from the degree of 
rapidity with which the wind changes its direction. Mr. 
Redfield, of New York, apparently without any knowledge 
of Colonel Capper's observations, discovered subsequently 
that, while on the coasts of North America hurricanes 
were blowing from the north-east, storms were raging in 
the Atlantic on the same parallel of latitude with the wind 
P. C, No. 1558. 



at south-west ; and his inference is that a revolving tempest 
takes place at the same time over a considerable portion 
of the earth's surface. 

This subject has recently been particularly studied by 
Ueut..Col. Reid of the Royal Engineers, who has ascer- 
tained that all great storms have both progressive and 
revolving motions. Having obtained access to a number 
of ships' log-l>ooks, he compared the observations made by 
himself in the West Indies with such as had at the same 
times been made in the open seas, and he traced the courses 
of many storms both in the northern and southern hemi- 
spheres. This officer found, as had been before remarked 
by Mr. Redfield, that in the North Atlantic Ocean the 
direction of the air in a vortex is from the north circularly 
to the west ; from thence to the south, and round by the 
east towards the north: and he discovered that in the 
southern hemisphere the order of the motion is contrary to 
that which has oeen just mentioned, being from the north 
round by the east, the south and the west, and returning 
to the north. He found also that the storms in each hemi- 
sphere revolve invariably in the same direction within a 
circular space whose diameter is sometimes not less than 
one thousand miles ; and that occasionally, in advancing 
towards either pole, several different vortices closely follow 
each other : when this happens in the northern hemisphere 
for example, since in the southern part of each the wind is 
blowing from the west, and in the northern part from the 
east, it follows that the northern part of each vortex, on 
arriving at the spot which the vortex immediately pre- 
cedinjBT it had quitted, brings with it a wind blowing in a 
direction exactly contrary to that which had just before 
been felt. 

Lieut.-Col. Reid has ascertained from two instances, of 
which alone he could obtain well-authenticated accounts, 
that in the opposite hemispheres of the earth the cones of 
water-spouts revolve in contrary directions ; and it is re- 
markable that these directions are contrary to those of the 
great storms. Some connection is supposed to exist be- 
tween the intensity of storms and that of terrestriaJ mag- 
netism : the same officer remarks that no violent squalls 
are felt about St. Helena, where the magnetic intensity is 
the lowest, and that they occur with great violence in the 
West Indies and the Sea of China, in which regions the 
terrestrial meridians pass through the magnetic poles of 
North America and Siberia. It ought to be observed, 
however, that oil the southern coast of Africa and in the 
Indian Ocean, where the magnetic intensity is low, storms 
rage with the greatest fury. 
TORNEA. [Finland.] 
TORNEA-ELF. [Bothnia.] 

TO'RO, the capital of a province of Spain, formerly 
part of Zamora, but now a separate province, is supposed to 
be the Sarabris of Ptolemy. It is a large town, situated on 
the right bank of the Douro, on a gentle eminence which 
commands a view of an extensive plain, formerly called 
Campi Gothici, now Tierra de Campos : in 41"* 45' N. lat. 
and 5® 37' W. long. It is the see of a bishop, suffragan of 
Zamora, one of the most antient in the peninsula. The 
cblle^ate church is a handsome Gothic building, the 
erection of which is ascribed to Alfonso VIII. of Leon. 
There are also the remains of an antient castle, said to 
have been built by the Infante Don Garcia, forming a 
square of 143 feet, with a round tower at each angle. Tlie 
bridge on the Douro, entirely built of freestone, and 
resting on twenty-two arches, is a remarkable piece of 
architecture. Near Toro was fought, in 1476, a battle, 
where the Portuguese under Alfonso V., sumamed * O 
Africano * (the African), were defeated by the Castilians. 
The population of Toro is about 10,000. (Mifiano, Diceio- 
nan'o Geograflco de Espana, viii. 480.) 

TORONTO, formeriy York, and lately the capital of the 
province of Upper Canada, in North America, is situated 
on the north &ore of Lake Ontario, about 40 miles from 
the west end of Buriington Bay, in 43* 35' N. lat. and 
79^ 20* W. long. The town was founded in 1794 by Governor • 
Simcoe. The French had previously a small palisadoed 
fort, a little to the west, which was called Fort Tarento or 
Torento. With the exception of this fort and two or three 
wigwams, the dwellings of a few Indians, the site of Toronto, 
when surveyed by direction of Governor Simcoe in 1793, was 
uninhabited, and the country was almost entirely covered 
with forest to the water's edge. Tlie district, as it was gradu- 
aUy cleared by the British, was called Toronto, aaer Fort 
' Vol. XXV.-H 



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Tarento ; but the name given by Governor Simcoe to the 
town, which he laid out on a regular plan, was York, which 
name it retained till 1834, when Sir John Colbome raised 
it to the rank of a city, and changed the name to that of the 
district, Toronto. 

The situation of Toronto is low and swampy, the ground 
rising gradually into the back country, which is covered 
with forest. The site seems to have been chosen chiefly 
on account of the spacious and beautiful harbour, or rather 
bay, which is protected and nearly enclosed by a long 
horn of sand sweeping round in a sickle shape, and leaving 
only a narrow entrance, which now forms the mouth of the 
harbour. The wharfs and piers however are narrow, in- 
convenient, and ill-lighted, and, as passengers are often 
landed and embarked at night, they are also dangerous. 

The city consists of six main streets, about two miles 
lonff, and parallel to the shore of the lake, crossed at ri^ht 
angles by other streets which run inland about a nule. 
Most of the houses are still of wood, but as frequent flres 
destroy them, they are replaced by others of brick, stone 
being scarce, and the subsoil of the whole district a good 
clay. The principal street of the six long ones is called 
King Street ; it be^ns to have a handsome appearance ; 
it has many food bnck houses, several of the shops having 
large plate-giass windows ; it has side pavements of flags, 
and a large sewer under it. The general appearance of 
the city however is somewhat mean, and there are no 
public buildings worthy of notice for their architecture. 
The principal structures are the Parliament Buildings, the 
Bank of l)pper Canada, the City Hall and Market-house, 
the Upper Canada College, the Lawyers' Halls, and the 
Englisn, Roman Catholic, Scotch, and Methodist churches 
and chapels. A new court-house and gaol are probably 
now completed, as well as new barracks at some distance 
from the town. Building-ground in the principal streets 
is excessively dear, and house-rent is also expensive ; but 
provisions are abundant, and at moderate prices ; and 
wines, fruits, and other luxuries, not dear. The fliel is 
chiefly wood, and is mostly burned in stoves, though coals 
from the state of Ohio are brought by the WeUand Canal, 
and sold at about 1«. 6d. a bushel. The water of the wells 
is brackish, the strata at forty feet deep being apparently 
saliferous rock. 

Toronto has a Court of Chancery with a vioe-chanoellor, 
and a Court of Queen's Qench with a chief justice and 
four puisne judges ; it has also a district court, in which 
minor ofl^ences are tried, a court of requests, a mayors 
court, and a police court. 

Toronto returns two representatives to the Legislative 
Assembly of the Province of Canada. For municipal 
government the city is divided into Ave waids, each of 
which returns annually two aldermen and two common- 
councilmen, out of whom a mayor is chosen annually. 

Besides the established Church of England, which has 
its Bishop of Toronto, there are Roman Catholics, Wes- 
leyan Methodists, Baptists, members of the Church of 
Scotland, and many otner sects. 

There is a House of Industry at Toronto, s«ipported by 
voluntary contributions, in which, in 1841, there were be- 
tween 70 and 80 inmates, and which gave relief to about 
2B0 out-door pensioners. There is also an hospital ; and 
there is a saving' bank, in which the amount of deposit by 
each person is limited to 50/. currency. 

Of establishments for education, the chief is the College 
of Upper Canada, with a principal, five masters, and five 
teachers ; the next in importance is the National School 
of Upper Canada, on the system of Bell and Lancaster ; 
and there is a Board of Education for the supervision of the 
common schools. 

There is a mechanics' institute, a commercial news- 
room, and a literary club, the last being under the patron- 
age of the vice-chancellor, but no other literary societies 
of any importance. There is no regular theatre. There 
are seven or eight newspapers published in the city, one 
of which belongs to the Wesleyan Methodists. 

The population of Toronto has advanced at the follow- 
ing rate :— in 1817 it was 1200, in 1826 it was 1677, in 
1836 It was 9652, in 1837 it was 11,500, in 1839 it was 

loSSS' *"^ ^^^ "^^^ ^^^^'^ ^^2) probably amount to 
18,000. 

Toronto U about 560 miles from Quebec, 390 from 
Montreal, 180 from Kingston, 130 from London in West 
t^anada, and 75 from Niagaiu, travelling distances. Steam. 



vessels sail regularly from Kingston to Toronto, and thence 
to Hamilton, about forty miles farther to the west, at the 
head of Burlington Bay. 

When the act of parliament (3 & 4 Vict,, c. 35) which 
united the two provinces of Upper Canada and Lower 
Canada into one Province of Canada was carried into 
effect, on the 23rd of July, 1841, Toronto ceased to be a 
capital city. Kington [Canada, vol. vi., p. 214], at the 
north-east extremity of Lake Ontario, is now the capital 
town of the Province of Canada. 

(The Canadas in 1841, by Sir R. H. Bonnycastle ; 
Winter Studies and Summer Rambles in Canada^ by 
Mrs. Jameson ; Encyclopaedia Americana,) 

TORPE'DO, a genus of fishes belonging to the Ray 
family (Raiidai), founded by Dum^ril upon the Raia Tor- 
pedo of Linnseus, and some other species, distinguished by 
their having the tail short and moderately thick, and the 
disc of the body nearly circular, the anterior margin being 
formed by two produced portions from the head, which, 
inclining sideways, join the pectorals : the space between 
the head, the pectoral fins, and the branchiee is occupied 
by small vertical hexagonal tubes, which are filled with 
mucous matter, and largely provided with nerves from the 
eighth pair. The situation of these honeycomb-like eel s, 
which constitute the electrical apparatus, is indicated on the 
upper surface by a slight convexity on each side of the head. 

The shocks given by the torpedo are very considerable, 
and are supposed to oe used by the animal both as a 
means of defence and to disable its prey. Mr. Couch is of 
opinion that this electric apparatus has further uses : — 

♦ One well-known effect of the electric shock,* he observes, 
' is to deprive animals killed by it of their organic irrita- 
bility, and consequently to render them more readily dis- 
posed to pass into a state of decomposition, in which 
condition the digestive powers more speedily and eff'ectu- 
ally act upon them. If any creature more than others 
might seem to require such a preparation of its food, it is 
the Cramp-Ray (or Torpedo), the whole canal of whose 
intestine is not more than half as long as the stomach.' 
The torpedo occurs occasionally on the British coast, and 
was first discovered to be a native of our seas by Mr. J. 
Walsh, who obtained specimens from Torbay. Col. Mon- 
tagu, in his MS. notes, quoted by Mr. Yanell, mentions 
having met with two examples of the torpedo : the first 
was of small size, and was taken at Torcross, where it was 
quite unknown to the fishermen ; the second was taken on 
a turbot-hook off the coast of Tenby in Wales, and was of 
very large size, weighing about one hundred pounds. 

The following is Pennant's description of this fish : — Head 
and body indistinct, and nearly round ; greatest breadth 
two-thirds of the entire length ; thickness in the middle 
about one-sixth of the breadth, attenuating to extreme 
thinness on the edees ; mouth small ; teeth minute, spicu- 
lar ; eyes small, placed near each other ; behind each a 
round spiracle, with six small cutaneous appendages on 
their inner circumference; branchial opemnes five in 
number ; skin everyivhere smooth ; two dorsal fins on the 
trunk of the tail ; tail one-third of the entire length, toler- 
ably thick and round ; the caudal fin broad and abrupt ; 
ventrals below the body, forming on each side a quarter of 
a circle ; colours, cinerous-brown above, whiteish oeneath. 

Whether this be the Raia Ibrfedo of Linnaeus is diffi- 
cult to determine. Cuvier and Risso consider that several 
species have been confounded under that name, and the 
latter of these authors has characterised four species in his 

* Histoire Naturelle de PEurope M^ridionale.' They are : — 

1 . Torpedo Narke, which he describes as being yellowish- 
red above, and having five ocellated spots. 

2. Torpedo unimaculata. This species has the body 
above ftilvous, spotted with whiteish spots, and one oblong 
ocellated spot in the middle of the back. The tail is more 
elongated and slender. It is said to have the electrical 
apparatus scarcely visible, and to give but very alight 
shocks. 

3. Torpedo marmorata. Body flesh-coloured, and hav- 
ing Inrown spots and sinuous markings, producing a marbled 
appearance : tail thick, above rounded. 

4. Torpedo Galvani, Body fiilvous, imnuusulate, but 
margined with black. 

Flemroing refers the British torpedo to the third of these 
species. Torpedo marmorata, 

TORPE'DO, a machine invented by Robert Fulton for 
destroying ships from beneath, by attaching to them oar- 



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CBSBes or cases charged with explosive and combustible 
matter. These were to be applied to the ressels to be 
destroyed by means of a kina of submarine boat, in the 
working of which Fulton attained considerable success. He 
applied his torpedos about 1801 to the blowing up of an 
old brig in Brest harbour ; but in an attempt which he 
shortly afterwards made to destroy a British man-of-war, 
he failed, owing to the vessel suddenly changing her posi- 
tion. Upon this failure, Bonaparte, who had borne the 
expense of the previous experiments, withdrew his sup- 
port, and the scheme was never brought into practical 
operation. 

TORQUEMA'DA. [Office, Holy.] 

TORRE, DELLA, or TORRIA'NI, a powerfhl family 
of the middle ages. [Lombaroy and Lombard Cities.] 

TORRE, PILIPPO DEL, bom at Cividale in the Fiiuli, 
in 1657, studied at Padua, and afterwards went to Rome 
in 1687, where he was employed in several offices, and at 
last was appointed bishop of Adria by Clement XI., in 
1702. He died in 1717. While at Rome he published a 
work of great research on the antiquities of Antium, 
' Monumenta veteris Antii,' which was much esteemed by 
the learned. He wrote some other works in illustration of 
antient medals, and also upon subjects of natural history. 
Girolamo Lioni wrote a biography of Filippo del Torre. 
(Tiraboschl, Storia della Letteratura Italiana.) 

TORRE, GIAMMARI'A DELLA, bom at Rome of a 
Genoese family, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, 
after studying in the college Nazareno, entered the order 
of the Somaschi, and having shown great aptitude for 
physical and mathematical studies, was successively pro- 
fessor in several colleges at Rome, Venice, and Naples. 
At Naples he became known to king Charles V. of Naples 
(afterwards Charles HI. of Spain), who employed him in 
several scientific experiments, and made him his head libra- 
rian and keeper of the Museum of Capo di Monte. He pub- 
lished a history of Vesuvius, • Storia e Fenomeni del Vesu- 
vio esposti dal P. Gio. Maria della Torre, Somasco,' fol., 
Naples, 1755. He also wrote a * Course of Physics,* in 
Itafian and Latin, which has gone through several editions ; 
a volume of microscopical observations, and numerous me- 
moirs on scientific subjects. He applied himself particu- 
larly to improve the microscope, lie also contributed to 
illustrate the newly discovered towns of Herculanum and 
Pompeii. He was one of the most distinguished members 
of the Academy of Sciences of Naples, and was also cor- 
responding member of the Academies of Sciences of Paris 
and Berlin, and of the Royal Society of London. Father 
della Torre died at Naples at a very advanced age, in March, 
1782. 

(Lombardi, Storia della Letteratura Italiana net Secolo 
XVIII.) 

TORRE, FILOMARFNO, DUKE DELLA, a Neapoli- 
tan nobleman who lived in the second half of the 
eighteenth century, and applied himself strenuously to the 
study of physics. His name is known in history chiefly 
for his melancholy end. In the first insurrection of the 
populace of Naples, who, being forsaken by the king and 
court and all the principal authorities on the advance of 
the French invading army, rose tumultuously in January, 
1799, to defend the town and at the same time to destroy 
those whom they suspected of being favourably inclined 
towards the French, the Duke della Torre, who lived in 
o^reat retirement and does not appear to have meddled with 
politics, was denounced to the popular committee by a 
menial who had seen a letter written to the duke by a 
noble relative of his at Rome, informing him that he had 
recommended him to the French general for protection in 
the event of Naples being stormed by the French army. 
This was sufficient to persuade the ignorant lazzaroni that 
the duke was a secret Jacobin, and his doom was fixed at 
once. The mob went to his palace, pillaged it, destroyed 
. his library, his collection of natural history, and his cabinet 
of physics, threw the furniture out of the window, seized 
the duke and his brother the Cavaliere Clemente Filoma- 
rino, known for his poetical talent, and drajfged them to 
the Marina of the Carmine, where they killed both of 
t>>em. At the same time it must bo observed that the 
leaders of the mob showed some regard for the women and 
child] en ; they ordered one of the duke's carriages out, 
put the duke's wife and hgr children in it, and told them 
to drive to some friend's or relative's, after which they set 
fire to the palace. The two brothers Filomarino were the 



most distlnffuii^ed victims of the fii-st or Lazzaroni insur 
rection of 1709. 

(Colletta, Storia del Reame di Napoli ; Cuoco, Saggio 
Storico sulla Rivoluzione di Napoli ; Sketches of Popular 
Tumults^ London, Knight and Co., 1837.) 

TORRE DEL GRECO. [Naplbs, PRovmcH of.] 

TORRE'NTIUS LiEVrNUS, whose original name was 
Van dbr Bbkbn, was bom at Ghent in 1525. He studied 
at Louvain, and was in the town when it was besieged by 
the celebrated Martin van Rossem. To commemorate the 
successful defence of the inhabitants, Torrentius composed 
a Latin poem, which was highly thought of at the time. 
He subsequently travelled to Italy, and spent some time at 
Bologna; at Rome however he remained many years, 
and studied Roman anti(}uities there with great diligence. 
He enjoyed the friendship of the Cardinal Baronius, An- 
toniuB Augustinus, Fulvius Ursinus, and other celebrated 
scholars during his residence at Rome ; and he also made 
there a fine collection pf antient coins and works of art. 
On his return to the Netherlands, Torrentius filled succes- 
sively various ecclesiastical dignities, and was at length 
appointed to the bishopric of Antwerp, where he laboured 
with great zeal in discharging the duties of his office. He 
is said to have been also employed in various embassies 
and political negotiations. In 15^5 he was appointed arch- 
bishop of Mechlin, but before the documents arrived 
from Rome which were necessary to enable him to- enter 
upon his new dignity, he died at Brussels in the seven- 
tieth year of his age. He was buried in the cathedral- 
church of Antwerp. He left his library and collection of 
antiquities to the college of Jesuits at Louvain. 

Torrentius was an accurate scholar, and well acauainted 
with Roman antiquities, but he did not write much. The 
only work of his which was published in his lifetime is a 
Commentary on Suetonius, which originally appeared at 
Antwerp in 1578, and was reprinted m 1592: it is also 
contained in Graevius's edition, published in 1672. This 
Commentary is also interesting from the many wood-cuts 
it contains, representing coins of the Roman emperors and 
their families. Torrentius's Commentary on Horace was 
not published till after his death : it appeared at Antwerp 
in 1608, 4to., together with a small treatise of his, entitled 
*Commentariolus ad Legem Juliam et Papiam de Matri- 
moniis Ordinandis.* Besides these Commentaries, Torren- 
tius also published in his lifetime several Latin poems, of 
which a collection appeared at Antwerp in 1576, 8vo., 
under the title of ' Poemata Sacra.* Torrentius was called 
by his contemporaries the Christian Horace ; and his 
poems are distinguished by great ease of versification. He 
also edited the posthumous works of J. Goropius Becanus, 
Antwerp, 1580, with an apology for Becanus, who had 
been attacked by Scaliger. (Foppens, Bibliotheca Belgica ; 
Saxii Onomasticon,) 

TORRES STRAIT was named after the Spanish navi- 
gator Luis Vaez de Torres, who was the first to pass through 
it, which event took place in 1606. It is situated between 
the most north-eastern part of Australia and the southern 
coast of Papua or New Guinea. As the large peninsula 
which projects from the main-land of Australia northwaid 
between the Pacific and the Gulf of Carpentaria grows 
narrower as it proceeds northward, and terminates with a 
coast extending not much more than 30 miles from east to 
west, Torres Strait, in a geographical point of view, does 
not exceed that distance m its direction from east to west, 
and is situated between 142P and 142° 40^ E. long. The 
most northern point of Australia, Cape York, is in 10** 42' 
S. lat., and the opposite coast of Papua, which has only 
been seen from a distance, and not been visited by navi- 
gatore on account of the numerous dangers with which it 
IS beset, is laid down on our charts in 9** 15' S. lat. Thus 
the extent of the strait from south to north is about 100 
miles. Navigatore however give to the strait a much 
greater extent, as they consider it to begin on the east 
with the Pandora Entrance, situated between extensive 
reefs near 144" 40' E. long., so that, according to them, 
Torres Strait extends iVom 142" to 144° 40' E. long., or 180 
statute miles from east to west. They have been induced 
to adopt the Pandora Entrance as the beginning of the 
strait, because at that point the dangers attendant on the 
navigation of the strait begin to surround them on all 
sides, and do not cease until they have passed to the west 
of 142° E. long. ^ ^ ,„ ^ 

The reefs, which lie on the south and north of Pandora 

H2 



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Entrance, are isolated, and surrounded by a deep sea, vrhich 
extends westward about 30 miles. At that distance how- 
ever occurs a most extensive reef, which nins from north 
to south between 9^ 53' and U*" 25' S. lat. without a break, 
and by which the strait is shut up on the east ; for the 
strait can only be entered by the narrow passages which 
are to the north or south of tnis steep coral reef, and the 
whole space which lies to the west of the reef is dotted by 
islands, shoals, rocks, and ree& of various but not great 
extent. Between them are the narrow winding passages 
by which the vessels pass through the strait. It is easily 
comprehended that such vessels cannot remain under 
sail during the night. The islands are neither large nor 
numerous, except in the narrowest part, between the most 
northern part of Australia and the southern coast of 
Papua, where there are several islands of moderate extent, 
uhich are considered as one group, and comprehended 
under the general name of Prince of Wales Islands. 

Since the establishment of the English colonies in New 
South Wales, Torres Strait has frequently been navigated, 
notwithstanding the dangers which are encountered in 
passing it, as it offers a much shorter route between 
those colonies and Hindustan than the eastern and western 
routes, of which the former passes to the east of the 
Corallian Sea [Pacirc, vol. xvii., p. 118], of Louisiade, 
and Papua, and the western round the continent of 
Australia, or more commonly round Tasmania. By these 
two routes vessels usually reach the Indian Archipelago 
and Hindustan two or three weeks later than by the route 
through Torres Strait, and as it usually occurs in such 
cases, the dangers of the strait are now better known and 
easily avoided. But the strait can only be navigated 
between March and September, during the south-east 
monsoon : in the other six months of the year, or during 
the period of the noilh-west monsoon, the fogs prevail in 
tlie strait to such an extent, that no vessel can venture to 
enter among its almost innumerable reefs and rocks. Be- 
sides, Torres Strait is only navigated by vessels bound from 
New South Wales to Hindustan, and not by those which 
sail in an opposite direction. The latter would always 
have to contend against contrary winds ; for when the 
south-east monsoon terminates, the trade winds begin, and 
blow steadily and with considerable force all the rest of 
the year. This last circumstance greatly favours the 
passing of vessels from Sydney to Hindustan, but must 
render it almost impossible to reach Sydney by the same 
route. 

Two different routes are taken by vessels in sailing to 
Torres Strait, and in passing through it. They are distin- 
p^iished as the Inner and Outer route. The Inner route 
lies along the coast of Australia, and between it and the 
Great Barrier Ileefs. These reefs begin, according to 
Flinders, in 22* SC S. lat. and 152° 40' E. long., and extend 
neaily parallel to the coast of Australia to Torres Strait, 
through 14° of lat. and 9° of long., and are as to length not 
equalled in any. other jjart of the world. Their breadth 
seems to be about 50 or 60 miles in their southern part, 
but diminishes to the northward. At low-water a part of 
them is dry, and there are numerous small black rocks on 
them, but at high-water very little of them is seen. Only 
a few narrow openings occur in these barrier reefs, and one 
large one, which is found at 18° 52' S. lat., and which is 
about 20 miles wide. The arm of the sea enclosed between 
the barrier and the coast is from 60 to 80 miles wide towards 
the south, but it contracts gradually to 20 miles near the 
great opening, and is still narrower farther north. Nu- 
merous islands are scattered in this enclosed space, but no 
other coral-banks occur except those which surround some 
of the islands. Being sheltered from the strong swell of 
the Pacific by the barrier, the water is smooth, and it also 
offers the advantage of regular soundings, its depth not 
being veiy unequal, and varying only from 60 fathoms at 
the southern end to 30 fathoms at the great opening, and 
to 20 at Cape Tribulation. Though those who iirst inves- 
tigated this part of the Pacific had to encounter numerous 
difficulties, and were more than once in imminent danger, 
it seems that it offers the safest route for vessels which are 
not very large, and it appears that it has lately been 
adopted as the common route of communication between 
Sydney and Rssington, the newly established settlement in 
North Australia. Vessels sailing by this ti-ack pass through 
Torres Strait by sailing round Cape York and through 
Endeavour Strait. The last-mentioned strait is formed by | 



the mainland of Aush-alia and some of the islets belonging 
to the Prince of Wales Islands, and constitutes the southern 
part of Torres Strait. It is about 30 miles long, and from 
two to six miles wide, and offers a safe passage for vesaela 
of good size. 

The Outer route, which lies through the Corallian Sea, 
is dangerous, owing to the great number of ree& which are 
dispersed over it north of the southern tropic. After pass- 
ing through Pandora Entrance the vessels enter Torres 
Strait by sailing north of the long reef, situated at the 
entrance of the strait (144° E. long.), to Murray Islands, 
and traverse the strait by sailing west-south-west between 
innumerable low islands, shoals, and rocks. They do not 
enter Endeavour Strait, but keep at the distance of about 
20 miles from it to the northward, until they have passed 
on the north of Wednesday and Good's Islands, when they 
leave the strait and enter the Indian Sea. 

{Co6k*s First Voyage; Flinders's Voyage to Terra Aiu- 
tralis; Horsburgh's SuUan Directory; fiirl's Account of 
a Visit to Kisser t in London Geograph. Journal, vol. xi.) 

TORRES VEDRAS, a town of Portuguese Estiema- 
dura, about twentjr-five miles north-north-west of Lisbon, 
and about eight nules firom the sea-coast. The small river 
Zizandre flows in a ravine by Torres Vedras, separating the 
rid^e which runs from east to west across the peninsula in 
which Lisbon is situated, from the lofty ridge called Serra 
de Baragueda, which nins from north to south in a direc- 
tion blmost perpendicular to the former. [Estrkmadura, 

PORTDGUESK.l 

Torres Vedras is become an historical name in con- 
sequence of the lines of defence constructed by Lord Wei • 
lington along the sinuosities of the hilly tract which ex- 
tends from the Tagus to the sea, so as to protect the 
peninsula of Lisbon from invasion, and in which he 
awaited and baffled the attack of the French army under 
Marshal Massena in the autumn of 1810. *The line of de- 
fence was double : the first, which was 29 miles long, 
began at Alhandra on the Tagus, crossed the valley of 
Aruda, which was rather a weak point, and passed along 
the skills of Monte Agra9a, where there was a. large and 
strong redoubt ; it then passed across the valley of Zibreira, 
and skirted the ravine of Runa to the heights of Torres 
Vedras, which were well fortified, and from thence fol- 
lowed the course of the Zizandre to its mouth.' .... * The 
second line, at a distance varying from six to ten miles in 
the rear of the fiirst^ extended from Quintella on the Tagus, 
by Bucellas, Monte Chique, and Mafi-a, to the mouth of 
the little river S. Louren^ on the sea-coast, and was about 
24 miles in length. This was the stronger line of the two 
by nature and art ; and should the first line be forced by 
the enemy, the retreat of the army upon the second was 
secure at all times. Both lines were protected by breast- 
works, abattis, stone-works with banquettes, and scarps. 
In the rear of the second line there was a line of embarka- 
tion, should that measure become necessary, enclosing an 
entrenched camp and the Fort S. Julian. More than 100 
redoubts or forts, and 600 pieces of artillery, were scattered 
along these lines. About 60,000 men, between English, 
Portuguese, and Spaniards, were posted along the first and 
second lines. A flotilla of gun-boats flanked the right of 
the position.' 

(the Military Life of the Duke of Wellington, in 
Knight's Store of Knowledge.) 

TORRICELLI. EVANGELISTA, a learned Italian ma- 
thematician and philosopher, was bom October 15, 1608, 
at Piancaldoli in Romagna, and being, probably at an early 
age, an orphan, he was supported by an uncle who resided 
at Faenza. At this place, and in a school of the Jesuits, the 
youth received a mathematical education, and he speedily 
distinguished himself by the progress which he made in 
acauiring a knowledge of the sciences. 

At twenty years of age his uncle sent him to Rome, 
where he oecame intimately acquainted with Benedict 
Castelli, who was then professor of mathematics in that 
city, and by whom his studies were directed. The DiaJogues 
of Galileo appear to have particularly engaged Torricelli's 
attention, and he composed two tracts, one on the subject of 
mechanics, and the other on the motion of fluids, which 
were published with the rest of his mathematical works in 
1643. Torricelli seems to have been the first who established 
the principle, that when two weights are so connected 
together, tnat being placed in any position their common 
centre of gravity neither ascends nor descends, thos^ 



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weights are in ecrailibrio ; and on this principle he inyesti- 
giUed the ratio Detween two weights when they are in 
equilibrio on a double inclined plane. He also investi- 
gated the motions of falling bodies and projectiles ; and 
amonff the results of his researches is the remarkable fact, 
that the -jpaXhs of any number of projectiles (in a non-resist- 
ing medium) when discharged from the same point with 
equal velocities, but at different angles of elevation, are 
parabolas situated within one curve which is a tangent to 
all of them, and is itself a parabola. In the tract on the 
motion of fluids, he assumes that water will flow through 
an oriflce at the bottom of a vessel with a velocity equal 
to that which would be acauired by a body falling through 
the height of the fluid in tne vessel, and he endeavours to 
establi^ the principle by the supposed fact that water so 
flowing ascenos in a vertical tube connected with the vessel 
at the oriflce (the resistance of the air being abstracted) 
to the level of the upper surface of that which is in the 
vessel : he hence concludes that the velocities of effluent 
water must vary with the square-roots of the pressures. 

Galileo, having received copies of the tracts above men- 
tioned, was desirous of becoming acquainted with the 
author, and he pressed the latter to join him at Florence. 
Torricelli, having formed connections at Rome, at flrst 
hesitated, but at length decided to accept the invitation : 
he was kindly received by Galileo, and it is said that his 
society and conversation contributed to soothe the last days 
of the venerable philosopher, who was then inflrm and 
blind, and who died at the end of three months from his 
arrival. Having been honoured by the ^rand-duke with 
the appointment of professor of mathematics in the Acca- 
demia, TonicelH became the successor of Galileo in the 
institution, and he resided at Florence till his death, which 
happened in 1647, when he was thirty-nine years of age. 

About the year 1637 Roberval, in France, discovered a 
method of determining the area of a cycloid, aud seven 
years later Torricelli published a solution of the problem 
in an appendix to the collection of his works. As the 
Italian maUiematician appeared to consider himself to be 
the discoverer of the rule, RobervaVs jealousy was excited, 
and ]ie accused Tonicelli of plagiaiism ; asserting that the 
latter had taken the solution from some papei-s which had 
been sent to Galileo, and which had fallen into his hands 
on the death of that philosopher : Torricelli however, in a 
letter to Roberval, denies that assertion, and there seems 
no reason to doubt that he made the discovery without 
any knowledge of what had been already done in France. 
He subsequently gave rules for finding tne volumes of the 
solids formed by the revolution of a cycloid about its base 
and about its axis ; that which is applicable to the flrst 
case is correct, but the other is only approximative, so that 
it may be doubted whether or not Tomcelli was in posses- 
sion of an accurate solution of the problem. 

But the discovery which has immortalized the name of 
Torricelli is that of the barometer. Galileo liad occasion, 
some time previously, to observe that a column of water 
exceeding 18 cubits (about 33 feet, English) in height 
could not be rused in a pump ; and, though he had already 
made the discovery of the pressure of the atmosphere, the 
reason why that limit could not be exceeded remained 
u.iknown to him. Torricelli, in 1643, wishing to And, in a 
more convenient manner, the weight of the quantity of 
fluid which could be supported above its general level, 
performed an experiment similar to that which is exhibited 
when a pump is in action; and, instead of water, he 
used mercury, which is about fourteen times as heavy. 
He fllled witn mercury a glass tube which at one end was 
hermetically closed, and having inverted it, he brought its 
open extremity under the surface of mercury in a vessel ; 
wnen he observed that the top of the column descended 
till it stood at a height equal to between 29 and 30 inches 
(Eiiglish) above the level of the mercury in the vessel, 
leaving what is considered as a perfect vacuum between 
the upper extremity of the column and that of the tube. 
The specific gravity of mercury being known, the weight 
of the supported column could, of course, be found. 

By this experiment the opinion that a vacuum was 
contrary to a law of nature was immediately proved to 
be unfounded, but it is uncertain whether or not Torri- 
celli was aware of the true cause of the column of mercury 
being so supported, and the honour of having been the 
first to prove decisively that it was the pressure of the 
atmosphere on the surface of the mercury in the vessel. 



is ascribed to Pascal, who, in 1648, on conveying a tube so 
fllled to stations at different heights above the level of the . 

})lains, found that the column of mercury diminished in 
ength as the station was more elevated ; that is, as the 
weight of the column of atmosphere above the vessel 
diminished. 

It may be easily conceived that Torricelli would com- 
municate his ideas to his friends before he actually made 
the experiment above mentioned; and such a circum- 
stance may account for the pretensions of Valerianus Msjb;- 
nus, Honoratus Fabri, and others, to priority in the dis- 
covery of what is called the Torricellian vacuum. It 
ought to be observed however that in one of the letters of 
Descartes, dated 1631, that is, twelve years before the ex- 
periment of Torricelli was made, this philosopher mentions 
the support of a column of mercury in a tube, and ex- 
pressly ascribes the cause to the weight of a column of air 
extending upwards beyond the clouds. 

Torricelli published at Florence, in 1644, a volume in 
4to., entitled * Opera Greometrica.' A paper which he 
wrote on the course of the Chiana is in tne collection of 
writings on the movement of fluids (Florence, 1768). His 
discovery of the barometer is given in his own work on 
mathematical and physical subjects, entitled * L6zione 
Accademiche ' (Florence, 1715). And his letter to Roberval 
on the cycloid is in the third volume of the * M^moires ' of 
the Academy of Sciences at Paris. He is said to have been 
the inventor of the small simple microscopes of short 
focus, which consist of a globule of glass melted in the 
flame of a lamp. His manuscripts are preserved in the 
Medicean Palace, and in the same ediflce there are some 
object-glasses for telescopes, of considerable dimensions, 
which bear his name. 

TORRID ZONE. TZone.] 

TORRIGIA'NO, PIlS'TRO, an Italian sculptor, whose 
name is connected with the history of art in tnis country, 
he being one of the foi-eign artists employed by Henry 
VIII., was hardly less remarkable for the ferociousness of 
his temper, the singularity of his conduct, and the strange- 
ness of his fate, than for his ability in his profession. He 
was a native of Florence, and though the time of his bu-th 
is not mentioned, it was probably about the same as that of 
Michael Angel o (1474), as they studied together from the 
antiquities in the gardens of Lorenzo de' Medici, il Mag- 
nifico ; a circumstance which Michael had good cause to 
remember, for such was Torrigiano's jealousy of and spite 
towards him, that he one day assaulted him, and inflicted 
so severe a blow upon his nose as to crush and disfigure it 
for ever. Being obliged to flee from Florence in con- 
sequence of this affair, Torrigiano went to Rome, where he 
was employed by Pope Alexander VI., and afterwards en- 
listed and served as a soldier, flrst under the duke Valen- 
tino in Romagna, next under Vitelli and Piero de' Medici. 
Strange as this change was, he was well suited to his new 
profession, and that to him; for, as described both by 
Vasari and Cellini, he was a large, handsome, and power- 
ful man ; was gifted with great * audacity, and had more 
the air of a rough soldier than of an artist.' But though 
he distinguished himself by his prowess, and obtained the 
rank of ensign, he saw no chance of speedily advancing 
higher, and therefore returned to his former profession, 
wmch he practised for awhile, but only, it would seem, in 
small bronze figures, executed for some Florentine mer- 
chants, whom he afterwards accompanied to England. His 
talents, and perhaps his personal qualities also, recom- 
mended him to the favour of Henry VIII., for whom he 
executed a variety of things, but his chief work was the 
tomb of Henry Vll. in Westminster Abbey, which he 
completed in 1519, and for which he received the sum of 
1000/. The tomb of Margaret, countess of Richmond, in 
Henry VII.'s chapel, is also supposed to have been by him. 

While engaged upon Henry's tomb he returned to Italy, 
in order to carry back with nim other assistants, and en- 
deavoured to persuade Benvenuto Cellini, then only 
eighteen, to accompany him ; but the latter tells us he was 
so disgusted with Torrigiano, on learning from him how 
brutally he had treated Michael Angelo, that so far from 
associating with him in any way, he could not even endure 
the sight of him. 

After finally quitting England in 1519, Torrigiano 
visited Spain, where he executed several pieces of sculp- 
ture for convents, &c., and among others, a Vir^n and 
Child, so beautiful that the duke d'Arcos commissioned 



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him to make a oopy of it. The payment promised for it 
seemed such an immense sum, tnat the artist fancied he 
was about to be rendered wealthy for the rest of his days ; 
80 great therefore was his indignation on discovering that 
the vast heap of maravedis sent home to him amounted to 
no more in value than thirty ducats, that he went and 
broke the statue to pieces. On this, the duke caused him 
to be imprisoned in the Inquisition as a sacrileflnious heretic 
who had impiously destroyed a figure of the Holy Virgin. 
He was accordingly condemnea by that tribunal, but 
avoided the execution of his sentence by refitsing to take 
any food ; preferring starving himself to death to the more 
ignominious end which else awaited him. Thus perished, 
in 1522, an artist of more than ordinary talent : a victim 
partly to his own violence and imprudence, and partly to 
the mercilessness of a most odious and sanguinary tribunal. 
(Vasari, Vite ; Vita di Benvenuto Cellini.) 

TORRINGTON. [Dbvowshirb.] 

TORS. By the natural weathering of rocks exposed to 
atmospheric vicissitudes, the perishable parts are removed 
and the more resisting portions remain. In rocks which 
manifest peculiar arrangements of joints or natural divisions, 
the bloclcs jind masses defined by their intersections often 
appear in cubical, subcolumnar, and other characteristic 
shapes. To masses more or less characteristic in figure, left 
by the decay of surrounding parts in prominent situations, 
the name of ' Tor ' is applied m the granitic tracts of Devon 
and Cornwall. Examples majr be seen in almost every 
district of granite, millstone-grit, and massive conglome- 
rate, such as that which forms the top of the old red- 
sandstone near Monmouth. In some instances the wea- 
thering process (which proceeds most rapidly to waste the 
stone in sheltered parts) undermines the mass of rock, so 
as to leave it standing on a narrow pedestal (Brimham 
rocks in Yorkshire, for example, or the ' Buckstone ' near 
Monmouth). Finally, this pedestal is worn away, and the 
stone falls to take a new position. It may happen, owing 
to the figure of the stone and the place of the centre of 
gravity, that in its new situation the stone may rest upon 
so narrow a base as to be easily displaced to a small extent 
by the hand. It is then a ' rocking-stone,* such as occur 
in Cornwall, in Yorkshire, and in many other situations, 
where the labour of Druids has been invoked to account 
for a simple operation of nature. (MacCulloch, in Geol. 
IVaiM., 1st series, vol. ii. ; De la Beche's Manual of Geo- 
logy ; Phillips's Geol. of Yorkshire, vol. li.) 

TORSCHOK is a considerable town of European Russia, 
in the government of Twer : next to the capital, it is the 
most important town.in that government. It is situated on 
the right bank of the river Twerza, on the high road be- 
tween St. Petersburg and Moscow, and is divided into two 
paits by the river which runs through it, and over which 
there is a bridge of boats. It is surrounded with palisades, 
and has broad streets and spacious market-places, which 
however are not paved. Of the fortifications nothing re- 
mains but the ramparts, which are planted with birch and 
converted into public walks. The houses are partly built 
of brick ; and there are twenty-three churches, among 
which the cathedral, which has been rebuilt wi/hin these 
few years, is worthy of notice. From the castle on the 
hill there is an extensive and beautiful prospect. The 
town is large, and has a striking effect when viewed at a 
distance ; the interior does not correspond with the ex- 
terior appearance. It is very old, and nas always shared 
the fate of Novgorod ; after being frequently pillaged by 
the Tartars and the princes of Twer and Mx)scow, it has 
always recovered itself, and is partly indebted for its 
agreeable appearance to Catherine II., who relieved it 
ailer a great fire in 1769. The population of Torschok is 
stated by Hassel, above twenty years ago, at 15,000 ; yet 
Schnitzler, in 1835, thinks that estimate much too high. 
The inhabitants manufacture boots, slippers, caps, port- 
folios, and other articles of embroidered morocco. Few 
travellers pass through this city without purchasing some 
articles of this kind, and they pay a higher price on the 
spot than at St. Petersburg and Moscow, where very large 
quantities are sold. The boots and caps of Torschok are 
sold as the manufacture of Turkey and Persia. 

(Schnitzler, La Russie, la Pologne, et la Finlande; 
Stein, Geographi9ches Lexicon; Horschelmann ; Hassel ; 
Cannabich.^i 

TORSELLI'NO. [Tdrskllinus.] 

TORSION is that force with which a thread or wire 



returns to a state of rest when it has been twisted by betng 
turned round on its axis : the thread or wire, which is sus- 
pended vertically, is attached at the up])er extremity to 
some object, and at the lower extremity is a weight with 
a horizontal index, or a stirrup, which is to carry a Q^edle 
or bar in a horizontal position. 

Let Z Y be the wire, W the weight or stirrup, and AB 
an index or needle, and let 6 a c be patt of a graduated 
ring on the same level as the needle ; then, on turning the 




■(^^ 



A 



^» 



object W round till a mark on the extremity A of the 
index is brought to any point, 6, on the ring, the wire be- 
comes twisted ; and when the power by which W is turned 
is removed, the elasticity of the wire causes the point at A 
to oscillate within the nng through an arc, Bsbac, which 
continually diminishes till the index rests in its original 
position. 

In the article Elasticity (p. 327) there is given an 
investigation from which it is proved that, while the force 
of torsion is moderate, its intensity is directly proportional 
to the angle or arc through which the extiemity A of the 
index is moved in twisting the wire. It is also there 
proved that T, the time of a complete oscillation, is con- 
stant, or that the vibrations are isochronous, like those of 
a pendulum which is acted upon by gravity ; and further, 
that when a body, as W, is suspenaed, the squares of the 
times of vibration vary directly as the momentum of the 
body's inertia, and inversely as the force of torsion : con- 
sequently when the forms and weights of suspended bodies 
are the same, the force of torsion varies inversely with the 
square of the time. With respect to the effects which a 
variation in the length of the wire will cause in the force 
of torsion, it may be observed that in proportion as the 
lengths of the wires are increased, points at the lower ex- 
tremities must be turned, about the axis, through greater 
arcs, in order to produce equal degrees of torsion at equal 
distances from the points of suspension ; and hence, if the 
number of revolutions be equal, the force of torsion will 
be inversely proportional to the len^h of the wire : it fol- 
lows therefore that the time of a vibration varies directly 
with the square-root of the length of the wire. 

These deductions from theory are confirmed- by their 
agreement with the results of the numerous expenments 
made by M. Coulomb with an apparatus similar to that 
which is above represented ; the times in which a certain 
nuinber of isochronous vibrations were made with wires 
of different lengths, and carrying at their lower extremities 
cylinders of different weights, being observed. By com- 
parisons also of experiments on wires of the same length 
and of different diameters, consequently of different 
weights, Coulomb found that the times of vibration were 
inversely proportional to the weights, or to the squares of 
the diameters of the wires ; and since the force of torsion 
varies inversely with the squares of the times, it follows 
that when the wires are of the like material and of equal 
lengths, the force of torsion varies directly with the fourth 
power of the diameter. M. Poisson, in a memoir on the 



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equilibrium and movement of elastic bodies, which is given 
in the * Mtooires de TAcad^mie des Sciences ' (torn, viii.), 
has deduced the same law from purely theoretical consi- 
derations. 

It may be convenient to compare the force of torsion 
witlfthat of gravity, and for this purpose it will be neces- 
sary to obsei-ve merely that the time in which a pendulum, 
whose length is I, makes a complete oscillation in a veiy 

small arc is expressed hy «• ( - j [Pendulum, p. 406], 

where g represents the force of gravity : then the time in 
which the torsion wire vibrates once on its axis being 
made equal to the time in which a simple pendulum 
vibrates, we have (using the formula in Elasticity), 

=s - ; therefore as the momentum of inertia for a 

n g' 

torsion wire suspending a body of a given form can be 
computed, and as / may be found from the observed time 
of a vibration, the value of n (the coefficient of the force 
of torsion) can be ascertained from this equation. 
'The torsion of slender wires was first employed by Cou- 
lomb for the purpose of determining the intensities of 
forces in nature and the laws of their action in circum- 
stances which render direct methods inapplicable : his ex- 
periments were performed with an instrument which he 
invented, and which he designated a torsion balance. In 
the article Electrometer there is i^ven a description of 
the instrument and of the method of employing it in find- 
ing the laws uf electric attractions and repulsions ; and it 
will therefore be sufficient in this place to explain its 
application in determining those of magnetic action. For 
this purpose Coulomb adapted to the suspending wire, 
which was of copper, a small stirrup, as W, also of copper, 
in which could oe placed a magnetized needle of steel. 
Before this was done however, a copper needle, equal in 
weight to the magnetized needle which was to be used in 
the experiment, was placed in the stirrup, and the plate 
D at the top of the glass case was turned round tilf one 
extremity of the copper needle, which turned with the 
plate, was brought to the zero of the graduations on the 
horizontal circle bac in the case, the suspending wire 
being in an untwisted state : the whole case was after- 
wards turned round till the needle, still pointing to zero, 
was in the direction of the magnetic meridian, which had 
been previously determined. The copper needJe was then 
taken away, and the magnetized needle put in the stirrup ; 
and as soon as it was at rest in the magnetic meridian, tne 
suspending wire was twisted by turning. the stem £, to 
which it is attached at the upper extremity of the case, 
till the index there had passed over some given number of 
degrees, which in one experiment was 360. The sus- 
pended needle was thus made to deviate from its previous 
position 10^ degrees, in which state the horizontal force of 
teiTestrial magnetism was in equilibrio with the force of 
torsion ; and the angle of torsion was then equal to 349^'' 
(= 360**- lOJ"). On turning the index at E through two 
revolutions, the needle was observed to rest between the 
opposing forces, at 21^® from its original place, when con- 
sequently the angle of torsion was 698f'' (=720** -21^**). 
Obtaining in like manner several other angles of torsion 
. with the corresponding deviations of the magnetic needle, 
and comparing them together. Coulomb found that the 
forces of torsion are constantly proportional to the sines of 
the deviations of the needle. 

In order to discover the law of magnetic action with 
respect to the distances between the attracting or repelling 
booies. Coulomb placed a magnetized needle m the stirrup 
of the balance, and after twisting the wire by turning the 
micrometer stem at E on its axis through a certain number 
of degrees, he observed where the needle rested between 
the opposing forces of torsion and the horizontal compo- 
nent of terrestrial magnetism : assuming then that the de- 
viations of the needle were proportional to the forces of 
torsion, he found that, in order to make the needle deviate 
one degree, it was necessary to employ a force of torsion 
expressed by 35 degrees. The wire being then untwisted, 
and the magnetized needle placed in the magnetic meri- 
dian. Coulomb introduced in the glass case, in a vertical 
position, and also in the plane of the magnetic meridian, a 
magnetized needle of the same dimensions as the other, so 
that if the two needles could have approached each other 
they wcwld have been in contact at about an iaeh from the 



extremity of each ; but the poles of the same denomination 
in the two needles being presented to each other, a repul- 
sion took place, and the suspended needle came to a state 
of rest between the opposing forces of torsion and of mag- 
netic repulsion. When the micrometer at £ was allowed 
to remain in its actual position, the suspended needle was 
repelled 24 degrees, and conseouently it was prevented 
from returning to the zero point oy a force of toi-sion ex- 
pressed by the sum of 24 degrees, and of the horizontal 
force of *errestrial attraction (= 24 X 35% or 840**) ; thus 
the who^e force of magnetic repulsion was expressed by 
864 degrees. In a second experiment, the wire being 
twisted by making the stem at E perform three revolutions 
(= lOSO"") in a direction contrary to that of the 24 degrees 
before mentioned, the needle rested at 17 degrees from 
zero : the force of magnetic repulsion was then expressed 
by the sum of 1097 degrees, and the value of terrestrial 
attraction (= 17 X 35% or 595°) ; that is, in all, 1692 de- 
grees. On comparing together several experiments of the 
same nature, and also several similar experiments in which 
the poles of a contrary denomination were presented to 
each other. Coulomb found, neglecting small differences 
which may be supposed to have arisen from the extent and 
configuration of the needles, that the forces of magnetic 
repulsion and attraction vary inversely as the squares cf the 
distances. 

The • bifilar magnetometer ' which was invented by M. 
Gauss, is a species of torsion balance : it is described briefi y 
in the ailicle TbrrbstrIal Maqnstism, and at length in 
Taylor's ' Scientific Memoirs,' vol. ii., part 6. The appa- 
ratus with which, by the oscillations of two balls of lead 
at the extremities of a lever suspended horizontally by a 
string, Mr. Cavendish determined the average density of 
the earth, was also a balance acting on the same principle. 
[Attraction, p. 68,] 

For the strain of torsion in machinery, see Materials, 
Strength of. 

TORTENSON. [Thirty Years' War.] 

TORTI, FRANCIS, an eminent Italian physician, was 
bom at Modena, December 1st, 1658. Having finished 
his preliminary studies in 1675, he was originally intended 
for the legal profession ; this however he soon abandoned, 
and embraced that of medicine, which he studied under 
Antonio Frassoni. He took the degree of Doctor of Medi- 
cine at Bologna in 1678, and upon his return to Modena, 
at the early age of twenty-three, he obtamed one of tho 
medicsd professorships founded by the duke Francis II. 
Soon afterwards he was chosen to be one of the physicians 
in ordinary to the duke, an appointment which he owed 
partly to his accomplishments in music and literature, as 
tie was the composer of several oratorios, and also wrote a 
Latin letter under the assumed name of L. A. Cotta, in 
defence of Tasso against Bouhours. Upon the death of 
Francis in 1694, his successor continued loHi in his place 
of physician in ordinary ; he was also prevailed upon by 
his representations to found an anatomical amphitheatre 
at Modena, in which Torti was entrusted with the office 
of demonstrator in 1698. He had previously joined with 
Ramazzini in carrying on some researches concerning the 
barometer, the results of which were published by the 
latter under the title 'Ephemerides Barometricae Mutl- 
nensee,' Modena, 1694 ; and again * Disserlatio altera 
Triceps circi Mercurii Motiones in Barometro,' Modena, 
1698. But Torti's most important and celebrated work 
did not appear till 1709, under the title * Therapeutice 
Spe^alis ad Febres quaadam Pemiciosas, inopinato ac 
repente Lethales, una ver5 China China Peculiari Methodo 
ministrata,' Modena, 8vo. This work placed him at once 
in the first rank among practical physicians, and still con- 
tinues to be highly esteemed. It has been several times 
reprinted, the test edition (of which the wiiter is a^ware) 
beinj published at Paris, 1821, 8vo., in 2 vols. The 
publication of this work gained him the friendship and 
applause of various learned men, and also the title of 
corresponding member of the Rojral Society of London, 
and of the Academy of Valentia in Spain. It also drew 
forth some criticisms from Manget and Ramaxzini, to 
whose i«marks he replied with some degree of bitterness 
and warmth. In 1717 he was offered the professorship of 
Practical Medicine at Turin, and in 1720 he had a similar 
offer at Padua, but he refhsed them both, and preferred 
living at Modena, where he had honours and emoluments 
hea|wd upon him by the duke. An incurable trem- 



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bling of the hands having rendered him unable to feel 
the pulse of his patients with sufficient accuracy, he gave 
up practice some years before his death, and passed the 
remainder of his life in honourable repose, often consulted 
by patients from all parts, and spending much of his 
leisure time in the pleasures of the chase, to which he had 
always been much addicted. Having been summoned by 
the prince of Parma, in 1731, to attend Henrietta d'Este, 
he was, upon his return to Modena, seized while in a 
church with a sudden attack of hemiplegia, brought on 
probably by heat and over-exertion. For some time after- 
wards he lost the use of his right side, but gradually 
recovered, and lived for ten years after the attack. He 
latterly became dropsical, and died in March, 1741, at the 
age of eighty-two. He was twice married, but having no 
children, he left part of his fortune to found another 
medical professorship at Modena, and directed the rest to 
be given away in charity. (JBiographie Medicale.) 

TORTOISES {Testudinata\ a numerous and highly 
interesting order of Reptiles, generally considered the first 
by herpetologists. They are also termed Chelonians, from 
XtXuvfi (chelone), the Greek name for a tortoise, and are 
distinguished at the first glance by the double shield in 
which their body is normally enclosed, whether they are 
terrestrial, fresh-water, or marine : they were all comprised 
by Linnseus under his genus Testudo. 

Organization. 

Skeleton, — ^The surface of the skull in these reptiles is 
continuous, being without any moveable articulations, as 
is the case with the serpents and the Tailed Batrachians. 
But whilst this character prevails in all the genera of 
which the order is composed, many of those genera differ 
much in their cranial structure, and it becomes necessary 
to point out these differences, which are much greater 
than those which exist in the crania of the Crocodiles. 

In the Terrestrial Tortoises the head is oval and obtuse 
anteriorly; the interval between the eyes is large and 
convex ; the aperture of the nostrils is large, higher than 
it is wide, and a little depressed backwaras. The orbits, 
which are large, are nearly round, complete throughout, 
directed sideways, and a little forwards. Trie parietal region 
terminates backwards in a large projecting occipital spine, 
and has on each side two lai*ge temporal fossae, under 
which are enormous tympanic cavities ; behind these cavi- 
ties, and a little above, project two large mastoidean protu- 
berances, and beneath them are the apophyses, which 
serve for the articulation of the under jaw. These apo- 
physes descend vertically, and are not directed backwards, 
as in the Crocodiles. Underneath, the basilary region is 
flat, the palatine concave ; and upon the antenor part of 
this last the osseous posterior nostrils open, there being no 
palatine roof, and the palatine part of the maxillaries 
being open up to the anterior fourth of the muzzle ; a dis- 
position rendered necessary by the mode of respiration in 
these animals, and which as much resembles that of the 
JRro^r* as it diffei-s from that of the Crocodiles, The occi- 
pitfu re^on is in its totality vertical, although the occi- 
pital spine, the mastoidean protuberances, and the articular 
condyle of the skull, whicn is a very projecting tubercle, 
render it very unequal. 

The first remarkable feature in the composition of the 
head of the Tortoises, remarks Cuvier, from whose ob- 
servations the osteology of the order is principally taken, is 
the absence of nasal bones. In the recent animal the ex- 
ternal bony nostrils are narrowed by cartilaginous lamins, 
which represent these bones ; but in the skeleton is found 
immediately at their upper border the anterior frontal 
bone, which takes its ordinary place in the frame of the 
orbit, is articulated also, as ordinarily, to the ante-orbital 
apophysis of the maxillary bone, descends within the orbit, 
forms the anterior septum, which separates the orbit from 
the nose, and is articulated below with the palatine and the 
vomer, leaving between it, the maxillary, and the palatine 
an oblong hole, which leads into the posterior nostrils. 
The osseous cavity of the nose is oblong, and formed by the 
maxillaries, the intermaxillariea, the vomer, the two an- 
terior and the two principal irontals. The extent of the 
anterior frontals and the absence of the nasal bones are 
the causes that the first articulate with each other, and 
that they extend above the orbit and outside the principal 
frontals up to the posterior frontals in Testudo Indica, or 
veiy near it in some other species. The intermaxillaries 



have no ascending apophysis. They form, as ordinarily, 
the termination of the muzzle, and are directed backwaras 
in the palate between the maxillaries, and even between 
the posterior nostrils, to the vomer. The posterior nostrils 
are two lar^e a];)ertures pierced on each side in the noddle 
of the nasal cavity between the maxillaries, the intermax- 
illaries, the vomer, and the anterior frontal bones. The 
bottom of the cavity of the nose is covered above and 
closed behind by the'^principal frontals, which leave a large 
aperture between them closed by a cartilage which per- 
mits the passage of the filaments of the olfactory nerve. 
Lower and laterally there is, between the frontal, the an- 
terior frontal) and the vomer, a rather lar^e space closed by 
a continuation of the same cartilage, which represents the 
OS planum. In the terrestrial tortoise there is no inter- 
orbital simple cartilaginous septum, or nearly none ; but 
this is not so in other subgenera. The frontals cover but 
very little of the cerebral chamber, because they are short, 
and together form a lozenge wider than it is long. The 
parietaJs form together a pentagon, the most acute angle 
of which proceeds to unite itself with the occipital spine. 
They cover more than half of the cerebral chamber, and 
are directed backwards by means of a scaly suture on the 
occipital bone and on the petrous bone. On each side the 
parietal bone descends very low into the temporal fossa ; 
there it occupies nearly all the space which tne temporal 
wing of the sphenoid bone occupies in the crocodile, and 
in the tortoise there only remains a very small portion of 
this bone, which unites on one side to the descending por- 
tion of the parietal ; on the other to the palatine, the in- 
ternal pterygoid, the body of the sphenoid, the tympanic 
cavity, and the os petrosum. 

In the Chelone mydas (toitue franche) it is still smaller, 
and joined to the descending foot of the descending portion 
of the parietal bone. The Jugal bone is articiilated, as 
ordinarily, with the external and posterior angle of the 
maxillary bone. It is narrow and continued under the 
orbit, behind which it encounters the posterior frontal 
bone, which completes the frame in this part, and tlic 
squamous portion of the temporal bone, which forms by 
itself the whole zygomatic arch, as may be seen in many 
of the Cctacea. TTie temporal bone widens to unite itself 
to the tympanic cavity, which is extremely large. It forms 
a frame which is nearly completely bony for a large tym- 
panum ; and below this frame it descends in form of an 
apophysis for the articulation of the lower jaw. This frame 
leads into a vast cavity, completed only at its upper poste- 
rior angle by the mastoidean. At the bottom ot this cavity 
is a hole through which passes the ossiculum auditiis to 
arrive at a second cavity, formed externally by the bone of 
the tympanic cavity, on the internal side by the petrous 
bone and the occipital bones, below a little by the spnenoid 
bone, and closed Ibackwards by cartilage. It is a second 
part of the tympanic cavity which is thus divided by a 
constriction, of which we have examples among the mam- 
mals, especially in the ^enus Felis^ but the communication 
between the two parts is less narrowed than in the tortoise. 
The tympanic bone forms besides a considerable part of 
the posterior walls of the temporal fossa. Between it and 
the paiietal the petrous bone shows itself in this same 
temjporal fossa, and the cranium is closed behind by the 
occipital bone, which is here divided into six, — ^not into 
four bones ; for the lateral occipitals are each divided into 
two parts, the most external of which Cuvier terms the 
exterior occipital. The fenestra ovalis is, he observes, 
common to the petrous bone and this exterior occipital ; 
as, in the crocodile, it is common to the petrous bone and 
the ordinary lateral occipital : the fenestra rotunda, on the 
contrary, is pierced in the exterior occipital, as it is pierced 
in the lateral occipital of the crocodile. The two bones 
contribute to the formation of the cell of the labyrinth 
with the upper occipital, as the petrous bone and the late- 
ral occipital contribute to it in the crocodile. In both 
genera the great aperture for the exit of the fifth pair of 
nerves is in front of the petrous bone, between it and the 
temporal ala. In the Turtle this hole is between the 
petrous bone and the descending part of the parietal bone. 
The ossiculum audit (is is simple, as in the crocodile, and 
formed of a slender stem which widens at the point of its 
approximation to the fenestra ovalis, and which is there 
applied by a round and concave surface, so that it has 
nearly the figiire of a trumpet. The external end of the 
stem, placed in the external part of the cavity, is, in great 



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part, cartilaginous, and terminated by a plate of the same 
substance and of lenticular form, which is encased in the 
membrane of the tympanum, and which may be. considered 
as the analogue of the malleus. Tlie Eustachian tube is 
entirely cartilaginous or membranous. It commences in 
the external chamber of the cavity, above, by a large 
notch of the posterior border of the tympanic bone, near 
the edge of the tjrmpanum itself, and is directed obliquely 
within, passing between the bone of the cavity and the 
depressor muscle of the lower jaw, to a notch of the late- 
ral and posterior border of the pterygoid bone, whereby it 
penetrates into the back of the fauces, on the side, close to 
the articulation of the lower jaw, but far enough from its 
congener, and especially very far behind the internal 
nostrils. On the palate, or rather, behind the roof of the 
back of the mouth, may be seen the orifices of two tubes, 
under the form of two small holes separated from each 
other. 

lieverting to the lower surface of the cranium, behind 
the maxillaries and the frontaJs, posterior to the two sides 
of the vomer, are the palatines, surrounded behind and 
externally by the pteiygoid bones, which last extend along 
the external border of the palatine to the maxillary bones. 
The rest of the pterygoids covers the lower surface of the 
cranium between the two tympanic cavities and the two tem- 
poral alae, leaving exposed to view behind only a triangular 
part of the body of the sjjhenoi'd. Here, Cuvier observes, the 
palatines have only their upper portion, that is to sav, that 
which, in the mammifers, separates the back nostrils from 
the orbits, and they want that recurved part which pro- 
longs the roof of the palate behind the maxillaries: he 
adds that when he wrote he had found it impossible to 
discover the lachrymal bone in the tortoises, any more than 
in the seals and dolphins, though he had recognised a 
vestige of it in the whales, and he says that he does not see 
that Ulric or Bojanus had found it more than he had done, 
but he had observed towards the point of junction of the 
anterior frontal, the palatine, and the maxillary bones, an 
aperture which might well perform the functions of a lach- 
rymal hole. The olfactory and optic nerves have their 
exit by the cartilaginous septa of the cranium, and not by 
any particular opening in the skull. Cuvier thinks that it 
is the same with the third and fourth pairs : the sixth goes 
forth by a small canal of the body of the sphenoid bone. 
The fifth pair has a great hole between the petrous bone 
and the temporal ala divided into two externally. There 
is at the external border of the palatine bone a hole 
analogous to the pterygo-palatine. 

Internally, the cerebral cavity is higher than it is wide ; 
the bottom of it is very entire : but, in front, in the sphe- 
noid, there is a deep fosset for the pituitary gland, a kind 
of saddle. From the sides of this part spring the cartilagi- 
nous septa, which in going to form a junction with the 
ante-cerebral partition of the frontal bone, close the 
cavity of the cranium, support the whole anterior part of 
the encephalon, and occupy the place of the cribriform 
plate, of the orbital alae ; or otherwise, the anterior sphe- 
noid, and the greater part of the temporal alae, of which 
another considerable part is replaced by the descending 
portions of the parietal, so that what remains does not par- 
ticipate in the formation of the chamber of the cranium 
except a little in front of the hole for the fifth pair of^ 
nerves. There is no more bony trace of the anterior sphe- 
noid than in the crocodile. 

Cuvier observes that this description, taken from Testudo 
Indicay sufficiently agrees with the other terrestrial tortoises 
properly so called. 




P. C, No. 1559. 





Skull ofTettudo lodica. 
1, profile ; 2, seen from above ; 3, seen from below; 4, seen from behind. 

In the EmydeSy or ordinary fresh-water tortoises, the 
same author remarks that the head is more flattened. 
The principal frontals, although they are wider than they 
are long, do not always reach to the border of the orbit, as is, 
for example, the case in the Testudo {Cistudo) Eiirop^a ; 
the posterior frontal is wider. The frame of the tym- 
panum is not complete, and in lieu of a hole there is a 
nssure for the passage of the ossiculum auditQs from one 
hollow of tiie cavity to the other. The basilary and pala- 
tine regions form but one plane ; the palatines not being 
even concave. Cuvier observes that Testtuiines scripta^ 
picta, scabra^ dorsata, centrata, clausa, and virgulata, be- 
long to this category. Certain Emydes, he remarks, Emys 
expansa for instance, tend to the Sea-tortoises or Turtles 
and the fresh-water tortoises, and yet exhibit cliaracters 
peculiar to themselves. The head is depressed, the muzile 
short, and the orbits small and placed very forwawL It 

. Vol, M£¥. — I t 
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wants the bony vomer, so that its two back nostrils form 
but one aperture in the skull. Its palatines want the 
palatine portion. The fraipe of the first chamber of its 
tympanic cavity is complete ; this chamber communicates 
only by one n^row hole ^th the mastoidean cellule, and 
the Eustachian tube tak«t its origin there bv means of a 
slit, which it an exteniion of the hole by which the ossi- 
culum passes into the lecond chamber. The temporal 
bone is covert, a^ in the turtles, bytbe parietal, temporal, 
jugal, and posterior frontal bones. This last is very narrow ; 
it has one portion descending into the temple, which, 
uniting to an ascending part of the palatine bone and to 
a re-entering portion of the jugal bone, forms a partition 
which separates the orbit from the temporal fossa, not leav^ 
ing any communication except one great hole near that 
descending paii of the temporal bone which replaces the 
temporal afa. The pterygoid unites itself forward with 
the palatine and jugal bones, and not with the maxillary, 
which does not reach so ftir backwards. Its external bor- 
der is re-curved with the neighbouring portion of the jugal 
bone, and thus forms in the lower part of the temple a 
kind of canal, which takes its commencement at the hole 
of communication of the temple with the orbit. Its pos- 
terior angle on the contrary is directed a little downwards, 
descending more than the articular facet for the lower jaw, 
and leaving between it and the elevated part of the ex- 
ternal bolder a wide notch. Between this angle and the 
articular facet is a fossa, hollowed in the tympanal, in the 
sphenoid, and the pterygoidean bones. The mastoidean 
tubercles are depressed, very much projecting backwards, 
and pointed ; their point is formed D)r the mastoidean and 
the external occipital. On each aide in fi-ont of the tym- 
panic cavity the lower border of the skull has a wide notch 
cut in the temporal, the jugal, and the lower maxillary, 
as in the Land Tortoises. The sphenoid shows itself below 
on a surface much wider than in the Land Tortoises, and 
the basilary appears less. The lateral occipitals are also 
veiy small, and are pvornvtly anchylosed with the basilary 
bone. The tubercle fbr tne articulation with the atlas is 
less projecting than the mastoidean apophyses. In the 
Testudo {Emy$aura*) urpeniina^ Cuvier no longer found 
at a certain a^e the external occipital distinct. It was 
united to the lateral occipital; whilst in the Land Tor- 
toises it is to the upper occipital that it is, rather, united. 
The skull of the Te$iudo terpefitina is, he observes, de- 
pressed anteriorly, the muwie very short; the orbits 
moderate and approaching the muzzle ; the temple covered 
only at its antenor part by a lamina of the panetaJ bone, 
less complete than in the turtles, and by an enlargement 
of the posterior frontal and of the jugal bones. The 
palatines have no palatine lamina; the palatine and 
pterygoidean region is veiy flat. The analogous holes of 
the pterygo-palatines are very larsg. The passage of the 
ossiculum auditOs is ma4e by a hole, and not by a fissure. 
In the Trionyces, or Soft Tortoises, the skull, Cuvier ob- 
serves, is dejiressed, and elongated backwards ; the muzzle, 
pointed in q«rtain species (that of the Nile, for instance), 
u short and rounded in sojne others. The intermaxillaiy 
bones are vary sm^ll, and have neither nasal nor palatine 
apophysis; tfiere is behind them a large incisive hole. 
The maxillariea unite upon the palate for a rather long 
apace, so that the posterior nostrils are more backvwd 
than in the Land Tortoises. The palatines do not unite 
below to prolong the palate; they are hollowed into a 
demi-canal anteriorly, and less extended than in the lAnd 
Tortoises. The body of the sphenoid reaches up to them, 
passing between two pterygoidean bones, which do not 
unite, but extend from the lateral occipital, between the 
tympanic cavities and the basilary bone, and to the sides 
of the body of the sphenoid to the palatines and maxilla- 
ries, a conformation which renders the whole of the basilary 
and palatine regions wide and flat. Above, the anterior 
Irontals advance between the maxillaries and supply ex- 
actly \iy this part the place of the proper bones of the 
nose without any distinguishing suture ; they even pro- 
ceed to form a point on the external aperture of the nos- 
trils, ^ the bones of the nose often do in the mammals. 
Th^ principal fiontala lorm nearly a square ; they reach 
Uie border of (he orbit. The jugal forms a part of the 
P^terior and lower border of the orbit, and nearly the 
Whole of the aygomatio axch, of which the squamous por- 
wn of the temporal bone forms only a small part in uont 
<XMv*« terpeiitiM, S^kvmgg, &e., Okekmvra and Smyt otothtt wOum. 



of the tympadic cavity ; this last has its irame complete. 
Hie ossiculum passes by means of a hole to enter the 
second chamber of the cavity, which, as in the other tor- 
toises, is closed behind by a cartilage only. The Eusta- 
chian tube commences by a notch of the posterior border, 
as in the Land Tortoises. The spine of the occiput and 
the mastoidean tuberosities are aft three pointed, and pro- 
ject more backwards than the articular condyle. The 
space occupied by the tympanic cavity at the posterior 
border of the temporal fossa is very narrow, but it widens 
in descending again towards its apophysis for the lower 
jaw. The temporal ala is placed below and in front of 
the great hole of the fifth ]uur of nerves, and the descend- 
ing part of the parietal bone articulates itself in front of it 
to the internal pterygoidean. It therefore enters more info 
the composition of the cranium, and is more easily recog- 
nised, than in the other tortoises. 

Cuvier found no osseous trace of the anterior sphenoid, 
nor of its alse ; a rather delicate membran^ occupies its 
place, and closes on each side the front of the cerebral 
cavity. 

Theprincipal character of the Marine Tbrioise^j or Tur- 
tles {Ckelontans as they have been generally termed), is, 
Cuvier remarks, that a lamina of their parietal, their pos- 
terior frontal, their mastoidean, their temporal, and their 
jugal, unite together, and with the tympanic cavity by 
sutures, to cover the whole region of the temple with a 
bony roof, which has no solution of continuity. Their 
muzzle being shorter than in other tortoises, and their or- 
bitf much long«. ~ their nasal cavity is smaller, and as wide 
as it is high and lotiij. Its posterior wall belongs entirely to 
the anterior frontals, and it is between them that the olfac* 
tory nerves are introduced. The bony tubes of the back 
nostrils commence in the lower part of this posterior par- 
tition, and, like the palatines, have a palatine part or lower 
lamina ; these tubes are rather longer, more directed back- 
wards, and bear less resemblance to simple holes. It re- 
sults also from the size of the orbit that the inter-orbital 
membranous or cartilaginous space is more extended. 
The portion which Cuvier regards as the temporal ala is, 
he observes, singularly small in Ckelone Mydas, entirely 
at the external surface, and simply resting on the suture 
of the descending part of the parietal and pteiygoYdean 
bones. In Chelone Caretta and Chelone Caouana Cuvier 
could not find even a vestige of it. The ossiculum auditus 
does not nass by means of a hole, but of a large notch, 
from the first chamber of the tympanum into the second, 
and this second is cartilaginous throughout its posterior 
partition ; it is by the same notch that the Eustachian 
tube descends towards the back of the mouth. The first 
chamber of the tympanum is slightly concave ; there is 
no mastoidean cellule so called ; but the mastoVdean bone 
completes only the ceiling of this chamber, and thus ex- 
tends its cavity. The hole of the fifth pair is oval and 
very large between the descending i>ortion of the parietal, 
the pterygoidean, and the petrous bone ; for the rest, the 
skull of the species of Ckelone resembles that of the pre- 
ceding tortoises. Cuvier believed that he had discovered 
in one of the species (a young Ckelone Mydas) a vestit^e 
of a suture that might separate a lachrymal bone from the 
orbital part of the maxillary bone : it was however only an 
indication scarcely so strong as that which marks the inter- 
maxillary of man. 

But, Cuvier observes, tlie most heteroclite skull amonff 

the tortoises is that of the Matamata {TestudoJimbHata\ 

Extraordinarily large and flat, it seems, as he remarks, to 

have been crushed. The serf small orbits are close to the 

end of the muzzle. The posterior region of the cranium 

is elevated; and the two tympanic bones, in form of 

trumpets, widen out on each side of the cranium. The 

temple is a wide horizontal fossa, not deep, and not at all 

covered, except behind by the union of the posterior angle 

of the parietal with th« mastoidean bone ; and, what is 

peculiar, Cuvier observes, to this subgenus, Uiis fossa is not 

: framed in externally, beoause there is no temporal bone, 

or, at least, it is redueed to a simple vestige. The two 

' maxillaries form together a transversal arch, in the middle 

of which, below, is a single intermaxillary, and, above, the 

I external aperture of the nostrils, which is continued into 

! a small fleshy proboscis. The two palatine bones, and, 

j between them, the vomer, fill below the concavity of this 

arch, and have in front the two back nostrils well separated 

but which the palatines do not encircle below. At the 



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posterior border of the palatine is a rattier large {iterygd- 
palatine hole. The anterior and posterior frontals Ibrm 
the upper part df the orbits. The principal frontals ad- 
vance between the anterior fh)ntals to the edge of the 
external nostrils. There is no more nasal bone than in 
the other tortoises. The jugal proceeds from the posterior 
angle of the orbit between the maxillary and posterior 
frontal,^ beyond which it does not go, touching a little 
behindhand below the pterygoidean ; but not forraingj any 
projection behind to border the temple. This last is in 
this manner Separated from the orbit by a postorbitftl 
branch of excessive width, and which takes in the totality 
of the posterior frontal and the jugal bones. The posterior 
iVontal articulates itself to the pterygoidean by its external 
posterior angle. The rest of its posterior border is fV^e, 
and is continued with that of the parietal to cover a wide 
and flat canal of communication, proceeding IVom the 
temple to the orbit, and formed below by the pterygoYdean 
and palatine bones. The two pterygoYdeans are enbrmous. 
They form the greatest part of the base of the cranium 
and of the bottom of the temple. Their external border 
is curved in its anterior part for its continuation with the 
free border of thfe posterior fVontal : there are neither 
orbital nor temporal alse. The parietal bones, which form 
above a great rectangle, unite by their descending portion^ 
to the palatines, the pterygoYdeans, the petrous, and the 
upper occipital bones. They form by themselves nearly 
the whole roof of the cranium. Following the ptferygoidean, 
* the temple is bounded behind by the tympanic bone or 
the tympanic cavity, which resembles in part a tliimpet. 
The irame of the tympanum is complete. A hole in thfe 
posterior wall suffers the ossiculum to pass into the second 
chamber, which, in the skull, is only a long groove of the 
posterior surface of the cavity, which terminates in a hollow, 
in the formation of which the petrous bone, the external 
occipital, and the lateral occipital concur. It is not closed 
behind, except by cartilage and membranes ; and in the 
wall of the side of the cranium are pierced the two fenfestrae, 
as ordinarily. Above this hole of the first chamber, by 
which the ossiculum passes, is another which conducts into 
the mastoidean cellule, which, on account of the outward 
projection of the tympanum, is found within and not 
behind. The occipital spine is a short vertebral crest, and 
the mastoidean tubercles are transversal crests, which be- 
long entireljr to the mastoidean. Even in large individuals 
the six occipitals ordinary to the tortoises may be distin- 
guished. Below, the smooth and nearly plane cranium 
presents a sort of regular compartment, formed of the in- 
tcrmaxillaries, the maxillaries, the vomer, the palatines, 
the pter}^goideans, the sphenoid, the petrous bones, the 
tympanic cavities, the basilary, and the lateral and exter- 
nal occipitals. Behind the ceiling of the temple the 
petrous bone forms a square compartment between the 
pterygoidean, the tympanic cavity, the external occipital, 
the superior occipital, and the parietal bones. 

The lower jaw of the tortoises is divided in a manner 
which it is not very easy to refer to that manifested in the 
crocodile, to which, Cuvier observes, that of the birds has 
a much more striking relation ; but the bird's jaw, he adds, 
also approaching to mat of the tortoises, aids us in referring 
it to a common type. The space occupied in the croco- 
dile by the two dental and the two opercular bones is filled 
in the marine tortoises, the fresh-water and land-tortoises, 
as well as in the Trionyces, with a single bone only, the 
analogue of the two dental bones. Cuvier never saw in 
all these subgeneni, even in their youth, an^ trace of sym- 
physis : the bone is continuous in the tortoises, as in birds. 
The Matamata, or Chelys^ on the contrary, preserves in 
every age a division at the anterior part. The opercular 
bone always exists, as in the crocodile, at the internal sur- 
face ; but it is carried fkrther backward, and attains to the 
posterior extremity. Beneath it is the angular bone form- 
ing the lower edge of the jaw. That which Cuvier names 
the surangular bone occupies the external surface of this 
part of the jaw, and proceeds also to its posterior extremity, 
but only touches the an&^lar bone quite behind, and m 
becoming separated on the two anterior thirds by a long 
point of the dental bone. Above, and towards tne back 
p)art, l>etween the opercular and surangular bones, the ar- 
ticular bone is situated, as in the h\rS& ; but in the tor- 
toises it is reduced to smaller dimensions, only serving 
for the articulation and for the insertion of the depressor 
muscle, Or the analogue of the digastric muscle. The co- 




Skttll of Cbelya Imbrute. 
I, two ftom above ; 2, aeen ftom beldw j S, profile j 4, «eeii Hrwn bihind. 

ronoid apophysis does not belong at all to the surangular 
bone in tnis order, but to a bone placed between the den- 
tal, the opercular, and the surangular bones ; and in front 
of the aperture by which the nerves enter the jaw, an 
opening, which is nere found at the upper border, instead 
of being, as in the crocodile and the birds, a^ the internal 
surface. This bone, which is not found in the birds, can 
only respond to the complementary bone in the crocodile* 

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Cuvier saw in the Emys expansa the surangular, the oper- 
cular, and the articular bones anchylosed, and their sutures 
effaced, at a period when all the others were still visible. 
Tlie general Ibrra of the bony jaw corresponds nearly to 
what is seen externally. More pointed in the Trionyces 
and Chelone Caretta ; more obtuse, more parabolic, in Cke- 
Mne Mydas and the land-tortoises ; semicircular in front 
of the coronoid apophjrses in the MatamcUa ; it differs also 
in the furrow with which it is hollowed : this fUrrow is 
narrow, deep, and equally wide in the land-tortoises ; 
widens and deepens towards the symphysis in Chelone 
Mydas ; and is entirely wanting in Trionyx, Chelone Ca- 
retta^ &c. 

The OS hyoides of the tortoises is more complicated than 
that of the crocodiles, and varies singularly m form from 
one genus, and even one species to another. It is in gene- 
ral composed of a body itself, sometimes subdivided into 
many pieces, and of two, sometimes three pairs of horns ; 
and under tiie anterior part of its body is, besides, sus- 
pended a bone or a cartilage, sometimes double, which is 
the true bone of the tongue analogous to that seen in the 
birds, but articulated in them in front of the body of the 
OS hyoidcs, whilst in the tortoises it is suspended below it. 
The greatest horns (the anterior pair when there are only 
two, the middle, when there are three, representing the 
styloidean bones) embrace the oesophagus, and mount 
behind the muscles which are the analogues of the digas- 
trics, or depressors of the lower jaw, but without being 
fixed otherwise than by their proper muscles. The land- 
tortoises have the body of the os hyoides wider, its anterior 
portion longer, and want the small anterior horns, whilst 
the anterior angle is very much developed. In the middle 
of the disk are two round spaces, which in certain tor- 
toises, the T, Indica for example, are only more delicate ; 
but which in the others, Testudo radiata for instance, are 
absolutely membranous. 

In some fresh-water tortoises, Teatudines Europeea and 
clausa for example, the body of the bone is longer than it is 
wide ; and has in the front a small membranous space, and 
at its anterior angles the small lateral horns. Sometimes 
two or even four osseous nuclei are there formed. 

The OS hyoides of Trionyx differs still more. Its body is 
composed in front of a cartilaginous point, under which is 
suspended a great lingual oval cartDage. At the base of 
this a rhomboi'dal osseous piece adheres on each side, 
which piece represents the anterior horns, and afterwards 
four otners forming a thick disk, concave above, wider in 
front, and notched on the sides and behind. At the ante- 
rior angles of this disk adhere the middle horns, and to 
the posterior angles are attached the posterior horns : aJl 
four are very bony. The middle are formed by a long 
piece, which is compressed, arched, and terminated by a 
small cartilage. The others are wider, flatter, and pro- 
longed by a cartilage, in the substance of which are en- 
crusted in a row from five to six bony nuclei, which are 
round or oval, very hard and very distinct ; so that the 
entire bone comprehends twenty different osseous pieces, 
which appear to remain distinct to old age. 

The most singular of all these is that of the Chelys, and 
is very early entirely ossified. Its body is composed of a 
long, narrow, nrismatic piece, hollowed above by a canal 
where the trachea runs. In front this piece is dilated, and 
carries on each side two angular portions, four in all, 
without counting the piece itself. The two intermediate 
ones unite in front, leavmg between them and the prin- 
cipal body a membranous space on which the larynx 
reposes. The lateral portions, Cuvier observes, represent 
perhaps the small anterior horns. It is on the angle 
which they form with the dilatation of the principal body 
that the iniddle horns are articulated ; these last are very 
strong, prismatic on their internal moiety, and then slen- 
der, and terminated by a bony and pointed piece, distinct 
from the rest of the horn. The posterior horns are articu- 
Jated at the posterior extremity of the prism formed by 
the principal body. They are long, strong, slightly com- 
pressed, and curved into an arch. 

Under the anterior and dilated part is suspended the 
true bone of the tongue, formed in front of a semicircular 
cartilage, and behind of two bony pieces in form of a cres- 
cent, the internal angle of which is prolonged into a sort 
of tail or pedicle, which lies under the pnsmatic body of 
the OS hyoides. 

In the Turtles (Chelone Caretta for instance) the body 



of the bone is in the form of an oblong buckler, concave 
above for the support of the lai-ynx and the commencement 
of the trachea, and drawn out in front into a point which 
penetrates into the flesh of the tongue in passing upon the 
lingual bone. It presents on each side an angle for carry- 
ing the anterior horn, which is very small ; the great horn 
curved into an obtuse angle for going round the oesophagus 
and jaw, more bony than all the rest of the apparatus, is 
articulated to the middle of the lateral border of the body 
of the bone, and its free or upper extremity is terminated 
by a small cartilaginous articulation. The posterior horns 
are articulated to the posterior angles. They are cartila- 
ginous, flat, rather wide, and scarcely arched. 

Bones of the trunk : dorsal buckler^ or Carapace, — The 
wide differences prevalent in the modification and arrange- 
ment in the bones of the head in this order lead one to 
expect, as the great French zoologist observes, proportional 
differences in the rest of the skeleton. The cranial differ- 
ences are, as he remarks, greater perhaps than obtain 
among the whole of the mammals, and most certainly are 
more extensive than can be found in the whole class of 
birds. 

The general distinguishing character of the tortoises, 
that which separates them from all the Vertebratay b the 
external position of the bones of the thorax, enveloping 
with a cuirass or double buckler the muscular portion of 
the frame, and serving also as a protection for the shoulder- 
bones and the pelvis. 

The dorsal buckler is principally formed of eight pairs 
of ribs, united towards tne middle by a longitudinal suc- 
cession of angular plates, which adhere to the annular 
parts of so many vertebrae, or even form a part of them ; 
but it is remarkable that these annular portions alternate 
with the body of the vertebrse and do not correspond 
directly with tnem. 

The ribs are inlaid by means of sutures into these plates ; 
they are also united with each other, on the whole or a 
part of their length, according to the species, and even in 
each species according to the ages of the individuals. 
There are eight anterior vertebrse which do not enter into 
this conjunction. The seven first (the ordinary cervicfd) 
are free in their movements. The eighth, which may be 
regarded as the first dorsal, is placed obliquely between 
the last cervical and the first of the fixed vertebras of the 
dorsal buckler, which shortens it anteriorly; behind, its 
spinous apophysis is elongated, and enlarges a little to 
attach itself by synchondrosis to a tubercle of the first of 
the plates of the intermediate series of the plastron. 

Tne first of these yZa;e:rf vertebrcct which is the second 
dorsal, is still rather short, and carries also its proper annu- 
lar part, the spinous apophysis of which, shorter than the 
preceding, attaches itself to the second plate by a carti- 
lage. This second plate, narrower than the first, forms 
but one bone with an annular part which is below, and of 
which the anterior portion is articulated by two small apo- 
physes with the articular apophyses of the second dorsal. 
This, properly speaking, is the annular portion of the third 
doreal vertebra ; but the body of this third vertebra is only 
articulated by its anterior moiety with the posterior moiety^ 
of this third annular part, and by its posterior moiety it is 
articulated to the anterior moiety of the fourth annular 
portion ; and this alternative continues, so that the body 
of the fourth vertebra responds to the annular portions of 
the third and the fourth, the body of the fifth to the annu- 
lar portions of the fourth and fifth, and so on to the 
tenth. 

But it is necessary to distinguish in the ribs the plate 
included in the buckler, and a small branch which pro- 
ceeds from its lower surface, and which represents what is 
termed the head of the bone in the ordinary ribs. This 
head is always articulated between two bodies of vertebrae. 
The first of all these ribs has only this small branch, with 
out having any plate belonging to it in the buckler, ex 
cepting only in some of the Emydes, where may be seen, 
between the first and the second longitudinal plate, and 
the fii-st or second widened rib, a smdl piece which can 
only represent the enlarged portion of this first rib, but 
which does not belong to its head. It is articulated 
between the eighth vertebra or first dorsal, and the first 
fixed vertebra, and by its other extremity applies itself to 
the internal surface of the second rib. Tnis last has a 
plate which incorporates itself by its anterior border with 
the first of the longitudinal series, by its spinal border 



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with the second piece of that series or the annular portion 
of the third vertebra, and by its head between the body 
of the second vertebra and that of the third. The suc- 
ceeding ribs observe the same law, are articulated by 
means of their head between the body of one vertebra 
and that of the succeeding vertebra, and incorporate 
themselves by means of their dilated part with the plate 
which represents the annular portion of the second of 
these two vertebrae : and this, CTuvier observes, is a return 
to the general law ; for in man and in the quadrupeds the 
ribs are articulated by their head between two vertebrae, 
and, by means of their tuberosity, with the transverse 
apophysis of the second of the two. The dilated portions 
of tne ribs of the tortoise, in the part where they are incor- 
porated with the plates of the longitudinal series, represent, 
then, the tuberosities of the ribs of mammals. The ninth 
plate of the longitudinal series, which belongs to the tenth 
dorsal, is the last with which a pair of the dilated ribs is 
incorporated, and this last is the ninth in all or the eighth 
of those which enter into the composition of the dorsal 
buckler. It is directed from its posterior border back- 
wards, and embraces again the succeeding plates, with 
the external edges of which it becomes incorporated : but 
these three plates do not, any more than the first, serve to 
complete the vertebral canal. 

The tenth rib, attached between the bodies of the tenth 
and eleventh vertebrae, produces no plate and enters not 
into the composition of the dorsal buckler. Like the first, 
it has only a portion of the head, and is joined by its other 
extremity to the internal surface of the ninth. 

The eleventh vertebra after the cervical is the only one 
that can be termed lumbar; it carries no rib. In the 
Turtles, its annular portion again gives a plate to the lon- 
gitudinal series of the dorsal buckler, and is the tenth and 
the smallest of the pieces of this series. The twelfth and 
thirteenth vertebrae are the sacral. At their sides are 
attached two lateral pieces sufficiently similar to the heads 
of the ribs, but stronger, especially the first, and convex 
at the end, in order to their union with the posterior and 
upper angle of the ossa ilii. Their annular portion is 
close and complete, and is not incorporated with the plates 
of the buckler which follow that of the eleventh vertebra. 
ITie vertebraB of the tail are free, like those of the neck : 
hence the plates of the longitudinal series, which follow 
the tenth, do not adhere to the vertebrae, and, if they 
belong thereto, only so belong by a metaphysical relation, 
and accordingly they may be considered as having been 
dismembered. So of the first of all the plates of the 
series. It only furnishes an attachment to the annular 
portion by synchondrosis, otherwise close and complete, 
of the first dorsal vertebra, and if one would reg]ard it 
as belonging thereto, it would be necessary to consider it 
as dismembered. 

The Turtles have three longitudinal plates after the 
tenth, making thirteen in all ; but the second is some- 
times divided into two, and the ninth also, which increases 
their number to fifteen. 

Cuvier found fourteen in some of the Emydes^ the Emys 
serrata for instance ; but the eleventh and twelfth, ne 
adds, are very small in them. There is but a single one 
after the tenth in the Land Tortoises and the Chelydes, so 
that they have only eleven in all. It sometimes happens 
that one or two of these plates are not seen externally. 
Thus in the Box Tortoises the two ribs of the last pair are 
joined to each other and thus cover the ninth plate ; and 
in this respect many modifications occur in the same 
species ; of which Bojanus has, in his third plate, given 
many examples taken from the European tortoise. 

In Chelys the last and penultimate rib are attached to 
the eighth plate, and the ninth remains hidden. In both 
cases the tenth and the eleventh subsist as ordinarily. 

In the Turtles, the eight pairs of ribs and the thirteen 
plates of the longitudinal series form a sli^tly convex 
oval buckler, a little narrowed backwards. The ribs are 
not incorporated throughout their length, a narrow frac- 
tion remains towards their exterior, and the intervals 
between this portion and that of the anterior and posterior 
ribs are filled up by a cartilaginous membrane only. It is 
only in extreme old age that some are widened to the end. 
Cuvier had sometimes seen the three first and a part of 
the fourth in this state. 

In the freshwater Tortoises and in Chelys^ the buckler 
id entirely filled up in time, and the ribs incorporate them- 



selves throughout their length, between each otner and 
with the marginal pieces. The ossification proceeds still 
faster in the Land Tortoises, and it is only in their youth 
that vacant spaces are observed between tiie external parts 
of their ribs. 

In the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in 
London, No. 131 of the Physiological Series is the carapace 
or dorsal shell of a very young Turtle {Chelone Mydas) 
shelving the state of ossification, which is continued from 
the margins of the ribs, at this period quite distinct from 
each other, until they meet and become joined by in- 
dented sutures similar to those of the cranium. 

The buckler is more or less convex according to the 
species, and various are the modifications which it under- 

foes : but our limits will not permit us to go further into 
etails, for which we must refer the reader to Cuvicr's 
work. 




Carapace of Trionyx, seen from belov. 

The sternum^ plastron^ or breast-plate is always com- 
posed of nine pieces, of which eignt are pairs, and the 
ninth is odd and always placed between the four anterior 
ones, with the two first of which it generally coheres, 
when it is not articulated with the four. 

These nine pieces vary much in figure according to the 
genera and species. 

In the Land and Freshwater Tortoises and in Chelys 
they only leave vacancies between each other in early 
youth, when they are formed by bony rays shooting in 
various directions in the still caH:ilaginous disk of the 
plastron, like the bones of the cranium in the foetus of 
mammals ; but, with age, these rays join each other from 
every side, and form a disk compact in all its parts, which 
unites itself by a more or less considerable extent on each 
side to the dorsal buckler. 

In the Turtles or Chelonia'ns, and in the Trionyces or 
Soft Tortoises, these radiating expansions do not unite 
throughout ; and even when the four pieces on each side 
unite together and the odd piece is joined to those of the 
first pair, there remains in the middle, between them all 
and on each side between them and the dorsal buckler, 
great spaces which are filled up by cartilage only. 

Again we must refer for the various modifications of 
the pieces of the breast-plate to Cuvier's work, and here 
give representations of one or two of them. 

Vertebr€e, — The atlas is composed of four pieces. The 
two first, united above in a slight spinous prominence, after 
having surrounded the vertebral canal, and each having 
given backward its articular apophysis, concur with a 
third very small one in the formation of a ring for the 
reception of the condyle of the head : Cuvier calls it a ring, 
because in the skeleton this fosset is open, and its bottom 
filled by a fourth piece, which is a true body of a vertebra 
without the annular portion, and which, presenting an 
anterior convex surface in the space here noticed, is 
articulated behind by a concave surface on the body of 
the axis. This piece, analogous to what we have already 
seen in the crocodile, represents, he observes, the odontoid 
apophysis of the axis of mammals. At their junction, 
there is besides, attached below, a small bone formed nearly 
like a patella (rotule). 

The axis and the succeeding vertebrae are composed of 
a nearly rectangular body, carinated below, concave in 
front, convex behind, and of an annular portion, which 
remains distinct from the body throughout Jife, by means 
of two sutures, is elevated above by a crest in lieu of a 
spinous apophysis, and whose anterior articular apophyses, 
placed at first under the posterior portions of the preced « 
mg vertebra, raise themselves obliquely to embrace them 



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Sternum of Chelonc. 






Sternum of Cistttdo. 



slightly up to the sixth, and nearly resume their horizontal 
position lu the two succeeding ones. At the anterior 
angle of each side of the body is a small facet, common to 
the body and the annular portion. 

The vertebrae adhering to the dorsal buckler have their 
body wide and feebly carina^^^ed in the marine and fresh- 
water tortoises : in these last it is even flattened in the 
anterior ones. It is also wide and with but little convexity 
in TrionyXy and Chelys lias it wide and elevated longitu- 
dinally into a small crest. But there are land-tortoises 
{Testudines geometrica and radiata) in which it is exces- 
sively compressed, and does not even join itself throughout, 
except by a membranous partition, to the pieces of the 
middle row of the buckler, these pieces only affording 
each two narrow laminae, and descending on each articu- 
lation of the two bodies. It is in a fold of the lower por- 
tion of this membrane, between these vertical laminae, and 
1(1 a semicanal hollowed at tiie upper part of the bodies, 
that the spinal marrow goes. 

In the other subgenera the pieces of the longitudinal 
series of the dorsal buckler afford more complete vertical 
partitions, which form with the bodies a continuous bony 
canal, the nei-ves of which go out tnrough holes which 
remain between the laminae. 

The sacral and caudal vertebrae are each composed of 
a body concave before and convex behind, of an annular 
portion, squarely flattened, and without a spine above, the 
anterior articular apophyses of which obliquely embrace 
below the posterior apophyses of the preceding vertebra, 



and of two transverse short apophyses; articulated on each 
side on the suture, which joins the body to the annular 
ring. Cuvier counted twenty-three caudal vertebrae Irt 
Testudines Grt&cUy Indica, and other land-tortoiies, and as 
many as twenty-seven in Testudo radiata. He states that 
there were only eighteen in the fresh-water and marine 
tortoises which he exanlined. 

Bones of the Extremities. — Under the singular necessity, 
sayd Cuvier, which corhpelled nature to place the bones 
of the shoulder and pelvis within the trunk, and there 
attach the muscles, she seems to have made efforts to 
deviate as little as possible fVom her general plan. 

The bone which goes from the dorsal buckler to the 
sternum is suspended by a ligametit under the dilatation 
of the second rib, but m front of the first, whifch, as we 
have seen, consists only Of a head articulated under the 
second ; sO that, in some respects, this bone is outside the 
thorax. There is sometimes in the ligament by which it 
is attached one, and even two, peculiar bones. G^wier 
refers to the description and representation of one in the 
European Tortoise by Bojanus ; and Cuvier himself found 
it also, but in the cartilaginous state. In an American 
Box Tortoise he observed two ; but he satisfied himself 
that there were none in the great Land Tortoise, and he 
never saw any in those Marine Tortoises which he dissected. 
This bone is at first nearly cylindrical : it proceeds for- 
wards, and after having afforded on its external surface a 
portion of the articular facet which received the head of 
the humerus, it goes, with a more or less strong inward 
bend, to attach its other extremity to the intemju surface 
of the sternum, towards the lateral angle of the odd piece. 
Cuvier saw in a very young Marine Tortoise this sternal 
branch divided by a suture, so that the portion of it which 
joined the sternum appeared a distinct Done ; but, he ob- 
serves, if this is general, it must unite to the other at a 
very early period ; for he never found this suture in ex- 
tremely young Land and Freshwater Tortoises. The rest 
of the facet for the articulation of the humerus is furnished 
by another bone, which is directed more or less obliquely 
backward and towards the mesial line, widening into a 
fan-shape, and which thus lies neaily parallel to the ster- 
num. Thfe osseous branch which comes from the bony 
buckler is, according to Cuvier's self-corrected opinion, the 
shoulder-blade, and the part which it ofiers beyond the 
articular fosset is its acromion. The flattened bone which 
is directed backwards is, he adds, incontestably the cora- 
coid bone : and he further remarks that all the muscles 
which proceed from these bones to go to the arm are re- 
spectively the same as in birds, whatever changes they 
have undergone in their position relatively to the horizon, 
in their size, and in their fifi;ure. Cuvier considers that 
it remains to be known whether there is a clavicle or not. 
If, he remarks, the suture which he had observed in a 
Marine Tortoise were constant, there would be no difficulty ; 
one might niake the clavicle of the sternal extremity of 
the bone which goes from the carapace to the sternum, 
which would be the more natural, inasmuch as it goes to 
attach itself to the odd piece (piece impaire) of the ster- 
num : but if this occurrence be merely an accident, then 
one must suppose that the clavicle is wanting, as in the 
crocodile, or seek for it in the anterior pair of the ster- 
nal pieces, the position of which is, in fact, relatively to the 
odd pieces, sufficiently like that of tlie clavicle of the Sau- 
RiANS and of the Ornithorhynchus. 

This three-branched shoulder, this nearly cylindrical 
shoulder-blade, this acromial portion nearly equal in vo- 
lume to the rest of the shoulder-blade, are, says Cuvier, 
characteristic of the Tortoises. There is nothing parallel 
to this conformation in the other animals, because there is 
no other shoulder situated within the thorax. The varied 
forms of these parts afford, Cuvier observes, very good 
characters for the subgenera ; and he details the modifica- 
tions characteristic of the Marine Tortoises, the Land Tor- 
toises, the Freshwater Tortoises, Chelys, and Trionyx. 

The humerus of the Tortoises is required, he remarks, 
to turn singularly upon its axis, in order to place the fore- 
foot in the position required by the bony cuii-ass, which 
only leaves a narrow passage for it. The result is that its 
internal tuberosity is oecome posterior and superior, and 
that the external tuberosity is become internal and also 
posterior. The head of the bone goes out of the axis more 
than in any other anintal, and that towards the ^joatciior 
face, which, in the ordinary position, is the supenor one. 



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It presents the segment of a sphere, and is very convex. 
The two tuberosities are very large, very projecting, and 
leave, between, a concavity, as there is one, backwards, 
between the condyles of the humerus in the greater part 
of the Mammals. The internal tuberosity — ^become, as has 
been pointed out, posterior, — is the largest. It has the form 
of a long obtuse crest, analogous to the deltoidean, and 
which receives the same muscles. The other tuberosity 
forms a crest also, but much shorter. Both are near the 
head. The body of the bone is bent ; and its concavity, 
which, in man, would be anterior, is ordinarily found in- 
ferior. The opposed surface is convex. Above it is a 
small hollow opposite the end of the fossa, which is 
between the two tuberosities. The lower part of the bone 
is widened, and a little flattened from before backwards. 
On the external border is a fUrrow, not much developed 
in the Land Tortoises ; deeper in the Emyde^^ the Ckeiyaes^ 
and the Trionyces ; and which, in the Marine Tortoises, 
nearlv separates the lower head of the bone into two un- 
equal parts. This furrow, Ouvier observes, is perhaps the 
be2>t character for distinguishing the lower part of the 
humerus from that of the femur, which is without it, but 
which, in every other point, offers onlv very slight diiFer- 
ences. Its lower head, transversely oblong and of uniform 
convexity, receives the bones of the fore-arm, but without 
offering two distinct facets. 

The Trionyces do not differ from the Land Tortoises, 
excepting in having[ the tuberosities more apart. Other 
differences are manifested in Emys and Ch^lys, for which 
we refer to Ouvier's work, but the humerus c5' the Marine 
Tortoises cannot be passed by without particular notice, for 
it differs from that of all the other Testudinata in being not 
bent longitudinallv, but nearly straight; in having its 
great tuberosity (the analogue of the small or internal 
tuberosity in man) longer, overreacliing the head, and re- 
sembling an olecranon ; and, lastly, in having the other 
tuberosity shorter, and representmg a ehevvon-ehaped 
crest. 

There are always two bones in the fore-army but thev 
have little motion one on the other- They are placed, 
when the animal progres^^ so that the ulna forms 
the external and the radius the internal border of the 
arm. 

The rafiLim has a semicircular, slightlv concave, upper 
head, a somewhat slender body, and the lower head com- 
pressed and cut, a4 it were, obliquely, so thc^t it is shorter 
on the ulnar side. 

The ulni^ is compressed. Its upper head is triangular 
and cut obliquely, so that its external boixler is longer up- 
wards than the radial border, without having a true ole- 
ci-anon. This border is trenchant. The lower one is cut 
square. Differences occur, as in Trionyje and the Cheh^ 
nians or Marine Tortoises. 

The pelvis is alwavs composed of three distinct bo^eS) 
contributing, as in tne quadrupeds, to the composition of 
the cotyloid fossa, viz. an elongated os ilium^ which at- 
taches itself by ligaments to the transversal processes of 
the sacral vertebree and the neighbouring part of the 
eighth pair of the dilated ribs ; a pubis and an ischium, 
which are directed, widening as they proceed, towards the 
plastron, and are each united to its similar piece. At the 
point of union for the formation of the cotyloid cavity, 
each bone has three faces ; one for each of the two others, 
and one for the cavity. On the rest of the length the os 
ilii is oblong, the ischium proceeds, widening as it goes, 
directly towuds the symphysis, and the pubis, after first 
directing itself forwani, makes a curve towards the sym- 
physis, and widens also to reach it. Vaiious differences 
occur in this part of the skeleton in the Land and Marine 
Tortoises, in Chelys and in Trionyx. 

The femur might be easily mistaken for th^ humerus 
of a mammiferous quadruped. Its oval head leaves 
the bodv of the bone, without being precisely separated 
from it, by a narrow neck. In lieu of the trocinanter there 
is a transverse crest, but little elevated, separated from the 
head by a semicircular depression. The middle of the 
bone is delicate and round, and the lower part compressed 
from before backwards, widening by degrees tq form the 
lower head, which is a transverse portion of the cylinder ^ 
little inflected backwards. Differences of modiflc^tion 
occur in the Freshwater and Marine Tortoises. In the 
museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, No. 255 A> ot 
the Physiological oeriee* exhibits the os innominatim and 



femur of «larffe Tortoise (Testudo /nrfeca, Vosmaer). The 
hip-joint is laid open to show that the ligamentum teres is 
deficient, a simple form of joint which obtains at the hip in 
all the Testudinata. 

The two bones of the leg are nearly straight. The tibia 
is larger and nearly semicircular above, becoming again 
slightlv larger below ; the JIbula is mofe compressed and 
wider below. The fii^ presents a slightly concave uniform 
surface, the other one which is slightly convex and rhom- 
boidal at the astragalus. Modifications occur in the Land 
Tortoises, in Ckelys, in Trionyx, and in the Chelones. 

Bones of the Fare-foot, -^The differences in the mode of 
progression required corresponding variations in the bones 
of the fore and hind feet especially. Accordingly we find 
that in the Chelones all the bones of the waist are flat and 
cut nearlv square. In the first row are tw^o bones adhering 
to the ulna, and in the last row five smaller ones, support- 
ing the five bones of the metacarpus. There is besides an 
intermediate borie under the first ulnar bone, and upon the 
second and third of the last row. Cuvier observes that 
this would seem to correspond with that dismembered tra- 
pezoidal bone which is found in the monkeys. Lastly, 
there is a great semi-lunar bone out of the rank, adhering 
to the external border of that which is above the meta- 
carpal of the little finger. It is a true pisiform bone, al- 
though a little descended. Between that which is on the 
metacarpal of the thumb and the radius there is for a long 
time nothing but ligainents, and one does not see the great 
semilunar scaphoidal which may be observed in the other 
subgenera : but with a^e, remarks Cuvier, a small radial 
bone shows itself in this place. Very large individuals 
have also the two penultimate bones of the second row 
anchvlosed together. Th^ metacarpal of the thumb is short 
and large: the others (M-e long and slender. The little 
finger has two phalanges, and is not larger than the thumb ; 
the three others are elongated* especially the middle 
finger ; and the whole result is a pointed hand, which has 
the unguial phalanx of t^e thmx^t> an4 forefinger only armed 
with a claw. 

In the Land Tortoises ther^ are hi^t two phalanges on 
each finger, unless, Cuvier observes, one may suppose that 
there is wanting either the last row of the bones of the 
carpus, or that all the metacarpals are deficient, which is 
not admissible, because one may well see by the forms, and 
by comparison with the Freshwater Tortoises, that the me- 
tacarpals and those bones of the carpus do exist. This 
settled, there are found in the carpus a great radial or 
semilunar scaphoVdal, two ulnar bones nearly square, five 
bones of the second row supporting the five metacarpals, 
and an intermediate bone placed between the great radial, 
the first cubital or ulnar, and those which carry the third 
and fourth metacarpal. This intermediate bone, according 
to Cuvier, is often anchylosed with the semilunar sca- 
phoidal bone. The bones of the metacarpus are even 
shorter than the phalanges. ^ 

In the Freshwater ']u)rtoise8 the three mesial fingers 
have their three phalanges well developed ; but there are 
only two belonging to the thumb and the little finger. The 
metacarpals are rather long, apd the two external ones are 
carried on a single bone of the carpus : nevertheless the 
la^t row consists also of five boneSs uecause there is one^ 
very small, extenu^Uy on the side of the thumb. In the 
first row the ulna, in \he European Tortoise at least, carries 
four bones — ^two h^rg^ oa?s, a snudl intermediate one, and 
another small one out of the rank ; but there are other 
species, Testtido clausa, for instance, where the two small 
ones do not appear. The great radial or semilunar sca- 
phoidal passes partially under the tw^o ulnar bones; 

The Chelydes hi^ve the hand formed nearly like the 
Freshwater Tortoises, except th^t their radial bone is small 
and re-enters towards the inside of the carpus at the side* 
of the bone named by Cuvier intermediate ; and that the 
little finger has, like the three intermediate ones, three 
phalanges. 

The Trionyces have also the »Klial bone re-entering at 
the side of the intermediate bone. Their three first fingers 
have their three phalanges large, wide, and pointed to 
carry the claws ; tne fourth has four phalanges, all rather 
slender ; and the Ift^'t three. 

Hind-feet. ^Cyiwer remarks that in the Testudinata, ge- 
nerally, the calcaneum is without any backward promi- 
nence, so that their tarsus is flat like a carpus. 

In the Chelones it is composed of six or seven bones» if 



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the first of the little toe be counted : two in the first row, 
of which the largest, nearly rhomboidal and answering 
equally to the tibia and nbula, is the astragalus; the 
smaller, which is square and articulated only to the fibula, 
is the sole vestige of a calcaneum. In the second row 
there are four : three wedge-shaped for the metacarpals of 
the great toe and the two next toes, and one larger for the 
two last metatarsals. The bones of the metatarsus of the 
great and little toes are shorter than the others, and singu- 
larly wide and flat. That of the little toe, however, may 
be taken for one out of the rank of the tarsus. In this 
last case the little toe would have but two phalanges, other- 
wise three like the others. The great toe has but two. 
It carries a claw, and so does the next toe. The two suc- 
ceeding toes have still their last phalanges rather large, 




Ski-iokn and Ctirapocft of Ciatudo vulgarU, ae«n from below. 




Skeleton and Carapace of Chelo&e caouana, •een.flrQm below. 



although without claws, but the last has that phalanx very 
small. 

In the Land Tortoises the bone analogous to the astra- 
galus is larger and thicker ; and the fibular bone on the 
analogue of the heel is smaller. The four other bones 
exist, and that here called the metatarsal of the little toe 
seems to make up the suite by its position and figure. It 
sometimes carries a vestige of a toe formed of one piece, 
which seemed to Cuvier to be wanting in many species. 
The metatarsal of the great toe is very short and not flat- 
tened : the others are rather longer. Wone of the four ex- 
isting toes has more than two phalanges. 

The tarsus of the Freshwater Tortoises is nearly the 
same, except that the fibular os^cle, or calcaneum, when it 
is not united to the astragalus, is larger ; that the ossicle 
which serves as a vestige of the little toe is longer, and 
that the three toes which succeed the great toe have their 
phalanges very distinct. 

In the tarsus of the Trionyces the fibular bone descends 
outside the three cuneiform or wedge-shaped bones, and 
carries half the head of the third metatarsal and the whole 
of that of the fourth. At its external border a large square 
bone adheres, that about which Cuvier expressed a doubt 
whether it was a metatarsal bone or one out of the i-ank. 
It carries the fifth metatarsal on the first phalanx of the 
little toe ; but in this case the little toe would have three. 
It is true, Cuvier adds, that the fourth toe has four, without 
counting its metatarsal. The great toe has two, and the 
two succeeding toes three each. In all three the last is 
large, wide, and pointed to carry a claw. In the fourth 
and fifth toe this last phalanx is very small and without a 
claw. 

In the Mataniata {Chelys) the fourth toe is, like the two 
preceding, composed of tnree phalanges and armed with a 
claw ; the fifth also has three phalanges, audit would even 
have four if one regarded the bone as to which Cuvier 
has expressed his doubts as a tarsal bone ; but the last is 
very small, cartilaginous, and without a nail. The tarsus is 
the same as in Tnonyx^ with this difference, that the ana- 
logues of the astragalus and the calcaneum are divided 
transversely each into two bones ; so that what is detached 
from the calcaneum forms a fourth cuneiform bone for the 
fourth metatarsal, and that which is detached from the as- 
tragalus is a true scapho'id, which carries the three first 
cuneiform bones. 

Muscular system^ particularly as relating to locomo- 
tion, — ^We have seen that the shoulder-blade is internal in 
the tortoises, that is, it is placed on the inside of the ribs : 
the muscles, consequently, of the head and neck, instead 
of being attached upon the ribs and spine, as in the other 
vertebrata, are attached beneath them : the same observa- 
tion holds as to the bones of the pelvis and the muscles of 
the thigh, so that, to use Cuvier's expression, a tortoise 
may be termed, in this respect, un animal retournc, an ani- 
mal turned inside out, or rather, so to speak, outside in. 

The progressive motions to be accomplished by the bony 
and muscmar apparatus of the tortoises are those of walk- 
ing, and swimming or paddling. 

The walk of a tortoise is proverbially slow, such as might 
be expected from a reptile whose limbs are so imperfectly 
developed. Short, and placed at a great distance from the 
centre, they form a sort of short crutches, calculated to 
drag the unwieldy bod^ gradually along, and if the animal 
be turned on its back it becomes almost helpless. The feet 
are little better than stumps, the toes being only indicated 
externally by what may be termed a collection of hoofs, 
placed, as in the elephants, on the circumference of the 
apology for a foot, and which serve, so to speak, as a sort 
of grapplings to hold on the surface of the ground and drag 
the armed trunk onwards. We hardly ne^ add that pro- 
gression in a vertical direction is impossible ; but many 
tortoises can burrow with some difficulty. 

Nor is this slowness out of place : the preservation of the 
animal is provided for by the very strong bony carapace and 
plastron protecting the whole body, and only suturing the 
head, tail, and four feet to be protruded from its anterior 
and posterior part and its four angles : these protruded 
parts can be withdrawn into the shell upon the approach 
of danger, and the animal then rests secure in its portable 
arched castle, leaving the enemy to the helpless task of 
besieging a garrison that can remain for months without 
food. A large land tortoise can defy the whole animal 
world except man, from whom notbijig is safe. 

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Tlie most complete defence is made by the Box Tortoises ; 
for in them the pieces which form the sternum are move- 
able, and may be compared to doors or hinged lids, which 
shut upon the carapace and tiius form a sort of closed cof- 
fer in which the head, neck, tail, and feet, in short, the 
only exposed parts, can at will be enclosed far more se- 
curely than a snail in its shell. 

But this slowness is confined to the Terrestrial Tor- 
toises ; for the aquatic species swim with great facility on 
or below the surface ; and some, Chelone and Sphargis for 
instance, with rapidity. But the well-developed flipper 
that enables the Marine Tortoise to oar its way with swift- 
ness, is even a worse organ for land progression than the 
clumsy foot of a Land Tortoise. Not but that they will 
shuffle back to the sea, which they have only occasion to 
leave in order to deposit their eggs, at a good pace, and 
they will deal heavy blows with tneir flippers to Uiose who 
attempt to stop them (for they, as well as the Land Tor- 
toises, are very strong), as those who have been foiled in 
turning turtles have known to their cost. 

But however powerfully the muscles which act upon the 
head, tail, and extremities are developed in this order of 
reptiles, those of the abdomen, as might indeed be ex- 
pected, have little extent, and those of the ribs, as mi^ht 
also be divined, are non-existent ; for nature does nothing 
in vain : but the square muscle of the loins, whose princi- 
pal office in mammals is to move the lumbar vertebrae, 
acts in the tortoises, which have those vertebrae fixed, in 
another direction, and is employed in drawing up the 
moveable os ilii ; and the straight muscle (rectus abdo- 
minis) which extends from the pubis to the sternum, 
moves the whole haunch in the greater part of the TestU" 
dinata. 

Digestive System, — ^The Testudinata have no teeth, 
though there are often a median groove and denticulated 
projections and hollows : but the mandibles are covered 
with a homy case, as in the birds. The Chelydes and the 
Trionyces, though they have the homy covering, have the 
mouth furnished with soft skin so as to form a kind of lips. 
The muscles that work the lower jaw, which is the only 
moveable one, are very powerful in many of the species, 
and the force with which the great Turtles and many 
other Chelonians grasp a solid body in their vice of a 
mouth is prodigious. The C/ielydes are the only Testu- 
dinata which have the jaws flat and the gape of the mouth 
very wide. 

The food with which the Testitdinata have to deal is 
various, and there are modifications in the digestive organs 
accordingly. The Chelones bnd Testudines genersilly pre- 
fer a vegetable diet. The Trionyces and Chelydes prey 
upon fishes and small aquatic birds; and the Bmydes 
attack the weaker animals, such as cmstaceans, insects, 
worms, and mollusks. 

These aliments are submitted in the Terrestricd Tor- 
toises and in the Chelonians to the trenchant homy bill, 
well fitted to mince up vegetable fibre, assisted by the 
tongue, which draws the food into the mouth and the 
homy grooves and hollows of the jaws ; the Trionyces and 
Emydes seize their living prey in their sharp-edged beaks 
and tear it to pieces with the cutting and pointed claws of 
their fore-feet : some of these dart out their head and long 
neck upon their prey from an ambush ; or, stealing along 
like the cats till they come within reach, suddenly extend 
their destmctive apparatus with unemng aim. The Che- 
lydes, whose fleshy jaws are flat, swallow their prey whole, 
and in this respect, as well as in the general conformation 
of the head and the os hyoides, they resemble the Toads 
and especially the Pijxis, like which they are obliged to 
be content with a victim of small dimensions suited to the 
calibre of their mouth, which is, in tmth, sufficiently lar^e. 
They are said never to 8ei»e their prey till they are satis- 
fled by its motions that it is alive, for they never feed on 
carcasses. 

The tongue of the Tortoises is fleshy, like that of the 
Parrots, and its nervous papiUse are very distinct. The 
ossophagus is short, and in the Chelonians is flimished in- 
ternally with a number of clo8e-«et cartilaginous points, 
directed, so as to prevent the regurgitation of the food, 
towards the stomachy which has a transverse position. The 
intestines are long ; the cloaca is situated beneath the tail, 
and rounded, and, internally, is found the orifice of canals 
which terminate in the cavity of the peritoneum. The 
liver is voluminous, forming two masses or lobes placed 
P. C, No. 1560. 



transversely below the heart and in front of the junction of 
the oesophagus with the stomach. The pancreas is a 
very large gland, and the spleen is rounded, median, and 
situated at a considerable distance from the liver. The 
chyle is translucid and aqueous in the Chelonians, but of 
a white and milky tint in those species which feed on 
animals. 

In the Museum of the College of Surgeons, Nos. 459, 
460, 461, and 461 A, are preparations showing the oeso- 
phagi of Testitdinata, In No. 460 will be observed the 
peculiar pyramidal processes in the oesophagus of a Turtle 
IChelone Mydas) pointing downwards to the stomach, so 
as to insure the deglutition of the slippery fuci and other 
marine vegetables on which the animal feeds, and to pre- 
vent the regurgitation of the food. Nos. 509, 510, 511, 
512, 513, 514, 515, and 516 exhibit the stomachs of Tes- 
tudinata; and among them the portion of the stomach of a 
Turtle, Chelone Mvcmsy shows the remarkably thick mus- 
cular coat adapted for compressing with great force the 
sea^weeds which constitute its food. Nos. &9 to 668, both 
inclusive, are preparations of intestines of Testudinata^ 
No. 751 is the cloaca of a small male tortoise, laid open 
posteriorly and showing the rectum terminating not in the 
urinary bladder, but in the preputial or outer cavity : the 
aperture of communication is puckered up, and on the 
cut edges may be seen the sphincter muscle which sur-* 
rounds it : a little below the fsecal orifice may be seen 
that of the genito-urinary cavity, which is of a transverse 
form : the two bristles which project from it have been 
passed through the ureters, immediately above whose ori- 
nces are situated those of the vasa deferentia : the allan- 
toid or urinary bladder opens into the fundus of the genito- 
urinary cavity. The common outer cavity is to be seen 
almost wholly occupied with the penis, whach is grooved, 
and terminates in a complex glans commonly found in the • 
Chelonian reptiles. No. 752 is the cloaca of a small 
female tortoise with the outer cavity laid open anteriorly 
to show the termination of the rectum at its fundus, and 
the semilunar fold of membrane which separates the faecal 
from the genito-urinaiy orifice. The outer cavity is also 
laid open anteriorly, together with the cervix of the all an- 
toid bladder, to show the genito-urinaiy depression, and 
the relative positions of the terminal apertures of the 
ovaries and ureters : the former being inoicated by black 
bristles ; the latter, which are situated below them, by white 
ones. The common terminal outlet is left entire. No. 
753 is the cloaca of a female Turtle {Chelone Mydas\\nih 
the rectum and common outer cavity laid open posteriorly, 
showing the place of their communication ; immediately 
anterior to the fsecal orifice is the genito-urinary orifice, 
which is of a semilunar form. The allantoVd bladder 
and genito-urinary cavity have been laid open anteriorly, 
showing their communication with each other ; and also 
the orifices by which the oviducts and ureters communi- 
cate with the genito-urinary cavity ; black bristles are in- 
serted into the former, and white ones into the latter 
tubes. The parts being injected, the difference between 
the vascularity of the lining membrane of the rectum 
and that of the cloaca is distinctly shown : the common 
external outlet is preserved entire, showinj^ its transverse 
semilunar forai. Nos. 813 to 815, both inclusive, show 
the duodenum, gall-bladder, and hepatic ducts of Testudi- 
nata. No. 778 A exhibits the pyloric end of the stomach, 
duodenum, pancreas, and spleen of a Chelydra serpentina. 
No. 830 shows a portion of the intestine, pylorus, pancreas, 
and spleen of a tortoise ; and No. 831, the spleen of a 
Turtle with the veins injected, showing their ramification 
on its exterior, as on the kidney in the cat-tribe. (Cat.^ 
vol. i.) See further next section. 

The power of abstinence in this order of Reptiles is 
very great. MM. Dum6ril and Bibron state that they 
have seen a Long-necked Emys remain more than a year 
without food ; and Redi kept Land Tortoises fasting for 
eighteen months. 

Circulating System.^-The heart in the Testudinata is 
composed of two auricles, and one ventricle with two un- 
equal chambers which communicate together. The blood 
of the body enters into the right auricle and that of 
the lung into the left ; but both these modifications of 
blood mingle more or less in passing by the ventricle. 
In the museum of the (College of Surgeons, No. S88(Phvs, 
Series) is a young Chelone Mydas injected, and with the 
ventral parietes of the body removed to show the hearL 

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which is composed of two distinct auricles and one ven- 
tricle, and is situated, as in the Frog, in the middle line of 
the body. The pericardium has been in great pari re- 
moved ; its serous layer is continued upon the fibrous layer 
from the apex of the heart, as well as from the gi-eat 
vessels at the base. No. 918 exhibits the liver, stomach, 
heart, and great vessels of the European fresh-water tortoise 
(Emys EurojkBa, Schoepf.). The two lobes of the liver are 
united by a very thin strip below the heart ; and the left 
lobe, like the lobulus spigehi of mammals, is seen adapted 
to the lesser curvature of the stomach. The anterior part 
of the pericardium being removed, the form of the heart is 
shown. The ventricle is transversely oblong : the two 
auricles rest upon its basis posterior to the three arteries, 
which arise close together, and are united for some way 
from then: origins by dense cellular membrane. The right 
and posterior artery gives off the carotid and brachial 
arteries, and its trunk is continued over the right bronchus 
to the posterior part of the abdomen : the middle vessel, 
as in the snake, winds over the left broilchus, and joins 
the opposite aorta in the abdomen. The left vessel is the 
pulmonary artery ; its two branches communicate in the 
foetus with the two aortae by two ductus arteriosi, and 
afterwards are exclusively distributed to the lungs. The 
bronchial tubes, owing to the hiph division of the trachea, 
are of great leneth in the Tortoise. No. 919 exhibits the 
heart of a CfteUme ATytto*, with the auricles laid open to 
show the complete septum by which they are separated, 
and the loose cellular and reticulate muscular structure of 
their parietes, &c. ; and No. 920 shows the ventricle of a 
l^tudo Indt'ca with its two chambers of small size com- 
pared with the bulk of the ventricle. Nos. 956 to 962 A, 
both inclusive, are preparations of the arteries of Testudi- 
ftata ; and Nos. 965 to 973, both inclusive, preparations 
of the veins of individuals of the same order. No. 23 
exhibits the coagulated blood of a turtle. 

Respiratory ^stem, — ^Cuvier remarks that the quantity 
of respiration m Reptiles is not fixed, like that of 
Mammals and Birds, but varies with the proportion of the 
diameter of the pulmonary artery compared with that of 
the aorta. Thus, he observes, the Tortoises and the 
Lizards respire much more than the Frogs.. 

The lungs we of great extent and placed in the same 
cavity with the abdominal viscera. We have seen that 
the thorax is immoveable, in the greater number at least, 
and the inlaid fixed ribs can give no assistance in respi- 
ration in the ftill-grown normal forms. It is therefore 
by the play of the parts about the mouth that the Tes- 
tudinata, respire, and here the complicated os hyoides 
is called into prominent action. The jaws are closed and 
the animal alternately elevates and depresses the os 
hyoides; the first movement lets the air enter by the 
nostrils, and the tongue then closing their interior aperture, 
the second movement compels the air to penetrate into 
the lungs. In short the Testudinata swallow or gulp 
down the air necessary for their respiration like the 
Frogs. 

John Hunter, in his MS, Catalogue, observes that the 
vessels of the lungs of those animals whose whole blood 
passes through them are confined to the lungs, and lungs 
only, as distinctly as if the lungs were a separate animal ; 
but this, he adds, is not the case with the Amphibia^ * for,' 
says he, ' we find the vessels of the lungs of the Turtle 
communicate with those of other parts, such as the vessels 
of the oesophagus, which shows that the blood of that 
part is not so perfect in them as in others. From this it 
must appear tnat the lungs are not of that consequence in 
this class of animals that they are in the more- perfect j 
for the lungs themselves appear to share in common with 
the other parts. Some of the blood which just came from 
the lungs returns back again to them, which would appear 
to answer no purpose ; and, on the other hand, a consider- 
able quantity of the blood which had undergone the 
general circulation (and therefore would appear to requiie 
refinement) just returns through the same course. It 
would appear from this admixture, that it was not 
necessary that the whole of the blood should have under- 
gone a thorough change for its greatest motion ; yet we do 
not see why the lungs should have a part of their blood of 
the perfect kind. Trie cells of the lungs of the Amphibia 
seem to increase in size, the farther from the trunk or 
trachea, so that the trachea and its ramificatioDs bear no 
propdrtion between them and the cells.* 



No. 1109 A in the College Museum is a lon^tudinal 
secUon of one of the lungs of a Chelydra serpenttna pre- 
pared by Professor Owen. This presents a further stage 
in the complication of the lung beyond what is observed 
in the Saurians. Thcf general cavitjr is divided into eight 
compartments, and the vascular respiratory Surface is con- 
sequently increased. The subdivision of the' parietes into 
cells is greatest at the upper or superior part of tlife lung, 
and' its • ligamentous structure is continued dter the 
margins of all the larger cells. Nos. 1110 to 1117, both 
inclusive, are also preparations of the lungs of Testudinata. 
No. 1110 shows the ventral parietes of the body of a 
ybung Chelone Caretta removed, exhibiting the lungs in 
'situ, which extend over all the back part of the abdomen 
down to the pelvis. 

Brain, Nervous System, and Senses, — ^In the Testudinata 
the vertical height of the capacity of the cranium is greater 
than in the other reptiles;, but in the Sea TbrtoiSeS or 
Turtles the mass of the encephalOn does not entirely fill 
it, and the highly vaulted bones are rather destined to 
serve as solid points of resistance to the upper beak, und 
to the powerful action of the muscles which act upon the 
lower jaw. "Hie ma^ of the encephalon is less elongated 
and more compact than in the serpents. Bojanus, in his 
work on the anatomy of the European Emys, has shown 
that the great sympathetic or ganglionic series of nerves 
exists in that reptile nearly as it does in the other 
Vertebrata ; that on the one hand it has sympathetic 
relations with the encephalic and vertebral nerves, and 
that on the other it makes a communication between the 
two lateral and symmetrical parts of the body, ut the same 
time that its filaments are distributed and intermingle in 
numerous plexuses round the principal arteries destined to 
the nutrition of the internal viscera. Elaborate illustra- 
tions of the Nervous System, and especially of the p^at 
Sympathetic of the Hawksbill Turtle, have been published 
by Mr. Swan, in his • Comparative Anatomy of the Nerves,' 
4to., 1836. 

No. 1312 in the Museum of the College of Surgeons is 
the brain of a Chelonia Mudas, The dura mater with one 
half of the arachnoid memorane has been removed, and the 
vessels of the pia mater minutely injected. The partial 
removal of the arachnoid shows now loosely it envelops 
the brain, and at the saibe time displays the form and dis- 
position of the cerebral organs. Tne hemispheres of the 
cerebrum exhibit a higher development than m fishes, and 
are the largest of the encephalic masses ; but their struc- 
ture ii ex^mely simple and their surface smooth. The 
olfactory nerves, by w'nich the specimen is suspended, are 
continued from the anterior and inferior part of the hemi 
spheres, and are bulbous at their commencement ; they 
are formed by three roots, of which the inferior ones are 
most distinct. The optic lobes, or big:eminal bodies, are 
two spherical bodies, as in fishes, not divided into four by 
a tran6veree fissure, as in mammals. They are on a plane 
inferior to the cerebrum and cerebellum, but occupy a 
space between these parts uncovered by either. The 
optic nerves form a swelling at their commissure, beyond 
which they are continued K>r a short distance parallel to 
one another. A bristie is inserted into the infundibulum 
behind the commissure. In the angle between the hemi- 
spheres and optic Ibbes the pineal gland is continued up- 
wards ; it is nollow, and a bristle is placed in its cavity, 
which communicates with the fourth ventricle. The cere- 
bellum is of an elongated form, without lateral lobes, and 
presents a simple and smooth exterior. It extends over 
the anterior part only of €[ie fourth ventricle, which is 
consequently left uncovered' posteriorly, except by mem- 
brane : a lu*istle is placed in that cavity. The medulla 
oblongata is without a pons Varolii. The origins of the 
several cerebral nerves are shown, and the sixth, eighth, 
and ninth pairs are distin^ished by dark threads being 
tied round them. The origin of the nervus accessorius and 
its recurrent course to join the nervus vagus are very 
cleariy displajred. Another brain, and of a large Cheloue 
Mydas, is exhibited dissected in No. 1313. The prepara* 
tion No. 1314 'is the bniin of another Turtle with ooth 
dura mater and arachnoid removed, and the cavities or 
ventricles of the cerebellum, bigeminal bodies, and cere- 
bral hemispheres laid open ; John Hutttei' thus describes 
it: 'In the first or superior Ventricle is art' eminence 
which extends a little way into the olfactory nerve, and 
runs through the whole length of the ventricle. The 



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plexua choroVde^ is al§o ^en in the ventricle- The ven- 
tiicle of the nates is exposed,. and a^ ^hite bristle is placed 
in it : as is the ventricle of the cerebellum, with a black 
bristle lying in it. At the lower part of the ventricle is a 
continuation of the tunica arachnoides, which ^ut^ up or 
makes part of the ventricle. In the angle or quadrangle 
made by the cerebrum and nates, &c.. is a duct or canal 
like the infundibulum leading firom the upper part of the 
skull to, the last veatricle/ professor Owen observes that 
the canal here described is the cavitv of the body which 
occupies the pl^ce of the pineal gland, and which is shown 
entire in the preqeding specimen. The bodies termed nates, 
he adds, are recorded by Cuvier as the optic thai ami ; but 
since the publication of the works of .Ajsaki, Serres, and 
Besmoulins, their analogy to the bigeminal bodies or 
optic lobes of mammalia has been generally admitted. 

No. 249 of the same series is a longitudinal and vertical 
section of the cervical vertebrae of a tortoise, in which the 
motions of the neck are much freer than in the Turtle ; 
the articular surfaces of the bodies of the vertebrae being 
covered by cartilage, and surrounded by synovial mem- 
brane. Tne anterior surfaces of the first three vertebrae 
are convex, the iwsterior concave. The fourth vertebra, 
which is the principal centre of motion in the neck, has 
both the articular surfaces convex. Of the remainder the 
anterior surfaces are concave, the posterior convex. The 
canal of the spinai chord may be observed to be the widest 
where the motion in this part of the spine is most exten- 
sive. 

Here we must notice the experiments of Redi, which 
were perhaps more cruel in appearance than in reality. 
Most are familiar with the length of time that a turtle will 
move after its Head is off, and the snap of the jaws which 
the severed head will give ; but there is reason for believ- 
ing that there is more of irritability than sensation in such 
motions ; and the state of Redi's tortoises must have been 
analogous. 

Redi, in the beginning of November, made a large 
opening in the skull of a Land Tortoise, extracted the 
brain, and cleaned out the cavity. He then set the animal 
at liberty, and it groped its way freely about wherever it 
pleased, as if it had not been injured. Redi makes use of 
the term groping (brancolando), because he says that 
when the tortoise was deprived of its brain, it closed its 
eyes, which it never again opened. The w^ound which was 
left open skinned over in three days, and the tortoise, con- 
tinuing to go about and execute other movements, lived to 
the middle of, May. On a post mortem .examination the 
cavity which the brain had occupied was found empty and 
clean, with the exception of a small, dry, and black clot of 
blood. He repeated this experiment upon many other 
Land Tortoises in the months of November, January, 
February, and March, with this difference, that some were 
locomotive at their pleasure, whilst others, though they 
made other motions, did not move about : he found the 
same results when he treated Freshwater Tortoises in the 
same manner, but thev did not live so long as the terrestrial 
species. He states his belief that the Marine Tortoises would 
hve a long time without their brain, for he received a turtle 
which he treated in the same way, and though it was much 
spent and faint from having been long out of the sea, it 
lived six days. In November he deprived a large tortoise 
of its head, without which it continued to live twenty-three 
days : it did not move about as those did whose brain had 
been taken out, but when its fore or hind legs were pricked 
or poked, it drew them up with great strength, and executed 
many other movements. To assure himself beyond all 
doubt> that life, such as it was, continued in such cases, he 
cut off the heads of four other tortoises, and on opening 
two, twelve days afteiwards, he saw the heart beat and the 
blood enter and leave it. 

We have already had occasion to call attention to the 
great length of time during which these reptiles will live 
without food, and the facts above recorded anord additional 
proof of the extreme tenacity of life — a low grade of life, it 
18 true— in the Testudinata, 

Touch. — ^In the greater part of this order skin, properly 
so called, does not exist at all on certain parts of the body, 
or is reduced to a delicate fibrous plate applied like a sim- 
ple periosteum on the bones of the head and on the ex- 
ternal parts of the vertebr» of the back, the ribs, and 
sternum. The soft tortoises {Trionyx and Sphargis, for in- 
stance) are the only ones that differ in this respect. Never- 



theless the neck, the feet, and most frequently a consider- 
able pajct of the tail, are covered with a true flexible skin. 
This. skin in the Matamata is fringed or fumishe^iwith 
moveable .appendages on the laterai parts of the head and 
neck. Ther.e can be no doubt that the sort of touch or 
sensatioa. which will indicate, to a Trionyx^ or even to a 
Marine or Land Tortoise, the differences of temperature 
that affect the Qiedium wherein it moves, is present in 
those animals, but the sensibility of a true toucn must be 
very much blunted in them> Some have Iheir toes united 
down tp the nails, or gather hoofs, and absolutely immove- 
able ; others have thein flattened and forming a sort of paddle, 
as in Chelane and Sphargis; or the whole foot terminates 
bv a sort of shapeless stump, rounded like that of the ele- 
phant, the presence of the toes being only indicated by 
those nails or hopfs, as in the La^iid Tortoises. Others, it 
is true, Emys, .Trionyx^ and phelys^ for example, have 
their toes very distinct, but the;yr are nevertheless united by 
membranes, and in general their feet seem more adapted 
for the different modes of transport than for touch. The 
Matamata, indeed, has its nose prolonged into a sort of 
moveable proboscis ; but this organization seems to be 
directed more to favour the required mode of respiration, 
than to give the animal that sort of perception exercised 
by the snout of swine and the muzzles of moles and some 
shrews. (Dum, and Bibr.) 

Taste, — ^The wide fleshy tongue, with its distinct papillas, 
like those of Mammals, seems well calculated for tasting 
vegetable and animal juices after the food is minced up 
by the homy mandibles; the fleshy lips on the outside 
of these mandibles in the Trionyces probabljr assist in re- 
taining these juices. The Matamata, which from the 
width of its gape and unarmed mouth is supposed to 
swallow its prey whole, may yet have time while it is 

Sressed in the jaws, previous to deglutition, to enjoy its 
avour. In the museum of the College of Surgeons, 
Nos. 1459 to 1463, inclusive, afford instructive preparations 
of the OS h)roides» tongue, larynx, part of the trachea, 
and fauces, in some of which, No. 1461 for inskince, the 
tongue will be seen to be remarkably beset with numerous 
elongated papillae, and the subungual follicles carefully 
dissected. 

SmelL — ^Though there is probably sufficient of this sense 
to assist the animal in its discrimination of food, and aid 
the functions of the tongue in giving the animal a percep- 
tion of flavour, it may be concluded from the very simple 
state of the organs, so different from the complication of 
those in animals where the sense is known to be highly 
developed, thA it is not very acute in the tortoises. Nos. 
1532 to 1535, both inclusive, are preparations giving very 

§ood information respecting the state of these organs in 
le Testudinata. In No. 1532 the fibres of the olfactory 
nerve are seen expanding upon the turbinated cartilage. 

Hearing. — In the Cheloniansy Emydes, and TesttuHnes 
is found, under the solid scales with which the lateral and 
posterior parts of their head are furnished, a portion of loose 
cellular tissue which fills a bony canal. In the middle of 
this substance is found a more or less bony plate, the ex- 
ternal termination of a single ossicle prolonged into a slen- 
der stylet, into the interior of the cavity, where it enlarges 
anew, to close the foramen ovale, or opening of the canal 
whioh leads to the internal ear, and is called the vestibule. 
In all the other tortoises, the cavity of the t3mipanum com- 
municates very freely with the throat or back of the mouth, 
and in the interior of the ear; which is often contained in 
a cartilage-like substance, the three semicircular canals 
come to the common vestibule after they have each 
attained a slight increase of convexity. There is also a 
sort of rudiment of a cochlea. All these internal parts do 
not contain air, but a viscous albuminous liquid, and it is 
there that the la^t ramifications of the acoustic nerve, the 
soft portion of the auditory, terminate. (Dum. a^d Bibr.) 
The parts employed in this sense, which must be tolerably 
quick in the Testudinata, are well shown in Nos. 1S78, 
1579, and 1580 of the preparations in the museum of the 
College of Surgeons : in me case of the turtle, the drum, 
which is strong and thick, hangs suspended by the long 
ossicle. 

Si^ht.^-The eye is well developed in the Testudinata, 
and IS large. It is modified so as to be adapted to the 
medium, whether air or water, through which the hght is 
to be transmitted. In the substance of the cornea scales or 
osseous plates are found analogous to those in Bird* 

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[vol. iv., p. 428], and there are three eyelids and two la- 
chrymal glands. 

In the museum of the College of Surgeons, No. 1674 is 
the eye of a turtle (jChelone Mydas) transversely divided. 
The short ciliaiy arteries are injected, and form a beautiful 
plexus round the optic nerve ; the nerve makes a conical 
projection at its entrance into the cavity of the eye. The 
choroid is thick and of a brown colour, the posterior part 
of the iris and ciliary circle, from which the area appears 
to have been removed, are of a lighter colour. The ciliary 
plicse are neatly defined, but, as in fishes, do not project 
forward as distinct processes. The iris and pupil are round. 
The sclerotica is cai-tilciginous, and is of unequal thickness, 
this being eppeatest at the posterior part, where it is also 
thicker at the temporal than at the nasal side of the globe ; 
anteriorly it contains a circle of small bony plates. The 
cornea is circular and flat ; No. 1675 is a similar prepara- 
tion. No. 1676 is a portion of the eye of a turtle injected, 
showing the continuation of the optic nerve into the retina. 
No. 1676 A exhibits the Ndtreous and crystalline humours 
of the eye of a turtle ; the lens is almost spherical, but 
slightly flattened anteriorly. No. 1766 is a preparation of 
the eyeball, eyelids, ai)d lachrymal glands of a Chelone 
Mvdas, The upper and lower eyelids are distinctly de- 
veloped, and accurately close the conjunctival cavity when 
moved by their appropriate muscles. There is also a well- 
developed nictitating or third eyelid, which is situated 
vertically at the inner canthus of the eye, and has a hori- 
zontal motion over the cornea ; it is slit across to show the 
orifice of the Harderian gland, of which the secretion is 
expressly destined to facilitate its movements. This gland 
however is of small size compared with the true lach^anal 
gland, which consists of the thick and broad conglomerate 
mass surrounding the outer and upper parts of the eye- 
ball ; its duct is short-and wide, and terminates just above 
the external canthus of the eye ; a portion of quill is in- 
serted into it ; a bristle is passed into the duct of the Har- 
derian gland. The insertions of the muscles of the globe 
are here preserved ; and the four small accessory muscles 
forming the suspensorius or retrahens oculi, and surround- 
ing the optic nerve, deserve especial notice. No. 1767 shows 
the eyelids, with the Harderian and a portion of the lachry- 
mal gland of a turtle. The nictitating memlMune is entire, 
and a portion of the nictitator muscle is seen attached to 
its inferior angle. A bristle is placed in the duct of the 
Harderian gland, which opens on the internal surface of 
the nictitating membrane, near the line of reflection of 
the conjunctive membrane. The under eyelid, which has 
most motion, may be observed to have the fewest scales 
upon its external surface. No. 1768 is another preparation 
of the three eyelids of a turtle. {Cat, vol. iii.) 

Generative and Urinary Systems, — Preparations illus- 
trative of the generative and urinary male organs in the 
Testudinata will be found in Nos. 2441 to 2452 of the 
Museum of the College of Surgeons, both inclusive ; in the 
last the bifid allantoid bladder is distended with horse- 
hair. The testes, which resemble the kidneys in shape 
and equal them in size, are distinguished by their smooUi, 
white, unconvoluted surface. The large penis has been 
injected, and a small bou^e is placed in the urethral 
groove : the glans penis, which bounds the urethral groove 
anteriorly, presents a crescentic figure, and projects from 
the under surface of the fibrous corpus cavernosum, which 
terminates in a point ijrojecting beyond the glans. 

The female generative and urinary organs in" several 
species are exhibited in Nos. 2718 to 2723, both inclusive, 
of the same museum. Nos. 1183, 1192, 1193, and 1194 
are preparations of the kidneys of Testudinata, 

According to the accounts of voyagers the Coriaceous 
Tortoises {Sphargis) and the Trionyces seem to pair, and 
two individuals of different sexes remain constantly to- 
gether in the same places. The great Marine Tortoises, as 
IS well known, come every year, at their appointed times, 
to deposit their eg^ in the sand on the shores of the sea 
imd banks of rivers near strands of gentle declivity. There 
the females hollow out a sort of rude but strong vaulted nest 
or oven, as it may be termed, wherein the eggs may have 
the benefit of the concentrated rays of the sun, so as to 
enjoy an equable heat, as in the case of eggs under a sit- 
ting hen, but under circumstances which do not permit the 
body of the mother to impart the necessary warmth. The 
shell of these eggs is generally solid, and their form globu- 
lar, or of a short cylindrical shape equally rounded at the 



extremities. A female Turtle will lay as many as a hun- 
dred at one time. The plastron of the males of many 
species of Testudinata is concave, that of the females 
being convex, whereby the abdomen is rendered more 
capacious. TTie time employed in the coitus is very long. 
MM. Dum^ril and Bibron say that it has been seen to he 
prolonged in the Chelonians and Anurous Batrachians from 
eighteen to thirty-one days and more, before the male has 
quitted the female. 

With regard to the integument of the carapace and plas- 
tron, the number, colour, and shape of the investing plates 
of horn or shell, as it is termed, vary considerably. The 
subjoined cuts will convey a better notion than words of 
their arrangement in a land and marine species ; but it 
must be considered that these are mere examples, and that 
the variety is almost infinite. 




Campnce of Testudo maigiAata, ooTered with shell. 




Garapaoe of Cbelone Oaouana, covered with shell. 



System A.TIC Akranoement and Natural History. 

The general arrangement of the Testudinata will be 
found in the article Reptiles, so that we shall here have 
only occasion to notice the details of some of the principal 
systematists. 

Aristotle has mentioned three principal groups of Tor- 
toises, or at any rate genera, unaer the names of x^b^vii 
Ytpixaia (Chelone chersaea) for the Land Tortoise ; x^^^^vn 
BaXarria (Chelone Thalattia, or Thalassia) for the Sea Tor- 
toise or Turtle {Hist. Anim., ii. 17) ; and luvf (Emys) for 
the Freshwater Tortoise {Ibid,, v. 33). Gesner remarks 
that there are three ' summa genera' of Tortoises : the 1st, 
terrestrial; the 2nd, living m fresh waters ; and the 3rd, 
in the waters of the sea. MM. Dum6ril and Bibron copy 
his ' Corallarium de Testudinibus in genere,' to show how 
far it accords with their own arrangement, as follows : — 

terrestris f Testudo marina, x^Xwi^ 

J OaKarria, 
mari j Mus marinus, /i^c QoKar" 
I rtoff, 

Ipuriore, ut lacubus, 
amnibus. 
caenosS, ut paludi- 
bus. 

JLinnsBUs placed the form at the head of his Amphibia 
Reptilia, under the generic name Testudo, 

Cuvier divides them into fiye subgenera— 1, the Land 
Tortoises {Testudo, Bronjgn.) ; 2, the Freshwater Tortoises 
{Emys, Brongn.), including the Box Tortoises {Terrapene. 
Merrem ; Ktnostemon, Spix ; Cistuda, Fleming) ; 3, the 
Marine Tortoises ; 4, the Chelydes {Testudo Jimbriata) : 5 
the Soft Tortoises {Trionyx, Geoff.). 
Mr, Bell {ZooL Joum,, vol, iii.), whose labouwon tliis 



Testudo 
aut est laquatiea, aut 



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branch of natural history are deservedly praised by MM. 
Dum6ril and Bibron, thus arranges the order : — 
Testudinata. 

A. Digitata, 

Family 1.— Testudinidae. (Terrestrial. Herbivorous.) 
Genera. — Testudo^ Auct. Pyxis, Bell. KinixySy Bell. 
Family 2. — Emydidse. (Fluviatile or lacustrine. Car- 
nivorous.) 

a. With a moveable sternum. 
Genera. — Terrapene, Merrem. Sternotharus, Bell. 
Kinosternon^ Spix. 

b. With an immoveable sternum. 
Genera. — Hydrasms^ Bell. Emys, Brongn. Chelonura, 
Fleming. Chelys^ l>um6ril. 

Family 3. — TVionychidae. (Fluviatile. Carnivorous.) 
Genus. — TnonyXy GeoiF. 

B. Pinnata, 

Family 4. — Si)hargid«. (Marine. Herbivorous.) 
Genus.— S/)Aarg*i>, Merrem. 

Family 5. — Clieloniada^. 
Genus. — Chelonia^ Bron^n. 

The Prince of Canino, m his Amphibia Hktroprsa {Me- 
morie della RecUe Accademta delle Scienze ai Torino^ 
serie ii., tom. ii.), makes the Testudinata the second sec- 
tion of his first subclass, Ablopnoa, - Th« Chelonii form the 
fourth order of that section, and the Chelonidce the fifth 
family, the Trionycidc^ the sixth, and the Tesiudinid^p the 
seventh. 

Chelonidae. 
Subfamily 6. Chelonina, 
Genus 1. — Chelonia. Species, Chelonia Mydas, 
Genus 2. — Caretta, Species, Caretta imbricata, 
(Hawk's-bill Turtle.) 

Genus 3. — Thalassochelys. Species, Thalassochelys 
caretta, (Logger-head Turtle.) 

Subfamily 7. Sphargidina. 
Genus 4. — Sphargis. Species, Sphargis coriacea, 
Testudinidae. 
Subfamily 11. Emydina, 
Genus 5. — Terrapene, Species, Terrapene Caspica; 
Terrapene Sigriz. 
Genus 6.— ^ny*. Species, Emys lutaria^ Men*cm. 

Subfamily 12. Testudinina, 
Genus 7. — Testudo, Species, Testudo Grceca, 
Genus 8. — Chersus. Species, Ckersus Ibertts ; Chersus 
marginatus, 

N.B. The arrangement stands thus in the * Specicnim 
Synopsis;' but in the * Tabula Analytica,' * Monopnoa* is 
the name ^ven to the first subclass. 

Mr. Swainson {Classification of Reptiles^ 1840) gives the 
following as the list of genera : — 

1. Testudinidae. Land Tortoises. 
Genus. — Testudo: with the subgenera, Testudo, Linn. ; 
Chersina, Merrem, Gray ; Hesmopus {Homopus must be 
meant), Dum. and Bibr. ; Pyxis, Bell ; Kinixys, Bell. 

2. Emydae. River or Emys Tortoises. 
Cistuda, Gray— printed in Italics, which is the sign in 

this work of a subgenus. Then comes Emys, Brongn., 
printed as a genus, and so is themext, Kinosternon, Spix, 
with the subgenera Ster not/us r us. Bell ; Chelodina, Fitz. ; 
Hydraspis, Bell. 

3. Trionycida,Grs.y. Soft Tortoises. 

Genus. — Trionyx, Geoff., with the subgenus Emyda, 
Gray. 

4, Chelonidae, Gray. Turtles, or Sea Tortoises. 
Genera : — Chelonia, Gray. Sphargis, Merrem. 
5. Chelydridae, Swainson. Long-tailed or Crocodile 

Tortoises. 
Genera :-^Chelys, Dum^ril. Plaiysternon, Gi-ay. Che- 
lydra, Schweigg. 

Mr. Gray (^hopsis of the Contents of the British Mu- 
seum, 1840) makes the Chelonia, the third order of Reptiles 
in his arrangement, come under his second section, Cata- 
phracta^ the Squamata being the first. 

Family 1. Testudinidae. 
Genera:— Te^/M^o. Chersina, Kinixys. Pyxis. 

Family 2. Emydae. 
Genera :—Geo«myda. Emys, Cyclemys. Malaclemys. 
Cistuda. Kinostemon. Staurotypus. Chelydra. Pla- 
tysternum. 

Family 3. Chelydae. 
QeDAT^k'.-'^emotharus. Chelodina. Hydraspis, Chelys, 



Family 4. Trionycidae. 

Genera :— TWowyx. Emyda, 

Family 5. Cheloniadae. 

Genera : — Sj^hargis, Chelonia, 

MM. Dumdril and Bibron, in their elaborate and highly 
valuable Erpitologie, divide the Tortoises, or Chelomans, 
into the following families : — 1st, The Chersites, Chersians, 
or Land-Tortoises ; 2nd, The Elodites, Elodians,or Marsh- 
Tortoises; 3rd, The Potamites, Potamians, or River-Tor- 
toises ; 4th, The Thalassites, Thalassians, Sea-Tortoises or 
Turtles, 

Of these groups the authors observe that Chersites is 
not perfectly limited, for some of the species arranged by 
them under the succeeding family {Elodites) seem to form 
a natural passage between the Land and Marsh Tortoises. 
Such are Cistuao Carolina and Emys Muhlenburgii, which 
are in reality Paludines, or Marsh-Tortoises, with distinct 
toes, though they possess only very short membranes and 
but slightly palmated feet. 

The principal characters which distinguish the Chersites 
or Chersians from the three other divisions of the cmier 
Chelonians are thus defined ; — Body short, oval, convex, 
covered with a carapace and a plastron ; four feet ; no 
teeth. But MM. Dum6ril and Bibron remark that the 
principal distinction may be enunciated by this simple 
term drawn from the conformation of the limbs, and which 
indicates perfectly the manner of life of the group — 
stumpy feet (des pieittes en moignon) : — ^this would recall 
the condition of those feet, namely, that they are short, 
unshapely, though nearly of equal length, with toes but 
little distinct, nearly equal, immoveable, united by a thick 
skin, and conglomerated into a sort of truncated mass, 
callous in its periphery, on the outside of which one only 
distinguishes norny cases, a sort of hoofs which, for the 
most part, correspond with the last phalanges they incase, 
and would consequently show that these animals live only 
on the land, never in the water. The other Uiree groups 
differ from the last and from each other in the form of the 
feet. 

The ITialassites, or Thalassians, have the carapace very 
much depressed, and their two pairs of feet, unequal in 
length, are flattened into the form of oars or solid fins, be- 
cause their toes are always conjoined and hardly distinct 
from each other, incased as thev are in these paddles. 

The Elodites, or Elodians, nave the toes separate, or 
rather separately moveable, funiished with crooked claws, 
most frequently pal mated or united at their base by mem- 
branes, nearly as in the Ducks ; but the transition of these 
last three families is, so to speak, insensible on the one 
side between the species of the genus Cistudo, and on the 
other between Chelys and all the species generally known 
as Soft Tortoises, 

These last, the Potamites, or Potamians, have also* the 
toes palmated or connected by membranes; they have 
pointed claws, three in number only, on each foot ; their 
pointed and trenchant beak is constantly furnished exter- 
nally with folds of the skin, like lips, appendages which 
have hitherto been only observed in this family. In addi- 
tion their bony carapace is covered with a coriaceous skin, 
the edges of which in the greater number remain flexible 
and floating on the sides of the body. 

1st Family, Chersians— Land-Tortoises. 

Family Character, — Chelonians, with a very convex 
carapace ; limbs short, equal ; feet in the form of rounded, 
callous stumps, with indistinct unguiculate toes. 

. f Moveable behind, where it is, as it were, 

g articulated 4, Kinixys. 

g*J Immoveable ; Tfour only . . .2, Homopus. 
I J nails on 1he{five: front of (moveable . 3, Pyxis. 
O [ anterior feet I the plastron I immoveable 1, Testudo. 

Genus, Testudo. 

Characters,— F^ei with five toes, hind-feet with four 
nails only ; carapace of a single piece ; sternum not move- 
able anteriorly. 

This genus is divided by MM. Dumdril and Bibron into 
three sections, or subgenera : — 

1. Those species which have the posterior portion of 
their plastron moveable : these correspond with tne genera 
Chersus^ of Wagler ; Testudo, of authors ; Chersma, of 
Gray. 

2. Those species whose plastron is solid in all its parts, 
or of a single piece covered with twelve plates. 



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3. Those species which have the stjeni^n^. equally im- 
moveable, but covered with eleven horny plates. 

These sections embrace twenty-two sfjccies. 

In the first section Testudo marginata^ Schoepf., and 
Te^tudo Mauritianica, Dum. and Bibr., are ]t)laced. 

In the second are Testudo Grtsca, lAim, \ Testudo geo- 
metrica, Linn. ; Testudo actinodes. Bell : Testudo parda- 
lis. Bell ; Testudo sulcata. Miller ; Testudo nigrita, Dum. 
and Bibr. ; Testudo radtata, Shaw ; Testudo tabidata, 
Walbaum; Testudo carhonaria, Spix; Testudo Polyphe- 
musy Daud. ; Testudo Schweiggeri, Gray ; Testudo ele- 
phaniinay Bum. and Bibr. ; Testudo nigra, Quoy and 
Giaim. ; Testudo gigantea, Schweigg. ; Testudo Daudiniiy 
Dum. and Bibr. ; Testudo Perraultii, Dum. and Bibri 

In the third are, Testudo angulatay Dum. and Bibr. ; 
Testudo Graii, Dum. and Bibr. ; Testudo. peltastesj Dum. 
and Bibr. ; and Testudo Fosmaerij Fitzing. 

For an account of the habits of Land-Tortoises we turn to 
the records of two acute and eloquent observers, whose narra- 
tives it would be unjust to give in other words than their own. 
• White of Selborne thus writes to the Honourable 
Daines Barrington, from Rin^mer, near Lewes, in October, 
1770 : — ' A land-tortoise, which has been kept for thirty 
years in a little walled court belonging to the same house 
where I am now visiting, retires under ground about the 
middle of November, and comes forth again about the 
middle of April. When it first appears in the spring it 
discovers very little inclination towards food, but in the 
height of summer grows voracious ; and then as the sum- 
mer declines, its appetite declines; so that for the last 
six weeks in autumn it hardly eats at all. Milky plants, 
such a^ lettuces, dandelions, sow-thistles, are its favourite 
dish. In a neighbouring village one was kept, till by tra- 
dition it was supposed to be a hundi*ed j^ears old — aii 
instance of vast longevity in such a poor reptile.' 

Again in April, 177J2, White writes. to the same corre- 
spondent : — * While I was in Sussex last autumn, my 
residence was at the village near Lewes, whence I had 
formerly the pleasure of writing to you. On the 1st of 
November I remarked that the old tortoise formerly men- 
tioned began first to dig the ground in order to the form- 
ing its hybernaculum, which it had fixed on just beside a 
great tuft of hepaticas. It scrapes out the ground with 
its fore-feet, and throws it up over its back with its hind ; 
but the motion of its legs is ridiculously slow, little exceed- 
ing the hour-hand of a clock ; and suitable to the com- 
posure of an animal said to be a whole month in perform- 
ing one feat of copulation. Nothing can be more assiduous 
than this creature night and day in scooping the earth and 
forcing its great body into the cavity ; but as the noons of 
that season proved unusually warm aha sunny, it was con- 
tinually interrupted, and called forth by the heat in the 
middle of the day ; and though I continued there till the 
13th of November, yet the work remained unfinished. 
Hai-bher weather and frosty mornings would have quick- 
ened its operations. No part of its behaviour ever struck 
me more than the extreme timidity it always expresses 
with regard to rain ; and though it has a shell that would 
secure it against a loaded cart, yet does it discover as much 
solicitude about rain as a lady dressed in all her best attire, 
shuffling away on the fii-st sprinklings^ and running its 
head up in a corner. If attended to, it becomes an excel- 
lent weather-glass ; for as sure as it walks elate, and as it 
were on tiptoS, feeding with great camestness in the morn- 
ing, so sure will it rain before night. It is totally a diur- 
nal animal, and never pretends "to stir after it becomes 
dai'k. The tortoise, like other reptilies, has an arbitrary 
stomach as well as lungs, and can refrain from eating as 
well as breathing for a great part of the year. When first 
awakened it eats nothing ; nor again in the autumn before 
it retires : through the height of the summer it feeds vora^- 
ciously, devouring all the food that comes in its way. I 
was much taken with its sagacity in (lisceming those that 
do it kind offices ; for as soon as the good old lady comes 
in sight who has waited on it for more than thirty yeare, 
it hobbles towards its benefactress with awkw'ard alacrity, 
but remains inattentive to strangers. Thus not only •♦ the 
ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master's crio," but 
the most abject reptile and torpid of beings distinguishes 
the hand that feeds it, and is touched with the feelings of 
gratitude.' In a postscript he adds, that, in about three 
days after he left Sussex the tortoise retired into the ground 
under the hepaticas. 



In April, 1780, White again writes to Mr. Barrington : 
* The old tortoise that I haye mentioned to you so often is 
become my property. I dug it out of its winter dormitory 
in March fast, when it was enough awakened tp express its 
resentment by liissing ; and, packing it in a box with 
earth, carried it eighty miles in post-chaises. The rattle 
and hurry of the journey so perfectly rouped it, that when 
I turned it out on a border, it walked twice down to the 
bottom of my garden ; however, in the evening, the 
weather being cold, it buried itself in the loose mould, 
and continues still concealed. As it will be under my 
eye, I shall now have an opportunity of enlar$cing my 
observations on its mode of life and propensities, and 
perceive already that, towards the time of cpming forth, 
it opens a breathing-place in the ground near its head, 
requiring, I conclude, a freer respiration as it becomes 
more alive. This creature not only goes under the earth 
from the middle of November to the middle of April, 
but sleeps great part of the summer ; for it goes to bed in 
the longest days at four in the afternoon, and often does 
not stir in the morning till late. Besides, it retires to rest 
for every shower, and does, not move at all in wet days. 
When one reflects on the state of this strange being, it is a 
matter of wonder to find that Providence should bestow 
such a profusion of days, such a seeming waste of lon- 
gevity, on a reptile that appears to relish it so little as to 
squander more than two-thirds of its existence in a joylciss 
stupor, and be lost to all sensation for months together in 
the profoundest of slumbers. 

• While I was writing this letter, a moist and warm ' 
afternoon, with the thermometer at 50% brought forth 
troops of shell-snails ; and, at the same juncture, the 
tortoise heaved up the mould and put out its head ; and 
the next morning came forth, as it were raised from the 
dead ; and walked about till four in the afternoon. This 
was a curious coincidence ! a very amusing occurrence ! to 
see such a similarity of feeling between the two ^cpwucoi, 
for so the Greeks call the sheU-snail and the tortoise.' 

Again White reverts to the ' old family tortoise ' in the 
same letter : — * Because we call this creature an abject 
reptile, we are too apt to undervalue .. his abilities and 
depreciate his powers of instinct. Yet he is, as Mr. Pope 
says of his lord, 

" ■ much too wise to walk into a well ;" 

and has su much discernment as not to fall down an hah a, 
but to stop and withdraw from the brink with the readiest 
precaution. Though he loves warm weather,, he avoids 
the hot sun ; because this thick shell, when once heated, 
would, as the poet says of solid armour, " scaJd with 
safety." He therefore spends the more sultiy hours under 
the umbrella of a large cabbage leaf, or amiast the waving 
forests of an asparagus-bed. nut as he avoids heat in the 
summer, so, in the decline of the yeai', he improves the 
faint autumnal beams, by getting within the reflection of 
a fruit-wall ; and, though ne never has read thait planes 
inclining to the horizon receive a greater share of warmth, 
he inclines his shell by tilting it against the wall, to collect 
and admit every feeble ray. Pitiable seems the condition 
of this poor embarrassed reptile *. to be cased in a suit of 
ponderous armour, which he cannot lay aside ; to be 
imprisoned, as it were, within his own shell, must preclude, 
we should suppose, all activity and disposition for enter- 
prise. Yet there is a season of the year (usually the 
beginning of June) when his exertions are remarkable. 
He then walks on tiptoe, and is stirring by five in the 
morning; and, traversing the garden, explores every 
wicket and interstice in the fences, through which he will 
escape, if possible ; and often has eluded the care of the 
gardener, and wandered to some distant field. The 
motives that impel him to undertake these rambles seem 
to be of the amorous kind ; his &ncy then becomes intent 
on sexual attachments, which transport him beyond his 
usual gravity, and induce him to iorget for a time his 
ordinary solemn deportment.' 

Mr. Darwin in his Journal describes the habits of Testudo 
Indica, or rather one of the species that have been con- 
founded under that name, and, not improbably, the Testudo 
nigra of Quoy and Gkiimard. He speaks of their number 
as being very great, as indeed they always seem to have 
been, for he quotes Dampi6r, who states that they are so 
numerous, that five or six hundred men might subsist on 
them for several nionths without any other sort of pro- 
visions, and describes them as being so extraordinanly 



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large and fat, that no pullet eats more pleasantly. The 
day on which Mr. Darwm visited the little craters in the 
Galapagos ArchipeTago was glowing hot, and the scram- 
bling over the rough surface, and through the intricate 
thickets, was very fatiguing. * But,' says Mr. Datwin, • I 
was well repaid by the Cyclopian scene. In my walk I 
met two large tortoises, each of which must have weighed 
at least two hundred pounds. One was eating k piece of 
cactus, and when I approached, it looked at me and then 
quietly walked away; the other gave a deep hiss and 
drew in his head, lliese huge reptiles, surrounded by the 
black lava, the leafless shrute, and large cacti, appeared 
to my fancy like some antediluvian animals.' 

Mr. Darwin states his belief that these tortoises are 
found in all the islands of the Archipelago ; certainly in 
the greater number, and thus continues his description : — 
* They frequent, in preference, the high damp parts, but 
likewise inhabit the lower and arid districts. Some 
individuals grow to an immense size. Mr. Lawson, an 
Englishman, who had, at the time of our visif, charge of 
the colony, told us that he had seen several so Targe that 
it required six or eight men to lift them from the ground, 
and that some had afforded ris much as two hundred 
pounds of meat. The old malesare the largest, the females 
rarely Rowing to so great a size. The male can readily 
be distmguished from'the female by the greater length of 
its tail. The tortoises whic^i live on those islands where 
there is no water, or in the lower and aridjparts of the 
others, chiefly feed on the succulent cactus. Those which 
frequent the higher and damp regions eat the leaves of 
various trees, a kind of betry (called guayavita) which is 
acid and austere, and likewise a pale green -filamentous 
lichen, that han^ in tresses from the boughs of the tiees. 

' The tortoise is very fond of water, drinking large quan- 
tities, and wallowing m the mud. The largenslands alone 
possess springs, and these are always situated towards the 
central parts, and at a considerable elevation. The 
tortoises, therefore, which frequent the lower districts 
when thirsty, aie obliged to travel from a long distance. 
Hence, broad and well-beaten paths radiate ofP in every 
direction from the Vvells even down to the sea-coast ; and 
the Spaniards, by following them up, first discovered the 
watenng-places. When I landed at Chatham Island, I 
could not imagine what animal travelled so methodically 
along the well-chosen tracks. Near the springs it was a 
curious spectacle to behold many of these gi-eat monsters ; 
one set eagerly travelling onwards with outstretched 
necks, and anotner set returning, after having drunk their 
fill. When the tortoise arrives at the spring, quite regard- 
less of any spectator, it buries its head in the water above 
its eyes, and greedily swallows j^eat mouthfuls, at the 
mte of about ten in a minute. The inhabitants say that 
each animal stays three or four days in the neighbourhood 
of the water, and then returns to the lower 'country; but 
they differed in their accounts respedting the frequency of 
these visits. The animal probably regulates ttiem ac- 
cording to the nature of the food which it has consumed. 
It is however certain that tortoises can subsist even on 
those islands where theUe is no other water than what falls 
during a few rainy dats in the year. 

* I believe it is well ascertained that the bladder of the 
frog^ acts as a reservoir fot the bioisfure necessary to its 
existence: such seems to be the case with the tortoise. 
For some time after a visit to the springs, the urinary blad 
der of these Animals is distended with fluid, which is said 
gradually to decrease in volume and to become less pure. 
The inhabitants, when walking in the lower district, and 
overcome with thirst, often take advantage of this circum 
stance, by killing a tortoise, and if the bladder is full, 
drinking its contents. ' In one I saw killed, the fluid was 
quite limpid, and had only a very slightly bitter taste. 
The inhabitants however always drink flrst the water in 
the pericardium, which is described as being best. The 
tortoises, when moving towards ^any definite point, travel 
by night and by day, and arrive attfieh-joumey*sendrauch 
sooner than would be expected. The inhabitants, from 
observations on marked individuals, consider that they can 
move a distance of about 6ight miles in tv^o or thtee days. 
One large tortoise which I watched, I found walked at the 
rate of sixty yards in ten minutes, that is, 360 in the hour, 
or four miles a day— allowing also a little time for it to eat 
on the road. During ^he breeding season, when the male 
and female are together, the male utters a hoarse roar or 



bellowing, which, it is said, can be heard at the distance of 
more than a hundred yards. The female never uses her 
voice, and the male only at such times; so that when the 
people hear this noise, they know the two are togethei*. 
They were at this time (October) laying their eggs. The 
female, where the soil is sandy, deposits them together, and 
covers them up with sand ; but wnere the ground is rocky, 
she drops them indiscriminately in any hollow. Mr. 
Bynoe found seven placed in a line in a Assure. The egg 
is white and spherical ; one which I measured was seven 
inches and three-eighths in circumference. The young ani- 
mals, as soon as they are hatched, fall a prey in great niihl- 
bers to the buzzaixi with the habits of the caracara. The 
old onfes seem generally to die from accidents, as from rail- 
ing down precipices. At least several of the inhabitants 
told me they had never found one dead without some such 
apparent cause. The inhabitants believe that these ani- 
mals, are absolutely deaf ; certainly they do not overhear 
k person walking close behind them. I was always amu^d; 
when overtaking one of tlie.se great* monsters as it was 
quietly pacing fidong, to see how suddenly, the instant I 
passed, it would draw in its head ah^ legs, and uttering a 
deep hiss fall to the ground with a heavy sound, as if struck 
dead. I frequently got"* oh' their backs, and then, uport 
giving a few raps on the hinder part of the shell, tney 
would rise up and walk away ; but 1 found it very diflicult 
to keep my balance. The flesh of this animal is largely 
employed, both fresh and salted ; and a beautifully dear 
oil IS prepared from the fkt. When a tortoise is caught, 
the man makes a slit in the skin near its tail, so as to see 
inside its body, whether thfe fat under the dorsal plate is 
thick. If it is not, the anlHial is liberated ; and it is said 
to recover soon froitf th^^ytHmgg iiperation. In order to 
secure the tort6ife!4r4lri«fiia|cVidht to turn them like 
turtle, for ttie^||-o||e{f dj^fe f o re^n H^^ "Plight posi- 

'ItwtLs confidently asserted thaf \\iQ tortoises coming 
from ditlereiit ikistnas in llir^ AKhipeIfi|*'o ui^ti.' slightly dif- 
ferent hi JbriT!^ ft mi \UM in ctrtjiiis iKtand.^ tin y attained a 
larger avnutrH A/.v than in irtht'ri. Mr. I.iLWson main- 
tained (j,;ii iir rtin'd ill liUrL* tci! froiii whiuli it^land anyone 
was bnRi IT [ 1 1 . U n I u vi u nat t'jy , Ui t? s^p eci tii L*ns w hich came 
home ia itit^ Bekj^p Wi^r* ffjo j^'thttU t^iristltntt' any certain 
compai'iiiuti. ''!CJtiti fortt>is3L% whicb gues liy Uie name of 
Testudff hnik'iikl'H it| prestnit iMrikj-ifi ui^fty parts of the 
world. !t is t(it¥ 6plmtm nf Mr. RelJ, ftnd'Siftnif others who 
have stuUitd i-i^tiltsl tlvAjit \l noiifnpfrJb.-ihU iliat they all 
originally t-aine^ from ihvi A3Thip(ljft.|^d. Whvn it is known 
how \o\\k thc^i^ iMttfida'^atP \A*%n IVwiouftM ^'y the bue- 
caniers, und that th^y 'eiin^.jnhifj lOot 'iway numbers of 
these aniraals^'^h*i?, 'ij st*en^ ?t?fj' prt>taljlc that they 
should have dimHRitra Hie^ in diffmnt ]j:irts of the 
world . 1 1 t his t drt 6!^' do^i ' ti ftt origi nal I \' co m e from these 
islands, iN±i a remHrkal^le'ahcimaTy ; luaijimtcli ^is nearly all 
the other land iniiiihitants st'iitii tu havMllifir birthplace 
here.' 

Geographical Distribution of the Species qf Testudo, — 
The last-quoted observation of Mr. Darwin is worthy of 
much attention. 

MM. Dum^ril and Bibron, who, to prevent the confu- 
sion hitherto arising from ' ^he^ application of the speciflc 
name Indica to more than bnekpecies, ^ave eliminated that 
name altogether,' gj'fe the following^tei^e localities of the 
species of TW/bcS^sb far as they l#e*^kni(wn : — Asia, 5 ; 
Europe, 3 ; conirattn to Europe and A^rca, 1 ; Africa, 7 ; 
common to Afn<^^^(i ^n^^ri^** \ ? 5 Atiflfeica, 6. 

TeHhidn Allied ih 'ivti] st^vt* f(^r an ^?fjti Oration oi" Ihin 
genus: it is tht^^pi^cies assigned to At^i*^ and AuieriL** 
with a?» >L d prl^gny is slated to hnWlltlinsitiH' c^tlleL-led 




Tettado lalcata. 



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the young of Testudo sulcata in Patagonia, where, accord- 
ing to him, the species is very common. MM. Dum^ril 
and Bibron declare that other specimens come without 
doubt from Africa. 

Genus Hornopus, Dum. and Bibr. Characters. — Four 
toes only on each foot, and all unguiculate ; carapace and 
sternum of a single piece. 

Species, Homopus areolatus (South Africa, Madagascar) ; 
Homopus signatus (South Africa). 

Genus Pyxis ^ Bell. Characters, — ^Feet each with five 
toes, the posterior ones with four nails only ; carapace of a 
single piece ; sternum moveable anteriorly. 

This genus is the only Land Box Tortoise ; but an ana- 
logue (Stemothcerus) occurs among the Marsh Tortoises 
in the division of Pleurodere Elodians. 

The anterior portion of the plastron of Pyxis^ which is 
susceptible of motion, is of very small extent, for it only 
reaches, backwai-d, to the space of the two first pairs of 
sternal plates, and consequently it is under the strongly 
indicated suture of the second with the third pair that the 
elastic ligament which performs the office of a hinge is 
seen. By means of this sort of moveable door or lid, the 
Pyxis can, by lowering it at will, protrude its head and its 
fore-feet, and by raising it, shut itself up in a sort of box, 
for the edges of this hinged operculum closely fit those of 
the carapace, which serve it as a door-case. The animal 




r~^\s iin.lir.oiflcs. seen from abore. 




ry?.i* iradiaoidw, seen ftoru below 



fnen has nothing to fear, because its sternum protects 
behind, by its enlargement, the space by which the feet 
and the tail can be put forth and deeply drawn up. 

But one species. Pyxis arachnoides^ is known. (Conti- 
nent of India, and the islands of the Indian Archipelago.) 

Genus Kinixys^ Bell. Characters, — Feet with five toes, 
the posterior ones with four nails only ; carapace move- 
able behind ; sternum of a single piece. 

MM. Dum6ril and Bibron observe that this is the most 
curious of the family Chersites. The Chelonians that 
compose it alone enjoy the faculty of moving the posterior 
part of their carapace in order to lower it and apply it 
against the j^lastron, so as completely to close the osseous 
box behind, as the Pyxides close theirs before when they 
elevate the moveable interior portion of their plastron. 
But, as we have seen, the mobility of the anterior part of 
the sternum is in Pyxis due to the presence of an elastic 
ligament which per&rms the office of a hinge, whilst in 
Kinixys the carapace offers no really movetu^le articula- 
tion; the bones, the vertebrw, and ribs are the parts 
which bend. In consequence of this elasticity of the 
bones and their thinness, the carapace canbeonoveddown 
to approximate the sternum. The sinuous line on which 
this flexion operates is indicated externally by a slight 
space, which is filled by a sort of fibro-cartilaginous tissue. 
This undulated line exists between the antepenultimate 
and the penultimate margino-lateral plate. 

The three known species have not, like all the other 
Chersians^ the abdominal plates much more extensive 
than the other horny plates of the sternum, which, joined 
to the enlargement and the rounded contour of the plas- 
tron behind, approximates them in a certain degree to 
Cistudoj the fii-st genus of the Elodians, 

Species. — Kijiixys Homeana (Guadaloupe, Demerara) ; 
Kinixys erosa (Demerara) ; Kinixys Belliana (locality un- 
known : warm j)arts of America probably. 

Pausanias notices a Land Tortoise in the woods of Ar- 
cadia, whose shell was used to make lyres. 

II. Family Elodians — Marsh Tortoises. 

Geographical Distribution of the Family, — MM. Du- 
ineril and Bibron observe that of the four families wliich 
compose the order Chelonians, that of the Elodites is the 
mo^t numerous in genera, and above all in species. For 
Marsh Tortoises have been found in the Old World and in 
the New, and even in Australasia, where hitherto not one 
species of Chersites has been detected. America pro- 
duces more species of Elodians than all the rest of the 
world put together ; for, of the seventy-four species which 
compose that family, forty-six are exclusively American, 
and the remaining twenty-nine are divided between Aus- 
tralasia and the Old World. The cause of this dispropor- 
tion rests in the vast body of water, which, in the Ibrm of 
lakes, ponds, and marshes, covers a certain portion of the 
American continent, as well as in the great rivers and tri- 
butary streams which traverse it in all directions. Africa, 
where the territory differs so much from that of America 
in this respect as well as in so many others, possesses but 
six species, three of which have at present been only found 
in Madagascar, one at Bourbon, and anotiier at Cape Verd; 
whilst this same Africa is rich in Land Tortoises. Of the 
twenty-nine Elodians which are strangers to America, two 
only, Platemys Macquaria and CMlodina Nov€e Hoi- 
landice, are natives of the last-mentioned country. Three 
belong to Europe, six to Africa, and the eighteen which 
remain out of the total number come from the East Indies 
or the Oriental Archipelago ; that part of Asia, in short, 
which is most watered. But of all the Indian Elodians not 
one has the pelvis anchylosed to the plastron as well as to 
the carapace, and consequently immoveable ; nor the neck 
retractile under one of the sides of the buckler ; whilst the 
two New Holland species and the African Elodians are, 
on the contrary, in that condition ; that is to say, Pleuro- 
deres, which subfamily has its head-quarters in South 
America; for, out of twenty-three species of Elodians 
which there inhabit, five Cryptoderes only were known to 
MM.Dum^ril and Bibron, but not a single Pleurodere 
existing in North America : the six African species belong 
also to the Cryptoderes. 

Habits of the Elodians. — These differ very much from 
those of the other three great groups of Chelonians. The 
Marsh Tortoises have not the slowness of the Land Tor- 
toises. They swim with facility, and on land make much 
quicker progress than the Chersians.They freqi«nt ^mall 



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streams whose course is not too rapid, lakes, ponds, and 
marshes : they are not almost entirely vegetable-feeders, 
like the Chersians and Thalassiam, but, like the Pota- 
mians^ prey on living animals ; river-mollusks, Anurous 
and Urodele Batrachians, and Annelids are their food. 

The sexes remain in conjunction for many weeks at one 
time of the year. The eg^ are generally spherical, with a 
calcareous shell, and wHite, like those of the other Che- 
lonians. The females deposit them in shallow cavities, 
which they hollow out in the earth, nearly in the same 
manner as the Land Tortoises ; but the Elodians prefer the 
banks of the waters where they dwell, in order that their 
young ones may the more easily there iind refuge from 
their numerous enemies. The number of eggs varies ac- 
cording to the species, and probably according to the age 
of the mdividuals, for the females are capable of producing 
fertile eggs for some years before they have attamed their 
full growth. 

Subfamily 1. — Cryptodere Elodians. 

Cryoioderes are not only distinguished from the Pleuro- 
deres by the power of completely concealing their cylin- 
drical neck with its sheath of loose skin under the middle 
of the carapace ; but also by their head, which is nearly 
equal in width to its height at the occiput. The eyes are 
always lateral, and their orbits so large that the diameter 
of the cavity nearly equals a fourth of the total extent of 
the cranium considered with regard to its length. The 
jaws of the Cryptoderes are stronger than those of the 
Pleuroderes ; sometimes they are simply trenchant, some- 
times more or less dentilated on their edges, which are 
stmight, or sometimes sinuous. In the greater number of 
species the anterior extremity of the upper beak offers a 
large notch, on each side of which may be seen pretty con- 
stantly a rather strong tooth ; in which case it is rare for 
the corresponding extremity of the mandible not to curve 
upwards towards the muzzle in a sharp point. In short, in 
such cases the upper beak closely resembles that of the 
Falconid£, 

1st Subgenus. — The Clausiles. 

Genus Cisiudo, Fleming, reformed by Gray. Characters, 
— Feet with five toes, the posterior with four claws only ; 
plastron wide, oval, attached to the buckler by a cartilage, 
moveable before and behind on the same transversal mesial 
hinge, furnbhed with twelve plates ; twenty-five marginal 
horny plates or scales. 

Species. — Cistudo Carolina^ CUtudo Amboinensis, and 
Cistudo trifasciata, 

2nd Subgenus. — The Gapers, 

Species.^Ctstudo I^rop€ifa and Cistudo Diardii, 

Genus Emys^ Dum. and Bibr. Characters, — Feet with 
five toes, the posterior with four nails only ; plastron wide, 
immoveable, solidly articulated upon the carapace, fur- 
nished with twelve plates ; two axillary and two inguinal 
shells ; head of ordinary size, tail long. 

1st Group. — European Smydes, 

Species. — Emys Caspica ; Emys Sigriz, 

2nd Group. — American Emydes, 

Species. — Emys punctulariaj Emys marmorea, Emys 
pulchella, Emys geographical Emys concentrica, Emys 
serrataj Etnys Dorbignij Emys imgataj Emys decussata, 
Emys rubriventn's, Emys rugosa^ Emys Flondana^ Emys 
ornata, Emys concinna, Emys reticulata, Emys guttata, 
Emys picta, Emys Bellii, ana Emys Muhlenbergii. 
3rd Group. — African Emys. 

Species.— ^fiSwy* Spengleri. 

4th Group. — Oriental Emydes. 

Species. — Emys Triiuga, Emys Reevesiiy Emys Hamil- 
tontij Emys Thutjii, Emys tecta, Emys Bealei, Emys eras- 
sicollis, 3nys spinosa, Emys ocellata, Emys trtvittata, 
Emys Duvaucellti, and Emys lineaia. 

6enus TetraonyXf Leason. Characters, — Five toes, one 
of them without a nail on all the feet ; sternum solid, 
wide, furnished with six pairs of plates ; twenty-five mar- 
ginal scales. 

Species. — Tetraonyx Lessonii (East Indies), and Te- 
traonyx Baska (East Indies). 

Genus Platystemon, Gray. Characters, — Head armed 
or shielded, and too large to enter under the carapace ; 
upper jaw hooked; sternum wide, immoveable, fixed 
solidly to the carapace, with short alse ; three stemo-costal 
scales ; five nails on the anterior feet ; four only on the 
posterior feet ; tail very long, scaly, without a crest. 

Species. — Platysiernon megacephalum (China). 
P. C, No. 15C1. 



Genus Emysaura, Dum. and Bibr. Character s,^^e^ 
large, covered with small plates ; muzzle short ; two bar- 
bies under the chin: plastron immoveable, cruciform, 
covered with 12 plates ; three stemo-costal scales ; five nails 
on the fore feet, four on the hind feet ; tail long, surmounted 
by a scaly crest. 

Species.— Erwytfawra serpentina (North America, where 
it lives in lakes and rivers, feeding on fish, and, as it would 
seem, on young birds). This is Testudo serpentina, Linn. ; 
Chelydra serpentina^ Schweigg. ; and Chelonura serpen- 
tina of Say, &c. 




Emysaiira serpentina. 

Genus Staurotypus, Wagler. Characters, ^Hetid suO- 
quadrangular, pyramidal, covered in front with a single 
venr delicate scale only ; jaws more or less hooked ; barbies 
under the chin ; twenty-three limbar scales ; sternum 
tliick, cruciform, moveable in front, furnished with eight 
or eleven scales ; axillary and inguinal scales contiguous, 
placed on the stemo-costal sutures ; anterior feet with five 
nails ; posterior feet with four only. 

Species. — Staurotypus triporcatus (Mexico : River Al- 
varedo); and Staurotypus odoratus, so called from the 
musky odour which it is said to exhale (North America, 
where it lives in marshes and muddy currents, feeding on 
small fishes, worms, and mollusks). 

Genus Kinostemon, Wagler. Characters, — ^Head sub- 
ouadrangjular, pyramidal ; a single rhomboidal plate upon 
the cranium ; jaws slightly hooked ; barbies under the 
chin ; scales of the shell slightly imbricated ; limbar plates 
to the number of 23 ; sternum oval, moveable before and 
behind on a fixed piece, furnished with eleven scales ; alse 
short, narrow, sub-horizontal ; a very large axillary plate 
and an inguinal still larger ; tail long (in the males), un- 
giiiculate. 

Species. — Kinosternon scorpioides (South America, in 
marshes and on river-banks) ; Kinosternon Pennsylvanicum 
(United States of America, where it lives in mu<my waters, 
feeding on small aquatic animals, and exhaling a strong 
musky odour) ; Kinosternon hirtipes (Mexico). 
Subfamily 2. — Pleurodere Elodians. 

The Pleuroderes, as their name indicates, have, all of 
them, the neck retractile upon one of the sides of the 
anterior aperture of the carapace ; but they are never able 
completely to draw it in between their fore-feet and under 
the middle of the buckler and plastron, like the Crypto^ 
deres. 

Genus Peltocephalus, Dum. and Bibr. Characters, — 
Head large, subquadrangular, pyramidal, covered with 
large, thick, slightly imbricated plates ; jaws extremely 
strong, hooked, without dentilations ; eyes lateral ; plates 
of the campace slightly imbricated ; no nuchal plate ; feet 
slightly palmated : two large rounded scales at the heels ; 
nails straight, robust ; tail unguiculate. 

Species. — Peltocephalus Tracaxa (South America; 
Cayenne, Brazil). 

Genus Podocnemis, Wagler. Characters, — Head 
slightly depressed, covered with plates; front hollowed 
with a large longitudinal furrow ; jaws slightly arched, 
without dentilations ; two barbies under the chin ; no 
nuchal plate; sternum wide, immoveable; feet largely 
palmated, the posterior ones carrying at the heels two 
large but delicate rounded scales ; tail short, not unguicu- 
late. 

Species. — Podocnemis expansa (South America; Ca- 
yenne ; where it lives in streams and rivers) ; Podocnemis 
Dufneriliana (same locality). 

Genus Pentonyx, Dum. and Bib. Characters, — ^Head 
large, depressed, covered with plates; muzzle rounded; 
jaws slightly arched, trenchant; two barbies under the 

Vol. XXyTT— L t 



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thxh ; no nuchal plate ; sternum immoveable ; fire claws 
on all the feet ; tad moderate, not unguiculate. 

Species. — Pentonyx Capensis (Cape of Good Hope ; 
Senegal ; and Madagascar) ; Pentonyx Adansonii (Cape 
Verd). 

Genus Sternotluertis, Bell. Characters, — ^Head de- 
pressed, furnished with great plates ; jaws without dentila- 
tions ; no nuchal plate ; sternum wide, with very narrow 
lateral prolongations ; free anterior portion of the plastron 
roundea, moveable : five claws on each foot. 

Species. — Sternothafrus niger (Madagascar); Stemo- 
thcerus nigricans (same locality) ; Sternothcerus castaneus 
(same IdtSity). 

Grenus Ptatemys, Wagler, as reformed by MM. Du- 
m6ril and flibrdhi comprising part of Hydraspis of Gray, 
PlatemtfSf Rhfnentys and Phrynops of Wagler: Charac- 
ters. — Head flattened, covered wifh a single delicate scale 
or with a great tiumber of small irregular plates ; jaws 
simple ; two barbies under the chin ; carapace very much 
depressed ; sternum immoveable ; five claws on the fore 
feet, four on the hind. 

Species. — Platemys Martinella (Brazil and,' Cayenne) ; 
PUnemysSrnxii (Brazil) ; Platemys radiolata (Brazil, where 
it lives in tne marshes) ; Platemys gibba ; Platemys Geoff- 
reana (young sent from Buenos Ayres by M. d'Orbigny) ; 
Platemys iVaglerii (Brazil) ; Platemys Nieuwiedii (Bra- 
zil) ; Platemys Gaudichaudii (Brazil) ; Platemys Hilarii 
(Brazil) ; Platemys Miliusii (Cayenne) ; Platemys ruflpes 
(Brazil ; banks of the River Solimoens) ; Platemys Schweig- 
gerii (South AmericfO ;* Platemys Macquaria (Macquarie 
River, New Holland). 

Grenus Chelodina, Fitzinger. Characters. — ^Head very 
long and very flat, covered with a delicate skin ; muzzle 
short, gape wide, jaws feeble, without dentilations ; no 
barbies to the chin ; neck very much elongated ; a nuchal 
plate, plastron immoveable, very wide, rounded in front 
and solidly fixed on the carapace ; sternal alae very short ; 
intergular scale larger than each of the gulars ; four claWs 
on each foot ; taU excessively sliort. 




Chelodina Novtt HuHandue. 

Species. — Chelodina Novce Hollandiee ; Chelodinafia- 
vilabris (Brazil) ; Chelodina Maximiliani (South Amenca : 
sent from Buenos Ayres by M. d'Orbigny). 

Genus ChelySy Dum. and Bibr. Characters. — Head 
much depi'essed, wide and triangular ; nostrils prolonged 
into a proboscis ; gape wide, jaws rounded, of but little 
thickness ; neck furnished with long cutaneous appendages, 
two barbies to the chin ; a nuchal plate ; five claws on 
the fore-feet, four on the hind. 

The gape extends beyond the ears. MM. Dum^ril and 
Bibron remark that the jaws are rounded, narrow, and not 
simply covered with soft skin, as Cuvier, Wagler, and Gray 



believed, but protected by homy cases, like those of all the 
other Chelonians: only in Chelys they are extremely 
deUcate. 

Species. — Chelys Matamata (South America, Cayenne : 
in stagnant waters). A female Jived some months at Paris, 
and laid three eggs, one of which was hatched and the 
young animal preserved in the Paris Museum. 




Chelys Matamata. 

3rd Family. — Potamians, or River-Tortoises. 

The species belonging to this family live constantly in 
the water, only coming out occasionally. 

Geographical Distribution of the Potamtans. — Ml\r. 
Dum6nl and Bibron state that no species of this family 
have been observed in European rivers. All those which 
have been described and whose country is known, come 
from the streams, rivers, or great fresh-water lakes of the 
warmer regions of the globe — from the Nile and the Niger 
in Africa ; from the Euphrates and Ganges in Asia ; and 
from the Mississippi and Ohio, or some of the rivers that 
flow into them, in America : but MM. Dumeril and Bibron 
add that we are far from knowing all the species, for they 
have been a long time confounded under one name 
{Trionyx). 

Habits, ^c. of the Potamians, — ^It would seem that indi- 
viduals of this family attain a large size. MM. Du- 
meril and Bibron quote Pennant as mentioning some which 
weighed 70 lbs. ; one which he kept three months weighed 
20 lbs., and its buckler was 20 inches in length, not 
reckoning the neck, which measured ISJ inches. Their 
mode of life and habits seem to have great similarity. 
They swim with much ease both on the surface and at 
mid-water. The lower part of their body is generally pale 
white, rosy, or bluish ; but their upper parts vary in their 
tints, which are most frequently Drown or grey, with 
irre^Iarly marbled, dotted, or ocellated spots. Straight 
or sinuous brown, black, or yellow lines are disposed sym- 
metrically on the right and left, principally on the lateral 
parts of the neck and on the limbs. l)unng the nights, 
and when they believe themselves to be secure from dan- 
ger, the Potamians come to repose on the islets, the rocks, 
the fallen trunks of trees upon the banks, or floating tim- 
ber, whence they precipitate themselves into the water at 
the sight of man, or at the least alarming noise. They are 
very voracious and agile, and pursue, as they swim, rep- 
tiles, especially young crocodiles and fishes. Their flesh 
being esteemed, they are angled for with a hook and line 
baited with small fish or living animals, or with a dead 
bait, to which the angler gives motion and Apparent life ; 
for they are said never to approach a dead or immoveable 
prey.* When they would seize their food or defend them- 
selves, they dart out their head and long neck with the 
rapidity of an arrow. They bite sharp with their trenchant 
beak, and do not let go till they have taken the piece 
seized out ; so that their bite is much dreaded, ana the 
fishermen generally cut off thek heads as soon as they have 
caught them. 

The males appear to be fewer in number than the fe- 
males, or, at least, they come less frequently to the banks 
of rivers, where the females resort to deposit their eggs in 
hollows, which contain from fifty to sixty. The number 
varies according to the age of the females, which are less 
fruitful in proportion to tneir youth. The eggs are spheri- 
cal, their shell is solid, but membraneous or slightly cal- 
careous. 

Genus Gymnopus, Dum. and Bibr. (Trionyx, Geoff. ; 
Aspidonectesy Wagler). Characters.— CBiapsce with a car- 
tilaginous circumference, very large, floating behind, and 

* This must be taken to am>ly to Uving ^n i tn uU only, for the FotamUois aro 
said to feed not merely on tne young of the crocodiles, but alio to be great 
destroyers of their eggs in the Nile and the Ganges, 



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depnved of bone extemallv ; sternum too narrow behind 
to nide the limbs completely when the animal draws them 
up under the carapace, trionyx and Testudo ferox of 
authors. 

Species. — Gymnopus sjfiniferua (North America, the 
rivers of Greorffia and Florida, as well as the lakes situated 
above and below Niagara. Those sent to the Pans Mu- 
seum by M. Lesueur were fished up in the Wabash, a river 
which enters the territory of Indiana and of the Illinois, 
and falls, a little before its junction with the Mississippi, into 
the Ohio). 

M. Lesueur states that towards the end of April, or most 
frequently in May, the females of this species seek out on 
the river-banks sandy spots for the deposit of their eggs ; 
steeps of ten or fifteen feet elevation deter them not when 
they are choosing places exposed to the sun. Their eggs 
are spherical, and tneir shell is more fra^le than that of 
the eggs of the species of Edolians living in the same 
waters ; their eggs amount to from fifty to sixty. M. Le- 
sueur counted in the ovary twenty ready for laying, and a 
great quantity of others of variable dimensions, from that 
of a pm's head to the much greater volume which they 
attain when they are covered with their calcareous coat. 
The retreats of these tortoises are on rocks and on the 
trunks of trees overthrown in the river. They may be 
taken with hook and Une baited with a little fish ; they are 
very voracious, and bite their captors, so that the prudent 
cut off their heads. M. Lesueur was often bitten by those 
he had ; they dart out their heads like lightning. The 
young begin to show themselves in July. The fiesh of 
this species is very delicate. 





Gymnopai Spinifenxs. ' 

Gymnopus muttms, —Trionyx muticns, Lesueur, Le- 
conte, and Gray. (Same localities as G. Spiniferus,) 

Gymnopus JEgyptiacus. -^Trionyx jEgypttacuSj Geoff., 
Trionyx Niloticus, Gray. (The Nile, and, as it seems to 
MM. Dumdril and Bibron, other African rivers ; for the 
Trionyx labiatus of Bell, which in their opinion is this 
species, has been sent from Sierra Leone.) 

This is supposed to be the lavQ (Emys) of Aristotle 
(« De Part. Amm.,' v. 9). 

Gymnopus Duvaucelii — Trionyx Gangeticus^ Cuv., 
Trionyx Hurum^ Gray (the Ganges); Gymnopus ocel- 
latus, Trionyx ocellatus^ Hardwick, Trionyx Hurum 
(the young). Gray (the Ganges); Gymnopus lineatus, 
Trionyx Jigyptiacus, var. Hardw., Trionyx Indicus, 
Gray (Ganges); Gymnopus Juvanicus — Trionyx Javani- 
cusy Schwei gg. (Java); Gymnopus subplanus — Trionyx 



subplanuSf GeofiP. (Ganges) ; Gymnopus Euphraiicus-^ 
Trtonyx EuphraticuSy Geofi*. (Tigris and Euphrates). 

Genus CryptopuSj Dum. and Bibr. {Trtonyx, Wagl. ; 
Emyda, Gray). Characters. — Carapace with narrow car- 
tilaginous bordera supporting above the neck and behind 
the thighs small bony pieces ; sternum large, forming in 
front a moveable door or lid which can hermetically close 
the aperture of the osseous box. The posterior part of the 
sternum furnished right and left with a cartilaginous oper- 
culum, shutting the apertures which give passage to the 
hind feet ; there is a tnird operculum, besides, to stop the 
opening whence the tail issues. 

Species. — Cryptopus granosus. Trionyx granosus, 
Schweigg. (Pondicherry ; rather common on the coast of 
Coromandel ; lives in fresh-water meers ; the flesh is eaten) ; 
Cryptopus Senegalensis (Senegal). 

4th Family. — Thalassians, Sea Tortoises, or Turtles. 
{ChelontadcBy Gray ; CareitoidSj Fitzing. ; Halyche- 
lones, Ritgen ; Oiacopod Tortoises, Wagl.). 

This family is at once distinguished from all the others 
by the comparatively depressed cai*apace, and the long 
and broad paddles, the anterior of wnich are very much 
prolonged when compared with the posterior ones. Indeed, 
their limbs are entirely so modified as to become swimming 
organs. 

Geographical Distribution of the Family. — ^The Tha- 
lassians are found in all the seas of warm climates, but 
principally towards the torrid zone in the equinoctial 
ocean, on the shores of the Antilles, Cuba, Jamaica, the 
Caiman Isles, and St. Domingo ; in the Atlantic Ocean, 
at the Cape de Verd and Ascension Islands ; in the Indian 
Ocean, at the Isles of France, Madagascar, Seychelles, and 
Rodriguez ; at Vera Cruz in the Gulf of Mexico ; and 
at the Sandwich and Galapagos Islands in the Pacific 
Ocean. 

Habits qf the Thalassians. — ^The turtles hardly ever 
leave the sea, excepting for the purpose of laying their 
eggs ; but some accounts state that they will crawl up the 
shores of desert islands in the night, and clamber up the 
edges of isolated rocks far at sea, for the purpose of brows- 
ing on certain favourite maiine plants. They have been 
seen in smooth water, bs far as seven or eight hundred 
leagues from the land, floating motionless on the surface 
of the sea, as if they were dead, and it has been supposed 
that they are then asleep. They dive well, and can re- 
main beneath the surface a long time, as might be ex- 
pected from the extent and volume of their arbitrary lunjjp 
capable of retaining and furnishing a sufficient quantity 
of air while they are submerged. 

MM. Dum6nl and Bibron speak of the Potamians and 
Turtles as exceptions to the rest of the Testudinaia, which, 
generally speaking, can produce no other sounds than 
hisses : we find however from Mr. Darwin's account above 
given, that the Great Land Tortoises, the males at least, 
bellow loudlv at the pairing season. The cries of the Po- 
tamians and of some Chelones have been noticed by 
observers, and especially those of the Coriaceous Turtle 
or Sphargis. Individuals of this last genus, when ham- 
pered in nets or grievously wounded, have been heard to 
utter loud roars, from which they derive their name.* 

The food of the Thalassians consists principally of 
marine plants ; but it appears that some of them, especi- 
ally those which exhale a musky odour, Chelone caouana 
for instance, feed also on crustaceans and many species of 
mollusks, the cuttles especially. Their jaws are robust, 
like the beaks of birds of prey ; solidly articulated and 
worked with highly developed muscles ; and their homy 
beak, hooked above and below, is trenchant on the edges, 
and most frequently serrated, so as to assist in securing a 
slippery prey. . , . .^ . 

The circumstances which precede or accompany the act 
of continuing the species are far from well known, thougk 
the epoch of fecundation is pretty accurately fixed, ana 
ordinarily takes place in the spring. The conjunction of 
the sexes is of long continuance, but authors are not agreed 
as to the mode of the cavala^e, as it has been termed ; nor 
as to its duration, some stating the time at fourteen or fif- 
teen days, and others assigning twice that period. One 
point seems certain, that the union takes place in the 
water : but some say that the male remains on the carapace 
of the female the whole time ; others that the two plas- 

* r^CTpayi^w, to roar or cry loudly. 

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trons have been seen in contact,* and the heads of the 
two animals out of the water. Others, again, assert that the 
union being effected, the two individuals remain reversed 
more canino. 

The circumstances attending the deposit of the eggs are 
better known. To reach the destined spot, the females 
have often to traverse the sea for more than iifty leagues, 
and the males accompany them to the sandy beaches of 
those desert islands selected for the places of nidification. 
Arrived at the end of their vojrage, they timidly come forth 
from the sea after sunset ; and as it is necessary to leave 
the eggs above high-water mark, they have often to drag 
themselves to a considerable distance before they can hol- 
low out their nests (about two feet in diameter) during the 
night, and there lav at one sitting to the number of a hun- 
dred eggs. This laying is repeated thrice, at intervals of 
two or three weeks. The eggs vary in size, but are sjjheri- 
cal, like tennis-balls ; and when they are laid, their in- 
vesting membrane is slightly flexible, although covered 
with a delicate calcareous layer. After slighuy covering 
the nest with light sand, the parent returns to the sea, 
leaving the eggs to the fostering influence of a tropical 
sun. The eggs are said to be hatched from the fifteenth 
to the twentv-ninth day ; and when the young turtles come 
out, their shells are not yet formed, and they are white as 
if blanched. They instinctively make for the sea ; but on 
their road, and as they pause before entering the water, 
the birds of prey that have been watching for the moment 
of their appearance hasten to devour them ; whilst those 
that have escaped their terrestrial persecutors by getting 
into the sea, have to encounter a host of voracious flshes 
and legions of ambushed crocodiles. 

Those that escape attain, under favourable circumstances, 
enormous dimensions. Individuals of the genus Sphargis 
have been known to weigh from 1500 to 1600 pounds ; and 
some Chelones, whose carapace has measured in its cir- 
cumference more than 15 feet, and near 7 feet in length, 
have weighed down more than from 800 to 900 pounds. 
Aged turtles often cany about with them on their carapace 
a little world of parasites, such as Flustray Serpulce, Ba- 
■ lani, and CoronuUe; whilst certain Annelids securely fix 
themselves at the origin or base of the limbs, where the 
motion of the turtle cannot displace them. 

Utility to Man, Chase, (J^.— -Though many of the other 
Testudinata are highly useful to man, especially as articles 
of food, none are of such great utility as the ThaUusians, 
The advantages to be derived from them were not lost 
upon the antients ; and though Mercury is said to have 
taken the first hint for the stmcture of a lyre from the 
dried carapace and tendons of a tortoise (a Gymnopus, 

Srobably), found by the god after an inundation of the 
file, and which sounded when he struck *■ the chorded 
shell,' the benefits arising from the Thalassians are, if not 
of so refined, of a much more substantial and varied 
nature. The inhabitants of those countries where the 
turtles grow to a large size do not merely derive from them 
a supply of food, but they convert their carapaces into 
boats, into huts, into drinlang-troughs for their domestic 
animals, and baths for their children. The Ckelonophagi 
of old, who inhabited the shores of India and the Red Sea, 
converted the enormous shells of the turtles which they 
caught into roofs for their houses and boats for their little 
voyages, as Strabo and Pliny testify. The latter, in the 
tenth chapter of his ninth book, enters at large upon the 
subject. 

As an article of food the Green Turtles, Tortues franches 
of the French, are so highly prized, that they have become 
a considerable article of commerce. The fat of many 
species, when fresh, is used with successSn lieu of butter 
and oil in cookery ; and in those species which have a 
musky odour {Chelones caouana and caretta for instance), 
is used for embrocations,' leather-dressing, and as lamp- 
oil. 

The Imbricated Turtles furnish that valuable article 
tortoiseshell, or rather the best sorts of it, so highly prized 
in antient and modem times, and so ornamental and useful 
in the arts. The eggs of all the species, particularly those 
of the Green Turtles, are excellent. 

In proportion to the benefits derived from the spoils of 
the turtles, the ingenuity of man has been sharpened by 
his eagerness to acquire them. One of the most obvious 

* Thii last account may be well doubted by thoae who are oonvenaiit with 
the oif anjzation of the aiitm>ili. 



methods of capture was, and is, to watch the females as 
they emerge from the sea to deposit their eggs, and then 
turn them upon their backs on the high and dry sand, 
where they helplessly remain till the captors come to fetch 
them on the morrow. When the turtles lie floating on 
the sea, either for the purposes of sleep or respiration, the 
turtle-fishers approach them auietly with a sharp harpoon, 
carrying a ring at the butt-ena, to which a cord is attached. 
The harpooner strikes, and the wounded animal dives, but 
is at last secured by the cord. In the South Seas skilful 
divers watch them when so floating, and, getting under 
the animals, suddenly rise, and so seize them. Mr. Dar- 
win, with his usual felicity, describes another method of 
capture. In his account of Keeling Island, he says : — 
' I accompanied (April 6, 1830) Capt. Fitz-Roy to an 
island at the head of the lagoon : the channel was ex- 
ceedingly inti'icate, winding through fields of delicately 
branched corals. We saw several turtles, and two boats 
were then employed in catching them. The method is 
rather curious : the water is so clear and shallow, that 
although at first a turtle quickly dives out of sight, yet in 
a canoe or boat under sail, the pursuers, after no very 
long chase, come up to it. A man standing ready in the 
bows, at this moment dashes through the water upon the 
turtle's back ; then clinj^ng with both hands by the shell 
of the neck, he is earned away till the animal becomes 
exhausted, and is secured. It was quite an interesting 
chase to see the two boats thus doubling about, and the 
men dashing into the water, trying to seize their prey.' 
(^Journal.) 

But the most extraordinary mode of fishing is that said 
to be practised towards the coasts of China and the Mo- 
zambique, where turtles are taken by the aid of living 
fishes trained for the purpose, and thence named fisher- 
fishes. The fact appears to have been known to Colum- 
bus, and has been verified by Commerson and cited by 
Middlcton and Salt. The fish is a species of Echeneis or 
Remora, and the islanders who use it are said to proceed 
in the following manner. They have, in their little boat, 
tubs containing many of these fishes, the top of whose 
head is covered with an oval plate, soft and neshy at its 
circumference. In the middle of this plate is a very com- 
plicated apparatus of bony pieces, disposed across m two 
regular rows, like the laths of Persian blinds. The number 
of these plates varies from fifteen to thirty-six, according 
to the species ; they can be moved on their axis by means 
of particular muscles ; and their free edges are furnished 
with small hooks, which are all raised at once like the 
points of a wool-card. The tail of each of the trained 
fishes in the tubs is furnished with a ring, for the attach- 
ment of a fine but long and strong cord. When the fisher- 
men perceive the basking turtles on the surface of the sea, 
knowing that the slightest noise would disturb the in- 
tended victim, they slip overboard one of their Remoras 
tied to the long cord, and pay out line according to their 
distance from the turtles. As soon as the fish perceives 
the floating reptile he makes towards it, and fixes himself 
to it so firmly that the fishermen pull in both fish and 
turtle to their boat, where the fish is very easily detached 
by pushing its head in a direction from behind forwards, 
and the turtle is secured. 

Genus Chelone, Brongn. (Caretta, Merrem). Cha- 
racters, — ^Body covered with homy scales or shells. One 
or two nails on each foot. 

1st Subgenus. — Chelonies Franches, Green Turtles. 

Characters. — ^Discoidal plates to^the number of thirteen, 
not imbricated. Muzzle snort, rounded. Upper jaw with 
a slight notch in front and small dentilations on the sides ; 
homy case of the lower jaw formed of three pieces and 
having its sides deeply dentilated. A nail on the first toe 
of each foot. 

Species. — Chelone Mydas (the Atlantic Ocean. MM. 
Dum^ril and Bibron ol^erve that this and the three fol- 
lowing species are so similar, that it is possible for them ta 
form one species only : but they add that this question can 
only be satisfactorily solved by those who have opportuni- 
ties of comparing the living animals) ; Chelone virgata 
(Teneriffe ; Rio Janeiro ; Cape of Good Hope ; New York ; 
Indian Seas ; the Red Sea) ; Chelone maculosa (Malabar 
Coast) ; Chelone marmorata (Island of Ascension). 
2nd Subgenus. — Lnbricated Chelones. 

Characters, — ^Plates of the disk imbricated and thirteen 
in number. Muzzle long and compressed. Jaws with 



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straight edges without dentilations, curved slightly towards 
each other at their extremities. Two nails on each fin. 

Species.— CA^/owe imbricata. The Hauk's-bill Turtle of 
Catesby and Brown (Indian and American Oceans, the 
Isle of Bourbon, the Seychelles, Amboyna, New Guinea, 
the Havannah^ Flesh bad. Eggs very good. 




Chelone imbncata. ' 

3rd Subgenus. — ChelonSes Caouanes, Logger-head Turtles. 

Characters. — I^lates of the carapace not imbricated. 
Fifteen plates on the disk. Jaws slightly curved towards 
each other at their extremity. 

Species. — Chelone caouana, the Logger-head Turtle of 
Catesby (the Mediterranean, also the Atlantic Ocean, Rio 
Janeiro) ; Chelone Dussumierii — Chelonia olivacea of 
Eschscholtz (China Seas and Malabar Coast). 

Genus SvhargiSj Men-em {Coriudoy Flem. ; Derma- 
tochelysy Blainv.). Characters, — Body enveloped in a 
coriaceous hide, tuberculous in young subjects, completely 
smooth in adults. Feet without nails. (ErpStologic.) 

Species. — Sphargis Coriacea — Testudo Lyra^ Donnd. 
and Bechst. ; Tortue Luth of the French ; Coriaceous and 
Tuberculated Tortoise of Pennant. (Atlantic Ocean.) 

Tliis turtle has been taken on many of the European coasts : 
several of larffe size (700 and 800 lbs. in weight) have been 
captured on those of Britain. One case, where the capture 
was effected off the coast of Scarborough, should be a 
warning not to use it rashly as food. Pennant relates that 
one of the three taken in 1748, or 1749, was purchased by 




Sphargis coriarca. 




riusfroii of f'l liri'iis coiiucca* 



a family who invited several persons to partake of it. A 
gentleman present told the guests that the flesh was un- 
wholesome, but one of the company persisted in eating of 
it, and suffered most severely, being seized with dreadful 
vomiting and purging ; and yet the Carthusians, Pennant 
tells us, are said to eat no other species. It would seem, 
then, that the severe effect above noticed must have been 
accidental, and the animal may have been in an unhealthy 
condition. It is said to grow very fat ; but the flesh is 
reported to be coarse and bad. The French name is 
given probably upon the supposition that it was the 
species used by the antients in the early construction of 
the lyre. 

Fossil Testudinata. 
Cuvier commences his admirable treatise upon Fossil 
Tortoises by observing that the number of living species is 
so considerable, that it is very difficult to decide whether 
a fossil tortoise is or is not of an unknown species, inas- 
much as it is not only necessary before arriving at this 
conclusion to compare the carapaces and plastrons covered 
with their homy plates or scales, as they are ordinarily 
seen in cabinets and represented in books, but also the 
skeletons, so that the observer may accurately study the 
joining of the ribs and other bones which concur to com- 
pose their cuirasses. He names twenty-nine species that 
ne himself had stripped of their covering, and says that he 
had performed that operation on others beside. Thus he 
laid bare the characters which enabled him to distinguish 
the fossils as far as his examined species went ; but he 
adds, with his usual philosophical candour, that it is only 
by induction that he could be guided in the case of those 
species which he had not at his disposition. 

Cuvier begins with the fossil Trionyces^ and distin- 
guishes, 1, Those from the gypsum-beds of the environs of 
Paris ; 2, Those from the gypsum-beds of Aix ; 3, Those 
from the molasse of the department of the Gironde; 
4, Those from the gravel and clay-beds of Hautevigne in 
the department of the Lot and Garonne ; 5, Those from 
the gravel-beds in the neighbourhood of Castelnaudry ; 
and 6, Those from the sandy beds in the environs of 
Avaray. 

He next considers the Emydes, or Freshwater Tortoises, 
noticing, 1, Those from the Paris gypsum-beds ; 2, Those 
discovered together with crocodiles in the Jurassic lime- 
stone of the neighbourhood of Soleure ; 3, Those of the 
ferruginous sand of Sussex ; 4, Those of the molasse of 
la Grave and those of the molasses of Switzerland ; 5, Those 
from our isle of Sheppey ; 6, Those from the environs of 
Brussels ; and 7, Those from the marly sand (sable mar- 
neux) of the province of Asti. 

The Marifie Tortoises, or Chelonians, he divides into, 
1, Those of the environs of Maestri cht ; and 2, Those of the 
slate of Claris. 

The Land Tortoises noXictA are, 1, Those of the environs 
of Aix ; and 2, Those found in the Isle of France under 
the volcanic beds. 

The conclusions drawn by Cuvier are, that the tortoises 
are as anlient inhabitants of the world as the crocodiles ; 
that they accompany the remains of the latter generally ; 
and that as the greater number of their remains belong to 
fresh- water or terrestrial species, they confirm the conjec- 
tures drawn from the bones of crocodiles as to the exist- 
ence of isles or continents which were frequented by rep- 
tiles before the existence of viviparous quadnipeds, or at 
least before there was a sufficient number of these last to 
afford a quantity of remains at all comparable to those of 
reptiles. 

Cuvier concludes by stating that he further knows of the 
remains of tortoises found m many different places, but 
whose characters are but little or badly determined : thus 
he remarks that some are found in the basin of Puy en Velay 
with fresh-water shells and the bones of quadrupeds, and 
that there are some which appear to be marine in the blue 
marls of the Plaisantin, so abundant in marine shells, bones 
of whales, &c. 

Hermann von Meyer refers to all the fossil Testudinata 
known up to the time when he wrote (1832), but the fol- 
lowing are the only species named : — 
Trionyces, Parisiensis, and Maunoir. 
Emys : no specific names are given, except such as£my« 
de Sussex, E. de Sheppey, &c., according to the localities ; 
and i?Mm^er«wwAVVagl., is noticed from the Solenhofen 
date. 



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It b the lame with Chelane^ with the exception of Che- 
lone Harviceneis, and with — 

TeetudOy with the exception of T, radiata P, 71 anttqua, 
and Testudinites Sellovit. 

Professor Owen, in his paper read before the Geological 
Society of London, in December, 1841, containing a ' De- 
scription of Six Species of Marine Turtles (Chelonee) from 
theliondon clay of Sheppey and Harwich,' after quoting 
•the generalizations given in the latest works which treat 
of Fossil Chelonians, and examining the evidence on which 
those from the Eocene clay of Sheppev had been referred 
exclusively to the fresh-water genus Mmye by Cuvier and 
others, points out the circumstajices which invalidate the 
conclusions that had been deduced from it. He then 
proceeds to describe the fossils, and to show the characters 
by which he has established the existence of five species 
of marine Turtles from the London clay at Sheppey, and a 
sixth species from the same formation near Harwich. The 
following are the species named by him : — 

1, Chelone breviceps; 2, Chelone loneiceps; 3, Chelone 
latiscutata ; 4, Chelone convexa ; 5, Chelone subcristata ; 
6, Chelone planimentum. {Geol, Proc., vol. iii., 1841-1842.) 

The same author, in his elaborate and highly satisfactory 
Report on British Fossil Reptiles, gives the following 
account of the order Chelonia : — 

I, Family TesttidinidcBy Tortoises, or Land-Tortoises. 

1. New Red-Sandstone Tortoises, The most antient of 
the evidences of Chelonians in British formations appear 
to Professor Owen to be referrible to the Land-Tortoises ; 
and he quotes the foot-prints from the (quarries at Corn- 
cockle Muir, and those subsequently discovered at the 
quarries of Craigs, two miles east of Dumfries, as exam- 
ples. [Salaicandboiobs, vol. XX., p. 340.] 

2. Oolite Tortoises, Examples, impressions of homy 
scutes about the size of those covering the carapace of a 
tortoise ten inches in length, in the oolite slate of Stones- 
aeld. 

IL Family Emvdidse, Fresh-water Tortoises. 

1. An undetermined species in the museum of Professor 
Bell, from the Eocene clay near Harwich. 

2. Enws testudinifomtis, Owen {Emys de Sheppey, 
Cuv. ?), Sheppey. 

3. Platemys tiowerbanhii, Owen. Sheppey. 

4. Platemys Bullochii, Owen. Sheppey. 

5. Tretostemon punctatum. Owen. Purbeck limestone. 
N.B. Closely allied to Trionyoc. 

6. With regard to Platemys Mantelli, Emys de Sussex, 
Cuv., Emys Mantelli, Gray, Professor Owen remarks 
tiiat the fossils discovered by Dr. Mantell in the Wealden 
strata of Til^te Forest, and the resemblance of which to 
the flat species of Emydian discovered by M. Hugi in the 
Jura limestone at Soleure has been pointed out by Cuvier, 
are referrible to the pleuroderal section of the Emydian 
family, as arranged by MM. Dum6ril and Bibron, and in 
that section to the genus Platemys (Hydraspis, Bell) ; but 
that not enough of the skeleton of any individual has yet 
been obtained to afford a foundation for specific character. 

7. Large Emydian from the fCimmertdge Clay. A bone 
in the museum of Sir P. Grey Egerton, Bart., from Hed- 
dington Pits, probably belonjg;ing to a species of Platemys. 

8. Footsteps o/^nydians in New Red-Sandstone. Stour- 
ton quarries, Cheshire. 

Genus Trionyx. Professor Owen remarks that cer- 
tain British fossils from the secondary formation referred 
to Trionyx have been proved to belong to another family 
of Chelonians : the supposed Trionyx from the new red- 
sandstone (Caithness) has been pronounced to be a ganoid 
fish (genus Coccosteus) by Agassiz. Nor had Professor 
Owen when he wrote (1841) seen any Chelonite from the 
Wealden formation that could be confidently afiKrmed to 
belong to Trionyx. 

1. Femur from lias at Idnksjield, in the possession of 
Mr. Robertson of Elgin, 4^ inches in length, and found with 
remains of Plesiosaurus and Hybodus. Though not iden- 
tical in form with any Trionyx with which Professor Owen 
oould compare it, he found it to resemble the modifications 
of (he bone in that genus more closely than in Tortoises, 
Emydians, or Turtles. He remarks that although some of 
the Turtles of the Eocene period, as the Chelone longiceps, 
present such modiflcations of the jaws as seem to have 
adapted them to habits and food analogous to those of the 
Trionyx, yet evidences of this genus, to which the destruc- 
tion of the eggs and young of crocodiles is more particu- 1 



larly assigned in the Nile and Ganges, are not wanting m 
certain localities where the London clay appears to have 
been deposited under circumstances analogous to those at 
the termination of equally gigantic rivers ; and he adds 
that unequivocal portions of a true Trionyx have been 
obtained from the Eocene clay at Sheppey, and at Brackle- 
sham, and that they are also associated, as in the Paris 
basin, w\fy repipins of 4noplotherium and Paleeoiherium 
in the Eocene limestone deposit^ in the Isle of Wight. 
III. Fainily Chelonidae. Thalassian family, or Turtles. 

1. Chelone planiceps, Owen. Portland sandstone. 

2. Chelone obovata, Owen. Purbeck limestone. 

3. Wealden Chelone, an undjetermined species, f^ortions 
of the carapace, plastron, and bones of the extremities of 
a lar^e species of marine ti^rtle, some of th^m indicating 
individuals nearly three feet in length — discovered by Dr. 
Mantell in the Wealden strata of Tilgate porest (figured in 
the Doctor's Illustrations qfthe Geology of Sussex). This 
species in Professor Owen's ppinion comes nearest to Che- 
lone planimentum of the Harwich Eocene clay. 

4. Chelone pulchriceps, Owen. Superincumbent beds 
of the lower greensand ; greensand near Barnwell, Cam- 
bridge. 

5. Chelone Benstedi, Owen. {Emys Benstedi, Mant.) 
Chalk ; Burham, Kent. 

Professor Owen then proceeds to notice the Eocene Ter- 
tiary Chelones (see above, his paper read before the Geo- 
logical Society of London), and concludes by observing, 
that the indications of Chelonites from Eocene strata in 
the works of Parkinson, Woodward, and Konig, being un- 
accompanied by the anatomical deductions essential to the 
establishment of their true affinities, have been either mis- 
interpreted or neglected ; and except the citation of Wood- 
ward's Chelone Harvicensis, in M. H. von Meyer's com- 
pilation, the existence in the London clay of fossil Emydcs 
alone has been recognised in the latest summaries of the 
present branch of paJaeontology. • These therefore,' con- 
tinues the Professor, ♦ could indicate but little difference 
between the present Fauna and that of the Eocene period 
in regard to the Chelonian order. But the case assumes a 
veiy different aspect when we arrive at the conviction that 
the majority of Sheppey Chelonites belong to the marine 
genus Chelone, and reflect that the number of extinct 
Eocene turtles from that limited locality exceeds that 
of all the well-determined species of Chelone now known 
to exist. For notwithst^ipg the assiduous search of the 
naturalist-collector; and the attractions which the shell 
and flesh of turtles offer to the commercial voyager, the tro- 
pical seas, though sq often traversed, have not as yet 
yielded more than five good species of Chelqne; and of 
these only two, as Chelone mydas and Chelone caretta, are 
known to frequent the same locality. Now, whilst it is 
obvious that but a small proportion of the organized trea- 
sures of the vast deposit of petrified mud ana clay which 
fills the London basin have been brought to light, the 
results of the examination of fossil Chelonites evidently 
show that the antient ocean of the Eocene epoch was more 
abundantly provided with turtles, and that these presented 
a greater varietjr of specific modifications than the same 
extent of ocean in any of the warmer parts of the earth at 
the present day. 

' The indications which the Sheppey turtles give, in 
conjunction with the other organic remains from the same 
depository, of the higher temperature that prevailed in the 
latitude in which they lived, cannot be overlooked ; yet at 
the same time the conditions which allow the attainment 
of the size which the present tropical turtles often exhibit, 
would seem not to have been present in the time and place 
of existence of the extinct species of Chelone above enume- 
rated ; and again, the affinities to the fresh-water forms 
which the skeletons of some of the Eocene Chelones exhibit, 
accord with the indications that they inhabited the aestuajy 
of a great river.* 

TORTOLA. rVmoiN Islands.] 

TORTCNA, the Province of, an administrative division 
of the Sardinian States, is bounded on the north by the 
Po, which divides it from the province of Mortara ; east 
by the provinces of Vo^hera and Bobbio ; south, by the 
Ligurian Apennines, which separate it from the duchy of 
Genoa ; and west by the province of Alessandria. The rivers 
or torrents Scrivia and Curone, both affluents of the Po, 
rise in the Ligurian Apennines, and cross the province of 
Tortona from south to north. The province contains about 



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50,000 inhabitants, distributed in fifty commuties. The 
head town, Tortona, built upon an eminence near the 
Scrivia, is a bishop^s see, and has about 9000 inhabitants, 
sereral churches and convents, and a royal college. In 
the cathedral is an antient basso-rilievo representing in the 
centre the downfall of Phaeton, and on the sides Castor 
and Pollux, with two Greek inscriptions underneath, the 
meaning of one of which is, Ihat daring shows noble blood, 
and that of the other is, the mere truism that no one is 
immortal. (Val6ry, Voyages en Ilalie.) The citadel of 
Tortona was built by king Victor Amadeus III., and 
destroyed by the French in the revolutionary wars. West 
of Tortona, in the direction of Alessandria, is the plain of 
Marengo, with the villages of Marengo and San Griuliano, 
where Bonaparte gained an important victory over the 
Austrians, in June, 1800. Tortona was antiently a tdwn 
of the Ligurians, and was called Derton, or Dertona. After 
the Roman conquest it became a colony (Pliny, Hist., 
iii. 7), and was a place of importance, being situated on 
the road leading from the banks of the Po to the coast of 
Liguria and Southern Gaul. In the middle ages Tor- 
tona was a free municipal community. It joined Milan 
and other Lombard cities in their resistance against the 
emperor Frederic I., was besieged and taken by him after 
an obstinate defence, and was plundered and partially 
destroyed, a.d. 1154. The people of Pavia, who were old 
rivals of those of Tortona, joined the imperial troops, 
and showed themselves most eager for the destruction of 
their neighbours. The citizens of Milan assisted those of 
Toi-tona in rebuilding their walls, but Tortona never 
after recovered its former prosperity. It joined the 
Lombard league, and was included in the peace of Con- 
stance. It passed successively under the dominion of the 
Visconti, and of the Spanish governors of Milan, and was 
taken and retaken by the French, Spaniards, Austrians, 
and Piedmontese in the wars of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries, and was finally retained by the king 
of Sardinia. The territory of Tortona is very fertile, but 
the town looks dull and decayed. The other toWns of the 
province of Tortona are, — 1, Castelnovo di Scrivia, a town 
of 5500 inhabitants, north of Tortona and near the con- 
fluence of the Scrivia and the Po. It is the birth-place of 
Bandello, a well-known novelist of the sixteenth century. 
2, Ponte Curone, on the river of that name, a town of about 
2000 inhabitants. 3, Sale, a town of 4000 inhabitants, 
near the confluence of the Bormida and the Po. 4, Fab- 
brica, a town of 2000 inhabitants, in the Apennines, offsets 
of which spread over the whole southern part of the 
province. In these mountain tracts the inhabitants 
are mostly shepherds and goatherds, and their cheese is 
an ai-ticle of exportation, as likewise are the mushrooms 
which grow abundantly here, and are dried and exported 
chiefly to G^enoa, where there is a great consumption of 
them. 

(Denina, Quadro Statisttco delVAlta Italia ; Calendario 
Siirdo ; Neigebaur, Gemdlde Italiens.) 

TORTO'SA, a large town of Catalonia in Spain, 
and the capital of a considerable district of that name, 
is situated at the foot of a steep mountain on the left 
bank of the Fbro, and about 13 English miles from the 
mouth of that river : in 40** 48' N. Tat. and 38' E. long. 
Tortosa is the antient Dertosa, known from inscriptions to 
have been a Roman municipium, and the capital of the 
Ilergaones. It became a flourishing city under the 
Moors, owipg to its favourable situation for trade, being 
placed on a navigable rivet" and not far from the harbours 
of Fangas and Alfaques, which last still retains its Moor- 
ish name, the word Alfakk meaning a jaw and a harbour 
in the sea. It was taken from the Moors in 1141 by Ray- 
mond v., last Count of Barcelona, and again recovered by 
them ; being several times taken and retaken under the 
reign of that prince, until he flnally united it to his do- 
minions of Arragon. On one of the above occasions the 
women of Tortosa distinguished themselves by their courage 
and patriotism. The IVfoors having suddenly invested the 
place at night whett the garrison were absent, the women 
mounted the ramparts, and defended the place so vigor- 
ously that the enemy was repulsed and compelled to raise 
the siege. In commemoration of this exploit, Raymond 
instituted the military order of *la Hacha' (the taper or 
light). Tortosa is the see of a bishop, who is suffragan of 
Tarragona. The city is badly built, and with the excep- 
tion 01 the eastle, where the military governor resides, and 



the cathedral, a fine building, with three navesj elected at 
the expense of the inhabitants in 1593 — ^there is nothing 
worth the attention of the artist. During the Peninsular 
war, Tortosa, which is defended by a wall and six advanced 
forts, sustained a siege against the French, commanded by 
Marshal Suchet, but the garrison after a vigorous defence 
was obliged to capitulate, on January 2, 1811. Thfe envi- 
rons of the city are well cultivated, and produce wihe, com, 
and oil in great abundance. The inhabitants are chiefly 
occupied in the coasting trade. The population, according 
to Minano, did not exceed 12,000 inhabitants in 1826. 
Tortosa is the birth-place of Pope Adrian VI. 

TORTRIX, OppeVs name for a genus of serpents, 
svnonymous, according to Cuvier, with Aniiius of Oken, 
forquatrix of Gray, and Ilysia of Hemprich and Fitz- 
inger. 

Cuvier, who places the genus immediately before Uro- 
PELTis, which last is followed by Boa, observes tiiat Tor- 
trix is distinguished from the Orvbts even externally, 
itiasmuch as the scales of the row which runs along the 
belly and under the tail are a little larger than the others^ 
and inasmuch as their tail is extremely short. He says 
they have only one lung. Locality of known species, 
America. Example, Tortrix Scytaie, Mr. J. B. Gray 
(Synopsis of Brit, Mus., 1840) places Ilysia in the family 
Boidee, between Clothonia and Cylindrophis, 

TORTU'GA, island. [Antilles.] 

TORTU'GAS. [Florida.] 

TORTURE, which in a legal sense means the applidation 
of bodily pain in order to force discoveries from, witnesses, 
or confessions from persons accused of crimes, has been re- 
cognised by the laws of most civilized nations as an instru- 
ment for obtaining judicial truth. A learned civilian terms 
it * Mos antiquissimus, omnium fer6 bene institutorum 
populorum communis : ut non immerit6 pro lege acjure 
quodam gentium habeatur.' (Wesenbechii^ara/f//e»arfJ9i^. 
de Qucestionibusy num. 3.) Torture was applied to slaves at 
Athens (Demosthen., Oraf. adv. Pantanet) ; and Cicero 
states that the Athenian and Rhodian laws allowed it to be 
applied even to citizens and freemen (Otatoria Partit.i 34) ; 
but there is some doubt as to the accuracy of this statement 
with respect to Athenian freemen. It has been questioned 
whether torture was used by the Romans during the re pub 
lican period • but Cicero frequently speaks of it as an antient 
practice, and attributes it to the customs aiid institutions of 
an earlier age (* moribus majorum*). (Oratio pro Rege Deio* 
taro, c. 1 ; Pro Milone, c. 22; Orat. Partit,, 34.) Tacitus 
also ascribes a modiflcation of the practice to an antient 
Senatus-consultum {Ann,, lib. ii., c. 30), However this may 
have been, it is beyond all doubt that the use of torture in 
judicial inquiries had become fully established in the time 
of the early emperors. Regularly the Roman law admitted 
the torture only in the case of slaves ^hen examined either 
as witnesses or oflenders ; but under the emperors, — even 
under Augustus, but more frequently under Tiberius and 
Caligula, — instances occur in which freemen and citizens 
were interrogated by torture : most of these instances how- 
ever are to be considered as irregular acts of power, not 
sanctioned by law. Rules regulating the mode of applying 
torture, and limiting the occasions of its application, were 
early established in the Roman law. One of the most im- 
portant of these is that which Cicero itl the passages above 
cited refers to antient usage, namely, that a slave should 
not be tortured to give evidence against his master, 
except in the cases of incest and conspiracy. Tacitus 
says that in order to evade the operation of n^hat he 
calls an antient decree, prohibiting the * qusestio servi in 
caput domini,* Tiberius, *novi juris repertor,' invented 
the scheme of making over the slave from the accused to 
a public functionary, and tlien putting hiiH to the torture 
against his former master. This device is however ascribed 
by other historians to Augustus. (Dion, lib. Iv.) In judicial 
injjuiries or public ti*ials for crimes, the * queestio ' was ap- 
plied at the instance of the accuser in the presence of the 
prsBtor and judices, and the statements made under torture 
were reduced into writing (in tabulas relata), and signed by 
the prsetor (Heineccius, Ant, Rom,, lib. iv., c. 18, sect. 25) j 
but private persons also were permitted * in foro domestic© * 
to extract evidence from their slaves by torture. (Cicero, 
Orat, pro Cluentio, cc. 63, 66 ; Quintilian, Declam,, 328, 
338, 353.) At a later period of Oie Roman empire many 
new regulations appeared, and the earlier restrictions upon 
this practice were wholly removed or greatlj^ modineik 

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Several exceptions to the rule, which prohibited * quses- 
tiones in caput domini/ were introduced, and even freemen 
were subjected to torture, when there was positive evidence 
of the • corpus delicti,' and probable or presumptive evi- 
dence that the accused was the guilty person. Moreover 
when the offence was of a grave chai-acter, and affected 
the head of the state immediately, personal exemptions 
fi-om torture were not admitted. * Omnes omnin6,* says the 

• Digest' (lib. xlviii., tit. 18 ; De Qucestionibus, sect. 10), 
*in majestatis crimine, quod ad personas Principum attinet, 
cum res exigit, torquentur.' (Wasserechleben, Histo- 
ria Qiuestionum per Tormenta apud Romanos, BeroL, 
1836.) 

It is remarkable, considering the extent to which the 
practice of torture was eventually earned by the Inquisition, 
that according to the principles and early practice of the 
Canon law all severities of criminal justice were prohibited ; 
and by the antient decretals of the church, every ecclesias- 
tical person who took part in them was liable to censure. 
Previously to the 13th century no trace of the use or per- 
mission of torture is to be found in the canon law, either 
in the process of accusation, which was founded entirely on 
the model of the Roman law, or in the inquiry. In the 13th 
century the severe rules of the Roman law respecting the 
torture of witnesses and accused persons * in crimine majes- 
tatis ' began to be applied by the ecclesiastical law in the 
case of heresy, which was then considered and termed 

• crimen Isesae majestatis divinse.' Nevertheless the earlier 
councils relating to the Inquisition, though violent in 
their denunciations against heretics, are silent respecting 
the use of torture ; and the first trace of any ecclesiastical 
sanction of tliis mode of proceeding, even in the case of 
heresy or apostasy, is found in a decree of Innocent IV. in 
1252 ; which however does not authorize the inquisitors to 
use it, but calls upon the civil magistrates to press offenders 
to confession against themselves and others by means of 
torture. At a subsequent period the necessity for secrecy 
in the proceeding of the Inquisition induced the use of 
torture by the mquisitors themselves, and the extent 
to which it was afterwards used is notorious. (Biener's 
Geschichte des Inquisitions-ProcesseSy-p, 73-4.) An instance 
of the application of torture under the ecclesiastical 
law occurred in England, under remarkable circumstances, 
about 60 years after the first sanction of the practice by the 
Church of Rome. In the great contest between Clement V. 
and the Templars in 1310, inquisitors were appointed by 
the pope to examine the prisoners who were chared (among 
other offences) with apostasy and heresy. The Arch- 
bishop of York, who was one of the inquisitors, propounded 
to certain monasteries and divines several difficulties which 
had occurred to him respecting the mode of conducting the 
examinations. Among other questions he asked, whether 
they might make use of torture, * licet hoc in regno Angliae 
nunquam visum fuerit vel auditum ? Et si torquendi sunt, 
utmm per clericos vel laicos ? Et dato, quod nullus omnino 
tortor inveniri valeat in AngliS, utnim pro tortoribus mit- 
tendum sit ad partes transmarinas ?* (Hemingford, p. 256.) 
In consequence of the doubts of the archbishop, Edward II. 
refused to allow the inquisitors to torture the accused. 
Upon this Clement wrote a letter of remonstrance to the 
king, who referred the matter to the council ; and upon 
their recommendation, it was resolved that the Templars 
should ' in the first place be separately confined ana ex- 
amined singly ; and if upon this mode of proceeding they 
refuse to confess more than they had previously done, 

• quod extunc qtuBStionarentury ita au6d quaestiones illse 
iliatae fierent absque mutilatione et debilitatione perpetu^ 
alicujus membri, et sine violenta sanguinis effusione.' (Ray- 
nouard, Monumens Historiques relatifs d la Condamnation 
des Chevaliers du Temple^ pp. 131, 132.) In accordance 
with this resolution, a special commission from the king au- 
thorized the inquisitors ' to dispose and deal with the bodies 
of the Templars in qu^stionibtis et aliis ad hoc convenien- 
tibus,' as might seem fit to them to be done according to ec- 
clesiastical law ; and a precept was issued to the sheriffs of 
London, in whose custody the accused were, to suffer the 
inquisitors to examine them and put them to the torture. 
(Rymer's JFtecfera, torn, iii., pp. 228, 232.) 

Judicial torture formed a part of all the legal systems of 
Europe which adopted the Roman law. In 6erman)r it 
was gradually introduced as the use of the Roman law in- 
creased, and displaced the antient Teutonic and feudal pro- 
ceedings by ordeal and battle. Indeed while these jucucia 



del continued m use, there is no notice of the existence of 
torture. In most German cities judicial torture was unknown 
until the end of the fourteenth century ; although it appears 
in the statutes of the Italian municipalities at a much earlier 
period. (Mittermaier's Deutsche Strafyerfahren^ theil 
1., pp. 73, 394.) A species of torture was indeed employed 
in Germany to a very great extent during the middle ages, 
of which there are traces and traditions connected with 
the torture-chambers and instruments still exhibited in 
Niimberg, Salzburg, Ratisbon, and other antient cities 
and castles ; but these were in general not used for legal 
or judicial torture, but for the proceedings of those secret 
religious tiibunals, or * Fehmgerichte,' which abounded at 
that period. The regulai* torture however, as derived from 
the Roman law, continued in many European states until 
the middle of the last century, when more enlightened 
views on the subject of jurisprudence led to a prevailing 
conviction of the inefficacy and injustice of this mode of 
ascertaining truth. In France the * question pr6paratoire ' 
was discontinued in 1780 by a remarkable decree, which is 
to be found in Merlin's ' R^peiioire,' vol. x., p. 502 ; and 
torture in general was abolished throughout the French do- 
minions at the revolution in 1789. In Russia its abolition, 
though recommended by the empress Catharine in 1763, 
was not effected until 1801. In Austria, Prussia, and 
Saxony it was suspended soon after the middle of the last 
century ; but although so seldom used as to be practically 
extinct, torture continued to form part of the laws of Ba- 
varia, Hanover, and some of the smaller states of Germany, 
within the last forty years. (Mitteimaier's Deutsche Slraf- 
verfahrerij theil i., p. 396, note.) In Scotland, where the 
law is almost wholly founded upon the civil law, the use 
of torture prevailed until the reign of Queen Anne, when 
it was declared by the act for improving the union of the 
two kingdoms (7 Anne, c. 21, s. 5), that in future * no 
person accused of any crime in Scotland shall be subject 
or liable to any torture.' 

The history of the use of torture in England is curious. 
From the hesitation to apply it to the Templars in the 
reign of Edward II. (1310), as above mentioned, as well 
as from the express statement of Walter de Heming- 
ford, it appears to have been at that time unknown in 
England, either as an act of prerogative, or as an instm- 
ment of criminal inquiry in the ordinary course of law. 
Nevertheless, Holinshed relates that, in 1468, Sir Thomas 
Coke, the lord mayor of London, was convicted of mis- 
prision of treason upon the evidence of one Hawkins, 
given under torture ; and that Hawkins himself was con- 
victed of treason by his own confession on the rack, and 
executed. From this period until the Commonwealth 
the practice of torture was frequent and uninterrupted, the 
particular instances being recorded in the council-books, 
and the torture-warrants in many cases being still in 
existence. The last instance on record occurred in 1640, 
when one Archer, a glover, who was supposed to have 
been concerned in the riotous attack upon Archbishop 
Laud's palace at Lambeth, • was racked m the Tower,' as 
a contemporary letter states, * to make him confess his 
companions.' A copy of the warrant under the privy seal, 
authorising the torture in this case, is extant at the State 
Paper-Office. With this instance the practice of torture 
in England ceased, no trace of its contmuance being dis- 
cernible during the Commonwealth or after the Restora- 
tion. But although the practice continued during the two 
centuries immediately before the Commonwealth without 
intermission, it was condemned as contrary to^ the law of 
England, and even declared to be unknown in this country 
by judges and legal writers of the highest character who 
flourished within that period. Thus Fortescue, who was 
chief justice of the court of King's Bench, and wrote his 
book * De Laudibus Legum Angliae ' in the reign of Heniy 
VI., and who notices a case of false accusation under 
torture (which was probably the case of Sir Thomas Coke 
above mentioned), condemns the practice in the strongest 
terms, though he does not expressly deny its existence in 
England. (Fortescue, cap. 22.) Again, Sir Thomas 
Snuth, a very eminent lawyer, statesman, and scholar, 
who wrote in the early part of Elizabeth's reign, says that 
* torment or question, which is used by the order of the civil 
law and custom of other countries, is not used in Eng- 
land. It is taken for servile.' (Smith's Commonwealth 
of England, book ii., cap. 27.) And Sir Edward Coke, 
who wrote in the reign of James I., says * there is no law 



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to warrant tortures in this land; and there Ifi no one 
opinion in our books, or judicial record, for the mainten- 
ance of them.' (3 Inst.<t 35.) Notwithstanding this ex- 
plicit denunciation of the practice as against law, both 
Smith and Coke repeatedly acted as commissioners for 
interrogating prisoners by toiture (Jardine*s Reading on 
the Use of Torture in England) ; and the latter, in a pas- 
sage which occurs in the same book, and only a few paees 
before the words just cited (p. 25), impliedly admits that 
torture was used at examinations taken before trial, though 
it was not applied at the arraignment or before the judge. 
There is also a direct judicial opinion against the lawful- 
ness of torture in England. In 1628, the judges unani- 
mously resolved, in answer to a question propounded to 
them by the kin^ in the case of Felton, who had stabbed 
the duke of Buckingham, * that he ought not to be tortured 
by the rack, for no such punishment is known or allowed 
by our law.' (Rushworth's Collections^ vol. i., p. 638.) 
And yet several of the judges who joined in this resolution 
had themselves executed the warrants for torture when 
tiiey held ministerial offices under the crown. Possibly 
the explanation of this inconsistency between the opinions 
of lawyers and the practice may be found in a distinction 
between prerogative and law, which was better understood 
two centuries ago than it is at the present day. It was 
true, as the above authorities declared, that torture was not 
part of the common law ; it was not used in judicature, as 
It was by the Roman law and the legal systems derived 
from it m Germany, Italy, and Spain ; and therefore in 
England no judge could by law direct the torture to 
be applied, and no party or prosecutor could demand it 
as a right. But that which was not lawful in the ordi- 
nary course of justice was often lawful for the preroga- 
tive of the crown, which authorized this mode of enforc- 
ing the discovery of crimes affecting the state, such as 
treason or sedition, and sometimes of offences of a grave 
character not political, — acting in this respect indepen- 
dently of and even paramount to the common law, in 
accoraance with the doctrine asserted so early as the 
reign of Edward I., * quod Rex pro communi utilitale 
per prerogativam suam in multis casibus est supr^ leges 
et consuetudines in regno suo usitatas.' {Rolls of Par- 
liament, 20 Edw. I., A.D. 1292, vol. i., p. 71.) This 
view of the subject is confirmed by the circumstance that 
in all instances of the application of torture in England, 
the warrants were issued immediately by the king, or by 
the privy council. Objectionable as the use of torture was 
in all countries and under all circumstances, it was in no 
country so unjust and dangerous an instrument of power as 
in England. In other countries, where it formed part of 
the law of the land, it was subject to specific rules and 
restrictions, fixed and determined by the same law which 
authorized the use of such an instrument, and those who 
transgressed them were liable to severe punishment. But 
in England there were no rules, no responsibility, no law 
beyond the will of the king. *The rack,* says Selden, 
* is nowhere used as in England. In other countries it is 
used in judicature when mere is semiplena probation a 
half-proof against a man ; then, to see if they can make it 
full, they rack him if he will not confess. But here in 
England they take a man and rack him, — I do not know 
why nor when, — ^not in time of judicature, but when some- 
body bids.' {Table-Talky ' Trial.') 

Ine particular modes of applying torture were as various 
as the ingenuity of man is fertile in devisiner the means of 
inflicting bodily pain. Cicero and other Roman writers 
speak of the eqmUeuSy or eciUeuSy and the fidiculce, as 
common instruments of torture ; but it is extremely doubtful 
what they were. Much discussion respecting them, and a 
reference to the various authors who have mentioned them, 
will be found in a treatise entitled *• Hieron3rmi Magii An- 

flarensis de E^uuleo Liber Posthumus,' Amsterdam, 1664. 
he rack, which was common throughout Europe, was 
a large frame, in shape somewhat resembling a mangle, 
upon which the examinant was stretched and bound; 
cords were then attached to his extremities, and, by a 
lever, gradually strained, till, when carried to its utmost 
severity, the operation dislocated the joints of the wrists 
and ankles. This engine is said to have been brought 
into the Tower by the duke of Exeter in the reign of 
Henry VI., and was thence called the duke of Exeter's 
daughter. (3 Inst,, 35.) Besides the rack there were 
endless varieties of what were termed the * lesser tor- 
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tupes,* such as thumb-screws, pincers, and manacles. 
In England, one of the most dreaded engines of this 
kind was the scavenger's daughter, so called by a popu- 
lar corruption from Skevington's daughter, being in- 
vented by Sir William Skevmgton, a lieutenant of the 
Tower in the reign of Henry VIII. (Tanners Societas Eu-^ 
roptea, pp. 12, 18.) This engine was found in * Little 
Ease,' in the Tower, in 1604, by a committee of the House 
of Commons appointed to inquire as to the state of the 
dungeon so called. {Commons' Journals^ 14th May, 1604.) 
In Scotland the instruments were the boots, caJled in 
France * le brodequin ' (in which the torture was applied 
by driving m wedges with a hammer between th© flesh 
and iron rings drawn tightly upon the legs) ; the thum- 
mikins ; the pinniewinks, or pilliewinks ; the caspitaws, or 
caspicaws ; and the tosots. (Maclaurin's Introauciion to 
Criminal Trials, sect. 9.) The particular construction of 
these barbarous instruments it would be difficult at the 
present da^ to ascertain, but several of them were in prac- 
tical use in Scotland within twenty jears from the final 
abolition of torture in that countiy in 1708, (Howell's 
State Trials, vol. vi., p. 1217, note.) 

It is remarkable that although the use of torture in judi- 
cature has prevailed in most civilized countries, it has 
been almost universally denounced by enlightened jurists 
of all ages. Cicero repeatedly condemns it as unjust and 
inefficacious ; and even the civil law, which has sanctioned 
the practice in Europe for many centuries, speaks of it as 
* a deceitful and dangerous instrument, which very often 
fails to extract the truth.' (-Oi>., Ub. xlvui., tit. 18.) The 
opinions of eminent lawyers in England have been already 
cited ; and the juridical writers of the Continent, in more 
recent times, have unanimously taken the same view of 
the subject. (Mittermaier's VetUsche Str(ifver/ahren, 
theil i., p. 396.) On the other hand, a curious defence of 
torture will be found in Wiseman's * Law of Laws, or the 
Excellence of the Civil Law,' p. 72. 
TORUS. [Mouldings.] 

TORY. This name has now, for about two hundred 
years, served to designate one of two principal political 
parties in this country. It ia not to be expected that for 
so lon^ a time the name has been always associated with 
one uniform set of political principles, or that any formula 
could be devised wnich would accurately describe Toryism 
at every period of its history. Extending, like the name 
of the other principal political party, from the legislature 
through every class of the community, it would naturally, 
where the number of persons to be brought to concur m 
any change is so large, preserve any meaning whicli it 
has once acquired for a length of time, and throughout 
perhaps a general consistency of meaning ; but on the 
other nand, engaged as the Whig and Tory parties of the 
legislature have been without intermission in a struggle 
for power, which power is attended by profit, they have 
been always exposed to the temptation, from whose 
insensible workings even the best disposed men are not 
secure, of altering and adapting opinions so as to facilitate 
the gaining what they fight for, or the keeping what they 
have gained : and the far more numerous members of the 
party who are without the legislature would generally 
follow those whom they look upon bs their leaders, and 
by whose success every adherent of the party has some 
hope of being benefited. 

And indeed with a large portion of either political 
party, the leading men in it for the time and the name are 
all that is thoujB^ht of or cared for. Changes of political 
circumstances in the country would necessarily, and may 
always, without infringement of the honour of mdividuals, 
introduce change into the character of a party : and there 
will ever and anon come some new and unforeseen case of 
poUtics, which old principles are not adequate to solve, 
out on which the fundamental difference between oppos- 
ing parties ensures different decisions, and ever aft^r there 
is a new element in the idea of the party.' 

The name Tory, as well as the name Whig, and the 
existence of two parties in the state corresponding to those 
which have now oeen known for a long time as whig and 
Tory parties, date from the reign of Charles II. There 
had been previous divisions of political opinion, but of 
these the sword had been made the arbiter : and it was 
not until after the Restoration, when the whole nation 
was sick of civil war and of the endless changes which 
the suspension of royalty had engendered, when the pre- 

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servation of monarchy was henceforth an objeet with all, 
when at the same time the power of the House of Commons 
had been established, and it was now absolutely necessary 
for the king's advisers to gain, some way or another, the 
assent of a body which they could no longer endeavour to 
coerce, that political differences in the nation led to 
systematic stniggles in Parliament, and to the forming 
and nick-naming of parties. * It was in the year 1679/ 
says Mr. Hallam, • that the words Whig and Tory were 
iirst heard in their application to English factions ; and 
though as senseless as any cant terms that could be 
devised, they became instantly as familiar in use as they 
have since continued. There were then indeed questions 
in af^tation which rendered the distinction more broad 
and mtelligible than it has generally been in later times. 
One of these, and the most important, was the Bill of 
Exclusion, in which, as it was usually debated, the repub- 
lican principle, that all positive institutions of society are 
in order to the general good, came into collision with 
that of monarchy, which rests on the maintenance of 
a royal line, as either the end or at least the necessary 
means of lawful government. But as the exclusion was 
confessedly among those extraordinary measures to which 
men of Tory principles are sometimes compelled to resort 
in great emergencies, and which no rational Whig es- 
pouses at any other time, we shall better perhaps discern 
the formation of these grand political sects in the petition 
for the sitting of parliament, and in the counter addresses 
of the opposite party.' (^Constitutional History qf Eng- 
land, vol. ii., p. 592.) 

The first Tories opposed the Exclusion Bill and sup- 
ported Charles II. in his endeavour to prevent a renewal 
of the attack upon his brother, by successive prorogations 
of the parliament. The orii^n of the name is referred by 
Roger Worth, a very hot Tory, in the following curious 
passage, to the connexion of the party with the Duke of 
York and his popish allies. * It is easy to imagine how 
rampant these procurators of power, the Exclusioners, 
were under such circumstances of advantage as at that 
time prevailed ; everywhere insulting and menacing the 
loyalists, as was done in all the terms of common conversa- 
tion, and the latter had the wind in their faces, the votes 
of the House and the rabble into the bargain. This trade, 
then not much opposed, naturally led to a common use of 
slighting and opprobrious words, such as Yorkist. That 
served for mere distinction, but did not scandalize or reflect 
enough. Then they came to Tantivy, which implied riding 
post to Rome. Ofaiserve, all the while the loyal church 
party were passive, the outrage lay wholly on the other 
5ide. These observing that the Duke favoured Irishmen* 
all his friends, or those accounted such by appearing against 
the Exclusion, were straight become Irish ; thence Bog- 
trotters, and in the copia of the factious language the word 
Tory was entertained, which signified the most despicable 
savages amon^ the wild Irish ; and being a vocal clear- 
sounding word, readily pronounced, it kept its hold, and 
took possession of the foul mouths of the faction, and 
everywhere as these men passed we could observe them 
breathe little else but Tory, together with oaths and damna^ 
tions.' {Examen, p. 821.) Thus Dr. Johnson's first in- 
terpretation of Vary in his Dictionary is, * A cant term, de- 
rived, I suppose, from an Irish word signifying a savage ;' 
and Mr. Moore, in his * Memoirs of Captain Rock,' sar- 
castically refers the history of the Tory party to a general 
* History of the Irish Rogues and Rapparees.' The origin 
of the word Whig, which is a little younger than Tory, will 
be explained under Whig. 

Dr. Johnson proceeds to give an explanation of the word 
Tbry, which is perhaps as good a short general descrip- 
tion of the principles of Toryism as is to be given :-v' One 
who adheres to the antient constitution of uie state, and 
the apostolical hierarchy of the Church of England.' 
Things as they have been, or, when some great change has 
taken place against the will of this party, things as {hey 
are, — toe king before the aristocracy, and the aristocracy 
before the popular element in the constitution, which led 
the first Tories to argue from the divine right of kings for 
their exemption from parliamentary control, and for passive 
obedience, and which has afterwards directed their en- 
deavours to contracting the suffrage so as to make the 
popular element as little popular as possible, — ^the freedom 
of the church from state control, while from the state it 
derives its 8ustenance,->and the fullest possible amount of 



political privilege and honour for the church, as distin- 
guished from every other religious denomination, — ^these 
have been the cardinal characteristics of Toryism, from the 
be^nning to the present time. 

During the reigns of Charles II. and James IL the sup- 
port of the king brought the Tories into a connexion 
with the Roman CathoUcs, which was inconsistent with 
their High Church views ; and they were involved in a con- 
tinual difficulty of reconciling their persecution of Protes- 
tant dissenters, with t^e favour they desired to show the 
Roman Catholics, as political partisans. Lord Bolingbroke 
has given the following description of Toryism at this 
period : — "• Divine, heremtary, inaefeasible right, lineal suc- 
cession, passive obedience, prerogative, non-resistance, 
slavery, nay, and sometimes popery too, were associated in 
many minds to the idea of a Tory, and deemed incommu- 
nicable and inconsistent in the same manner with the idea 
of a Whig.' (* Dissertation on Parties,' Miscellaneous 
Works, vol. iii., p. 38, Edinburgh, 1773.) But popeiy was 
an accident to the creed of the party. The lengths to which 
James went for the Roman Catholic religion opened the 
eyes of the Tories ; and the bulk of the party united with 
the Whigs in bringing about the revolution of 1688. The 
doctrines of divine right and passive obedience were now 
abandoned by the Tories in practice. During the reign 
of Anne they again raised their heads in argument, and 
the impolitic prosecution of Sacheverel ^ve force to their 
re-appearance. But from the Revolution down to the 

E resent time the struggle between the two parties, so far as it 
as been one of principle, has been a struggle by theTories 
in behalf of the church, to invest it with political power and 
privileges, and against the increase of the power of the 
people in the state, through the House of Commons ; and a 
struggle by the Whip for the toleration of dissenters from 
the established religion, and for the strengthening of tlie 
popular element of the constitution. 

The history of the Tory party, rising and falling in the 
state, may be traced in a series of articles in Knight's * Com- 
panion to the Newspaper ' for 1834, 1835, and 1836, entitled 
' Changes of Administration and History of Parties ;' or in 
Mr. G. W. Cooke's 'History of Party,' 3 vols. 8vo., which 
is on the whole a useful publication, though its accuracy 
is not to be implicitly depended on. 

TOTANI'Nife. [ScoLOPACiDJK ; Tkincin;b.] 

TOTANUS, Cuvier's name for a g:enus of Wading-Birds 
[Grallatores], containing those snipe-like species known 
by the names of Chevaliers, &c. Example, Totanus stag- 
natilis, [Scolopacidjb, vol. xxi., p. 86.] 

TCTILA. [RoMB.] 

TOTIPALmKS, Cuvier's name for a group of birds 
whose hind-toe is united together with the others in a 
continuous membrane . Notwithstanding this organization, 
which makes their feet more perfect oars, the Totipalmata 
are nearly the only Palmipede Birds that perch on trees* 
All fly well, and have short legs. The Pelicans, the Cor- 
morants, the Frigate Birds, the Boobies, the Anhingas, and 
the Tropic Birds belong to this group. 

TOTNESS, or TOTNES, a parliamentary borough in 
the hundred of Coleridge in Devonshire, 23 miles south by 
west of Exeter, the county town ; 190 or 191 miles west- 
south-west of the General rost-O0ice, London, by Staines, 
Basingstoke, Andover, Amesbury, Wincaunton, Jlminster, 
Honiton, Exeter, and Newton Bushel ; or 200 miles, namely, 
166 miles by the Great Western and Bristol and Exeter 
Railways to Taunton (including the distance from the Post- 
Ofiice to the London terminus), and from thenpe 34 miles 
farther by road through Wellington, Collumpton, and 
Exeter. 

Totness is a place of great antiquity, and is mentioned 
by Risdon (Survey qf Devon) as the place where Am- 
brosius and Uther Pendragon landed on their arrival from 
the Continent to oppose Vortigem. Risdon gives Bede 
as his authority, but we have not been able to trace the 
passage in the ' Historia Ecclesiastica ' or other works of 
that writer. The name ' Totenes ' occurs in some MS. of 
Nennius, c. iii. Totness is described in the Exon Domes- 
day as a borough containing ninety-five burgesses within 
and fifteen without the borough : it was held by JuUell de 
Totenais, or Toteneis, in both which ways the name is 
written. Juhell founded here a Cluniac priory, cell to the 
abbey of St. Sergius and St. Bachus at Angers : this priory 
was suppressed at the time of the general suppression of 
monasteries under Henry VIII., when its yearly revenues 



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were eshmated at 124/. lOs. 2^. gross, or 24/. 98, 2k?. 
clear. Juhell (or, as some call him, Judael) erected also 
a castle at Totness, and made it the head of his barony. 

The area of the parish of Totness is 1170 acres: the 
number of houses, in 1831, was 404, viz. 375 inhabited by 
731 families, 18 uninhabited, and 11 building : the popu- 
lation was 3442, a very small part agricultural. The town 
stands on the slope of a hill on the west side of the river 
Dart, over which there is a modem bridge of three aiches : 
across the biidge, on the east side of the river, is a small 
subiiib, in the manor of Bridgetown, in the parish of 
Berry Pomeroy : the manor of Bridgetown, which compre- 
hends 241 acres, and had, in 1831, 78 houses and a pomi- 
lation of 714, has, for j^arliamentary purposes, been added 
to the borough, giving it an area of 1411 acres, 482 houses, 
and a population of 4196. The town is partially lighted, 
and is watched by a private subscription : the houses are 
commonly white, with slated roofs : the principal street 
runs down the hill to the bridge, and is paved : several of 
the houses are antient, with upper stories projecting over 
the footpath, and supported by pillars : in the middle of 
the main street is an antient gateway, originally belonging 
to the town wall ; and on an artiUcial mound of great ele- 
vation, commanding a iine view of the town and the sur- 
rounding country, is the circular keep of the antient castle. 
The church, which is on the north side of the town, behind 
the houses of the main street, is a handsome structure, 
with a well-proportioned tower, with pinnacles, at the west 
end. It contains a handsomely-carved stone screen, 
painted and gilded, and a plain stone pulpit : the altar- 
piece is of classical design, not in keeping with the Gothic 
architecture of the church. The church is built of a red 
stone, having the appearance of brick. There are meeting- 
houses for Independents, Unitarians, and Wesleyan Me- 
thodists. There are a guildhall and a small gaol, a small 
theatre, and an assembly-room. 

There is no manufacture carried on at Totness, the serge 
manufacture, formerly carried on, having been given up ; 
but it is a place of some trade, especially in com, coal, and 
culm, which are imported, and in cider, which is exported. 
The river Dart is navigable for vessels of 100 tons up to 
the town : there is a salmon fishery in the river above the 
town. Many of the townsmen are seafaring men and 
fishermen. There is a weekly market on Saturday, a great 
cattle-market monthly, and two yearly fairs. Races are 
held yearly. 

Totness received its first municipal charter fVom King 
John, but we have seen that it existed as a borough long 
before that time. The municipal borough comprehend 
the town, but not the whole parish. It has sent two 
members to parliament from the 23rd year of Edward I. 
The number of parliamentary electors, in 1835-6, was 312, 
viz. 280 lO/.-householders and 32 freemen ; in 1839-40, 
341, viz. 311 lO/.-househoMers and 30 freemen. By the 
Municipal Reform Act the borough has four aldermen and 
twelve councillors, but is not to have a commission of the 
peace except upon petition and grant. A more extended 
boundary, for municipal purposes, has been recommended. 
The living is a vicarage, in the mral deanery and arch- 
deaconry of Totton, or Totnes, and in the diocese of Exeter, 
of the clear yearly value of 200/., with a glebe-house. 
There were in the parish, in the year 1883, three dame- 
schools, with 52 cliildren of both sexes, and thirteen other 
day-schools ; of which the grammar-school had two scho- 
lars on the foundation ; the * blue-coat school,' supported 
partly by endowment, partly by yearly subscription, 70 
children ; * the national school,' ISfe children ; and eleven 
other schools, 339 children. There were also two Sunday- 
schools, with 262 children. Kennicott, the eminent E(e- 
braist, and Lye, the Anglo-Saxon scholar, were natives of 
Totness. 

(Risdon's Survey of Devonshire ; Polwhele's History of 
Devonshire; HeLxmefs Notiiia Monastica ; Clergy List ; 
Oldfield's Representative History ; Parliamentary Papers,) 
TOTT, FRANQOIS BARON DE, the son of an Hun- 
garian nobleman, who, obliged to leave his country in con- 
sequence of his connections with Prince Ragotzky, had en- 
tered the French service, was bora at Fert6-sou»-Jouarre, on 
the 17th of August, 1733. Young De Tott obtained at an 
early age a commission in the hussar regiment of Berchiny, 
which his fatner had been instrumental in raising and 
disciplining. 
In 1755 the senior De Tott, who spoke the Turkish and 



Polish lan^ages fluently, and had been more than once 
employed m missions to the Crimea, was appointed to 
accompany M. de Yergennes to Constantinople. He took 
his son with him, intending that he should study the language 
and render himself familiar with the manners of the Turks. 
The father died of a fever in September of the year 
1757, but M. de Yergennes conferred upon the son an ap- 
pointment in the embassy, which he continued to hold 
along with his commission in the re^ment of Berchiny. 
De Tott remained at Constantinople till 1763, when he re-i 
turned to France. 

In 1766 the Baron de Tott presented a memorial to the 
Due de Choiseul, pointing out the means of concluding a 
treaty of commerce with the Khan of the Crimea, and extend- 
ing the commerce of France in the Black Sea. The French 
consul in the Crimea dying about the same time, the Duo 
de Choiseul appoint'.d the memorialist his successor. De 
Tott repaired to J'is post by the way of Poland. He does 
not appear to iiave done anything towards realising his 
projects for placing the commercial intercourse of France 
with the Crimea on a better footing ; but he contrived to 
involve himself so deeply in the intrigues of the court, 
that the vizir sought and obtained his removal by the 
French government in 1769. 

The Baron de Tott returned to Constantinople, entered 
the service of the Ottoman Porte, and continued in it till 
the year 1776. If his own account may be believed, he 
was during that period one of the moving spirits of the 
Ottoman empire. He presented the Sultan with a map of 
the theatre of the war between the Turks and Russians 
immediately after his arrival at Constantinople ; and sug- 
gested the advance of the Pasha of Bender into the Ukraine 
He proposed an entire reform in the Turkish artillery, and 
was appointed to carry it into effect. In 1770 he was 
charged with the defence of the Dardanelles, menaced by 
the Russian fleet. In 1771 he devised a plan of defence 
for the Turkish frontiers towards Oczakow ; taught the 
Turkish artillerists to make bombs, and brought them to an 
unprecedented dexterity in working their guns. In 1772 
he organised a new cannon-foundry. In 1773 he gave di- 
rections for the fortification of the Black Sea mouth of 
the Bosporus. In 1773, 1774, and 1775 he was busy im- 
proving the fortifications and artillery of the Turks. All 
these statements have some foundation in fact ; but the 
tone of exaggeration which pervades all the baron's ac- 
count of Ins own exploits renders it impossible to decide 
how much of them is to be believed. It is evident that he 
did not think his services sufficiently appreciated, for in 
1776 he tendered his resignation in disgust ; and it is 
equally evident that they were not so highly esteemed by 
the Turks as by himself, for the resij^nation was readily ac- 
cepted, and the baron dismissed with some cold compli- 
ments. 

He was despatched by the French government in 1777 
on a tour of inspection of the consular establishments in 
the ports of the Mediterranean fi-om the Archipelago to 
the Barbary States. At the request of Buffon, Sonnim ^ bs 
allowed to accompany the expedition. 

With this mission the diplomatic services of the Ban n 
de Tott terminated. On his return to France he had t^ o 
pensions settled upon him, one from the ministry of tl e 
marine, the other from that of foreign affairs, and, retirin g 
from public life, occupied himself with preparing for tl e 
press the observations made during upwards of twenif 
years of active life. The work appeared in 1784 under th 3 
title «M4moires sur les Turcs et Tartares.' It met wit i 
great success: the original French version was frequent!/ 
reprinted, and translations of it into English, Germav, 
Dutch, and Swedish appeared in the course of a few years. 

De Tott was raised to the rank of Mar^chal-de-camp in 
1781 . In 1786 or 1787 he was appointed jfovemor of Douai. 
He held that office till 1790, but opposing himself to the 
republican fervour of the garrison, was nearly murdered 
and obliged to fly. He took refuge in Switzerland, where 
he resided for a year, and then proceeded to Vienna. He 
died in obscurity at Tatzmansdorf in Hungary, in 1798. 

De Totfs memoirs, though vehemently attacked by 
Peyssonel, long retained their popularity. They are, as the 
earliest, so the least offensive of the crude and fallow 
speculations respecting Turkish politics with which Europe 
has of late years been inundated. 

TOTTENHAM. [Middlesex.] 

TOUCANS. [Ramphastida.] 



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TOUCH. The Bens* of touch belongs to the outward in- 
tegument of the body— the skin, and is shared, in a minor 
and modified degree, by parts of the mucous membranes, 
which, at the various orinces of the body, are continuous 
prolongations of the same structure. By it we have the 
Acuity of deterouning our immediate relations to material 
objects, in regard of contact, temperature, and electrical 
esositement. . 

The nervous influence, or endowment, on which this 
sense depends, appears in no essential particular to be 
distinguished firom that which gives common sensibility to 
the various deeper organs of the body. The nerves which 
convey the specific impressions of touch, are associated at 
their origin, or in their course, with others not reaching to 
the surface of the body, under the common name of sensi- 
five; so that if we trace such a one from the centre out- 
wards, we find it (previously to its termination in the skin, 
where it ministers to the special sense of touch) supply- 
ing parts which have merely that common feeling, or 
sensibility to pain, necessary to their own preservation. 
{Ixamining, for instance, the course of the fifth cerebral 
nerve [Brain ; Nkrve], we remark that its bwmches are 
partly distributed to cavities which are never exposed to 
foreign contact or to changes in temperature, whence 
accoidingly they can convey to the sensorium only such 
unnaturu impressions as originate in those cavities them- 
selves, and attract attention by their painfulness. To the 
same claBs of nerves we likewise owe our immediate know- 
ledge of weight and resistance ; for, as they partly pass, 
together with the nerves of motion, to the voluntary 
muscles, they inform us of the vigour with which these 
contract, in order to balance or overcome any exterior 
force. Accordingly each trunk of a sensitive nerve trans- 
mits to the centre not only the specific impressions of 
contact, temperature, or electrical shock, which may aifect 
its cutaneous extremities ; but likewise, by the excitement 
of pain, makes us aware of deviations from healthy func- 
tion, and, by the so-called muscular sense, measures for us 
our own particular exertions of force. 

These mtermediate distributions of a sensitive nerve, 
then, do not suffice as a provision for the special sense, 
which is peculiar to tegumentary parts : they create only 
a vague and general sensibility. 

In order to that high development of the sense of touch, 
which we notice in the human hand, or in the proboscis of 
the elephant, certain anatomical peculiarities are required, 
viz. : — 

1. An exposure of the largest possible number of points, 
each endowed with sensibility, and capable of being 
recognised in the sensorium, as distinct and individual. 
Such a structure is eminently illustrated in the papillary 
surface of the skin; which presents a vast number of 
minute evolutions, or papill€e^ every one furnished with 
its own fibrillary nervous loop, and a minute inosculation 
cf blood-vessels. It is certain that each terminal loop is 
I epresented by a definite point in the brain, that no two 
nervous fibrillsB become blended or confused, and hence 
liiat each papilla may originate a sinde and particular 
.'lensation. Perhaps tne strongest familiar evidence that 
<cau be adduced for this fact, is furnished in the tingling 
.sensation (called * pins and needles') which we produce in 
numbing the nerve of a part by pressure ; the impression 
here made on the trunk of a nerve being referred, accord- 
ing to a well-known physiological law, to its cutaneous 
extremities; so that when, for example, we strike the 
funny-bone^ or otherwise press the ulnar nerve which lies 
there^ the peculiar tingling is felt in the skin, at the tips of 
tiie last two fingers : if this sensation be analysed, we find 
it to consist in a pricking of innumerable minute points, 
as though there were falling on the part a quick dense 
shower of the finest needles : the minute points, so made 
sensible to us, are single papillse of the skin. This instance 
of subjective sensation is probably the only mode in which 
the sensitive faculty of the skin can be made known to us ; 
for obvious reasons prove it impossible to apply to the 
organs of touch the same precise admeasurements as we 
may use in ascertaining the power of the eye or of the ear. 
It appears however uiat tne tactile power of the skin 
varies for different parts in a very much greater degree 
than can be accounted for by differences in nervous 
supply. Professor Weber has measured the power of dis- 
tingushing distances in different parts of the skin, with 
the view of affording means to compare their relative 



degrees of endowment. He conducted his experiments by 
touching the surface with the points of a pair of compasses 
(blunted with pieces of cork), and observing how close 
their arms might be brought together, and still be felt each 
distinctly. He found that the point of the tongue could 
distinguish them, as two impressions, when distant only 
half a line from each other ; and that in the middle of the 
back a separation of thirty lines was necessary to the dis- 
tinction. Thus, while the tactile endowment of a part is 
in proportion to the minuteness and density of its papilla- 
tion, it is evident that the applicability and development 
of this property will depend on habit and attention and 
practice, by which we acquire the power of appreciating 
minute differences of impression, it seems established in 
regajnd of the organ of sight that the smallest anatomical 
divisions of the retina — ^those, namely, which are analo- 
gous to the papillee of the skin — accurately correspond to 
tne limits of distinct vision, each being capable of receiv- 
ing and conveying from without a pamcular and separate 
sensation. Tne intervention of the epidermis, or scarf- 
sldn, hinders the sense of touch firom possessing equal per- 
fection ; it is impossible, by reason of this scaly covenng, 
to impress any single papilla, without simultaneously 
affecting its nearer neighbours : yet is there marvellous 
compensation and balance of advantages in that exquisite 
construction of the human hand, which permits to this 
chief organ of our bodily acts, — ^with the strength and ex- 
cellence of mechanical adjustment, that render it our first 
tool and instrument, — a sensibility so delicate, that it can 
appreciate the dimensions of a line. 

2. In addition to the anatomical arrangement just de- 
scribed, the sense of touch requires for its perfection that 
a muscular apparatus should be connected with the sen- 
tient surface, by means of which this may adapt itself to 
the superficies of bodies, in order to explore their outline, 
span tneir dimensions, or probe their texture. And we 
find accordingly in those organs which are most tactile, — 
the hand, the tongue, the lips of the human subject, the 
snout, proboscis, or tentacles of lower animals, — ^that com- 
plicated muscular motions belong to the part, and render 
it a more available instrument of exploration. The im- 
portance of this addition becomes manifest, if we apply a 
foreign object to any plane surface of the body (to the 
front of the fore-arm, for instance), and hold it there with- 
out pressure or motion. The only sensation so conveyed 
is one of indefinite contact : without pressure we know 
not its consistence ; without successive and exploring 
movement we cannot ascertain its outline or level. 

The sense of touch is trained to its highest perfection in 
those who are bom blind, and who from early childhood 
have acquired the habit of making this sense supple- 
mental to the absent one. In them the faculty of distin- 
guishing minute differences in impression, and of receiving 
u*om a given surface of integument the largest number oi 
separate sensations of contact, appears most remarkably 
developed ; and in them too the exploring movements of 
touch are performed with most skill and delicacy. To 
such an extent is this the case, that many have believed 
the blind to have some means of appreciating colour. 
This they have not ; but they are probably able to detect 
by touch certain differences of texture — ^which depend on 
the chemical processes of dyeing, or on other circumstances 
of preparation — ^in the materials they handle, and may 
perhaps associate and classify these accordingly under the 
names of colour supplied to them by their teacners : more 
than this it is impossible they should perform. 
TOUCH-ME-NOT. [Impatiens.] 
TOUCHSTONE. [Flinty Slate.] 
TOUL. [MeurthbJ 

TOULMIN, JOSHUA, D.D., was bom in London, lltli 
May, 1740, and was educated at St. Paul's school, whence 
he was removed to what was then called the Dissenting 
Academy, the classes constituting which were taught in 
Wellclose Square, in the house of his relation Dr. sSonuel 
Morton Savage, who was the classical and mathematical 
tutor ; the only other teacher being Dr. David Jennings* 
who was theological tutor or professor, and presided over 
the seminary. {History of Dissenters, by Bogue and 
Bennett, iv. 261, 262.> On being licensed to preach, he 
was in the first instance settled as minister of a dissenting 
congregation at Colyton in Devonshire. At this time 
his principles appear to have been what are commonly 
called orthodox; but he soon became a convert to the 



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opinions of the Baptists ; upon which, in 1765, he trans- 
ferred himself to Taunton, where, besides having the 
charge of a Baptist congregation, he taught a school, and 
also, it is said, kej)t a bool^eller's shop. It was while re- 
sident here likewise that he wTote and published most of 
the literary works which have made his name known. He 
had not been Ions at Taunton before his theology under- 
went a further change; but, although he had pre- 
viously received invitations from the Unitarians both of 
Gloucester and Yarmouth, he remained where he was till 
1804, when he accepted the utuation of one of the pastors 
of the Unitarian congelation at Birmingham, formerly 
presided over by Dr. Pnestley, and then assembling in what 
was called the New Meeting-House. This appointment he 
continued to hold, discharging its duties with much ac- 
ceptance, till his death at Birmingham, after a short illness, 
on the 23rd of July, 1815, leaving five children, out of a 
family of twelve, by his wife Jane, youngest daughter of 
Mr. J. Smith, of Taunton, whom he mamed in 1764. His 
eldest son was for some time minister of a Baptist con- 
gregation at Chewbent, in Lancashire, but afterwards went 
to America. 

Dr. Toulmin received his diploma of D.D. from Harvard 
University, in the United States, in 1794. His first pub- 
lication appears to have been an octavo volume, entitled 

* Sermons addressed to Youth, with a Translation of Iso- 
crates's Oration to Demonicus,' which appeared in 1770, 
and was reprinted in 1789 : this was followed by * Two Let- 
ter on the Address of the Dissenting Ministers on Sul>- 
scription,' 8vo., 1774 ; * Memoirs of &)cinus,' 8vo., 1777 ; 

* Letters to Dr. John Sturges on the Church Establish- 
ment,* 8vo., 1782; 'Dissertations on the Internal Evi- 
dences of Christianity,' 8vo., 1785 ; * Essay on Baptism,' 
8vo., 1786 ; a new edition (the third) of • Mr. William 
Foot's Account of the Ordinance of Baptism,' 8vo., 1787 ; 

* Review of the Life, Character, and Writings of John 
Biddle, M.A.,' 8vo., 1789 ; * History of the Town of Taun- 
ton,' 4to, 1791 ; a new edition of Neal's • History of the 
Puritans,' with notes and additions, 5 vols. 8vo., 1794-97, 
reprinted in 3 vols. 8vo., 1837 ; * Biographical Tribute to 
the Memory of Dr. Priestley,' 8vo., 1804 ; * Addresses to 
Young Men,' 12mo., 1804 ; * Memoirs of the Rev. Samuel 
Bourne ' (his colleague at Birmingham), 8vo., 1809 ; ' Ser- 
mons on Devotional Subjects,* 8vo., 1810; * Historical 
View of the State of the Protestant Dissenters in England,' 
8vo., 1814 ; besides a number of single sermons and other 
pamphlets : and he was also an occasional contributor to 
the * Theological Repository,' * The Nonconformists' Me- 
morial,' * The Monthly Magazine,' and other periodical 
publications. Dr. Toulmin's writings, without much either 
of learning or power of thought, display generally an 
agpreeable perspicuity and neatness of style, rising some- 
times to considerable energy and animation ; and although 
steady, and even eager, in the defence of his own opinions, 
he states what he has to say without any bitterness or dis- 
courtesy to his opponents. He appears to have been a 
somewhat narrow-minded but conscientious and kind- 
hearted man. 

TOULON, a town in France, on the coast of the Medi- 
terranean, ca]jital of an arrondissement in the department 
of Var, 428 miles in a direct line south-south-east of Paris, 
or 520 miles by Melun, Sens, Auxerre, Autun, ChSlons- 
sur-Sa6ne, M&con, Lyon, Vienne, Valence, Orange, Avig- 
non, Aix, and Cuies : in 43** 6' N. lat. and 5** 5& E. long. 

Toulon existed in the time of the Romans, and is 
noticed as a harbour in the * Itinerarium Maritimum ' of 
Antoninus, under the name of * Telo Martius.' It is noticed 
also by the anonymous geographer of Ravenna, who calls 
it simply • Telo ;* and from the * Notitia Dignitatum per 
Gallias, which enumerates among other officers the * Pro- 
curator Baphii Telonensis Galliarum' (* Overseer of the 
dye-house for the provinces of Gaul at Toulon'), it appears 
tnat the principal government dye-house in Gaul was nere. 
(Bouquet, Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France, 
tom. 1.) A bishopric was established here in the fourUi 
century, which continued till the Revolution : the bishop 
was a suffragan of the archbishop of Aries. 

Ill the middle ages Toulon was repeatedly ruined by the 
Saracens, and as often recovered from the disaster. Louis 
XII., to protect it from the pirates of Barbary, commenced 
the erection of a large tower, which was completed by 
Francois L In the year 1536 it was taken by the Constable 
of Bourbon, then commanding the Imperial army, Henri 



IV. strengthened the fortifications of the town, and formed 
a harbour for merchant vessels. Louis XIV., designing to 
make it one of the barriers of France on the side of Italy 
and the Mediterranean, established the royal dockyard, and 
caused the whole town to be fortified by Vauban. It was 
attacked without success in 1707 by the duke of Savoy by 
land, at the head of a formidable army, and by the com- 
bined English and Dutch fleets by sea. In 1793 it was 
occupied by a detachment of marines from the English anil 
Spanish fleets then cruising off the port, through an under- 
standing with the Royalists in the town ; and was subse- 
quently garrisoned by a strong force of the English and 
their allies and of the French Kovalists. It was soon be- 
sieged by the French, Carteaux first, and afterwards Du- 
gommier having the command in chief, and the artillery 
being directed oy Napoleon Bonaparte, whose celebrity 
had its commencement here. The capture of General 
O'Hara, the commander of the garrison, and the taking 
of Fort Eguillette, on a point of land between the inner 
and the outer road, obliged the allies to evacuate the 
town, after burning the arsenal and carrying away or burn- 
ing neai-ly all the vessels in the harbour. Many of the 
Royalists escaped on board the allied fleets ; but some 
remained, several of whom were put to death by the vic- 
torious Republicans. The town, in consequence of its 
having been ^iven up to the allies by the townsmen, lost 
its ranK of capital of the department, which has never been 
restored. 

Toulon is open on the south side to the harbours and 
road, but is sheltered on the north by the lofry Mount 
Pharon, and on the east and west by hills of less elevation : 
IVom its position, the heat in summer is intolerable. The 
road is an inlet of the Mediterranean, having its opening 
towards the east ; and is divided into two parts, the inner 
and the outer road, by two headlands, which extend into 
the road on each side so as to form a narrow strait : on the 
north side of the inner road are the two harboui-s, * Le 
Vieux Port,* or * Le Port Marchand,' on the east, con- 
structed by Henri IV. ; and on the west • Le Port Neuf,* 
for the navy, constntcted by Louis XIV. North of these 
two harbours is the town. These two inner harbours are 
separated from the inner road and from each other by 
moles or piers : they have each a narrow entrance, passable 
only by one vessel at a time ; and there is a passage com- 
municating between the two with a swing-bridge. * Le 
Vieux Port,' or * Old Harbour,' is surrounded by a large 
and tolerably handsome auay, along which, on the north 
or town side, are a number of good houses. * Le Port 
Neuf,' or * New Harbour,' is surrounded by the various 
buildings connected with it as a naval port. On the north 
side are the dockyard and arsenal, containing the various 
storehouses for the navy ; covered slips for building vessels ; 
the sailmakers' and other workshops; the armories, in 
which is a fine collection of antient arms ; the naval-school, 
with a fine libraiy and a collection of models of vessels of 
every kind ; the school of naval artillery ; the navigation- 
school ; and, on the north side of the dockyard, the rope- 
manufactoiy, nearly 1700, or, according to some accounts, 
above 2000 feet long, built of freestone, from the designs 
of Vauban, with a vaulted roof. On the east side of the 
naval port, and at the eastern extremity of the south side, 
are the bagne or convict-house, and the hospital for con- 
victs: they are built on the moles which enclose the 
harbour, and usually contain from 4000 to 5000 convicts. 
In the same quarter are three basins for the construction 
or repair of vessels. The depdt or park of artillery is on 
the west side of the harbour, and is enclosed in one of the 
bastions of the town. Both town and harbours are sur- 
rounded, except toward the road, by a wall, strengthened 
by bastions and by a ditch. Without the ditch, on the 
west side, adjacent to the dockyard, is the government bake- 
house. Tlie town is entered by two gates, the gate of 
France on the north-west, through which the road from 
Paris, Aix, and Marseille passes ; and the gate of Italy 
on the north-east, through which the road from Genoa, 
Nice, and Fr6jus enters. Adjacent to the town, on the 
north side, is a walled enclosure, called the entrenched 
camp of St. Anne : a great number of detached outworks 
occupy various positions round the town, and are con- 
sidered to form so well arranged a system of defence, that 
the place is regarded as impregnable. The depdt or ^ark 
of artillery for the land service occupies one of the bastions 
on the north side of the town ; and there are handsome 



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barracks. The Champ de Mars, or enerciw ground, i8 on 
the north-east aide, without the walls. 

The older part of the iovrji is in the centre, and is sur- 
rounded on the north and east by a wide street (Le Cours 
and Rue Lafayette), or boulevard, apparently occupying 
the site of the old town-wall : beyond this, but within the 

S resent town-wall, are streets whose regularity indicates 
leir modem origin ; and on the west side of the old town, 
and north of the dockyard, are other new streets regularly 
laid out. The streets are tolerably well paved, and the 
houses tolerably well built ; and a number of fountains 
tend to keep the town clean : there are some • places,* or 
squares, but all small, except the Place d'Armes or Parade. 

Toulon has the ex-cathedral of Notre Dame, and three 
other parish churches, St. Jean, St. Pierre, and St. 
Louis. -Notre Dame is a small and gloomy building ; 
but is decorated by several works of the sculptor Puget. 
The front of the church of St. Louis has a tolerably good 
colonnade. Adjacent to the church of Notre Dame is the 
college or high school, which is a good building. There 
are a marine hospitid, a military hospital, a foundling and 
another hospital ; the ex-episcopal palace ; the office of the 
maritime prefect, forming one side of the Place d'Armes ; 
a smsdl and inconvenient palais de justice or court-house ; 
an exchange ; a town-hall, on the quay of the old or mer- 
cantile port ; a theatre ; and several bathing establish- 
ments. Some of these are outside of the walls of the 
town. There are a public library of 8000 volumes, a me- 
dical library, a valuable museum of natural history, a 
botanic garden, an observatory established in the naval 
hospital ; a society of belles lettres, sciences, and arts ; 
courses of instruction in geometiy and practical mechanics ; 
a savings* bank, a mont-de-pi6te, and a maternity society. 
The lazaretto is on the south side of the outer road, at 
some distance from the town. 

The population of the commune, in 1831, was 28,419 
rof whom ^,121 were in the town itselfj ; and in 1836, 
35,322. The business of the place, independent of the 
government establishments, is not very great. There are 
some soap-houses ; some coarse woollens, morocco leather, 
chocolate, vermicelli, and candles are manufactured; 
and some merchant vessels are built. Trade is carried 
on in wine, brandy, oil, olives, dried fruits, corn, flour, 
and other productions of the neighbourhood. There are 
two yearly fairs of eight days each. The townsmen were 
formerly reputed to be the roughest in Provence : hence 
arose the proverb, cWacterizing the manners of this and 
the other chief towns, ' Aix in Provence, Marseille in Tur- 
key, Toulon in Barbary.' The low grounds in the neigh- 
bourhood are fruitful ; they produce excellent vegetables, 
besides figs, olives, oranges, grapes, and capers. 

Toulon ranks as the second naval port in Prance, and is 
the residence of a number of officers connected with the 
administration of the navaJ department. There are also 
several fiscal government offices. It has three courts of 
justice, namely, a tribunal de premifire instance, a tribunal 
de commerce, and a tribunal de marine. 

Tlie arrondissement of Toulon has an area of 500 sq^uare 
miles and comprehends twenty-eight communes: it is 
divided into eight cantons or districts, each under a justice 
of the peace: the population, in 1831, was 94,242; in 
1836 it was 99,012. 

(Vaysse de Villiers, Itineraire Descripti/de la France; 
Malte-Brun, Geographie Universelle ; Millin, Voyage 
dans les Departemens duMidi de la France; Dictionnaire 
Gdographique Universel ; Statistique de la France.^ 

TOULONGEON, FRANgOIS E'MANUEL. VIS- 
COUNT OF, a French historian of the last and present 
century, was born a.d. 1748, at the castle of Champlitte, 
in La Tranche Comt£, and belonged to one of the oldest 
families in that province. He was destined by his parents 
for the church, and was sent at an early age to the semi- 
iiaiy of St. Sulpice at Paris ; but having evinced a decided 
repugnance to theological studies, he was permitted to 
follow his own inclination, and to enter the army. He 
was a great admirer of Voltaire, to whom, a.d. 1776, he 
paid a visit at Femey, and whose favour he gained. He 
was admitted a member of the Acad6mie of Besan^on, 
A.D. 1779, having previously manifested a degree of poeti- 
cal talent which gained for him some local celebrity. He 
rose to the rank of colonel of chasseurs, and his regiment 
was remarked for its discipline and good condition ; but 
he quitted the service previous to the wars which arose out 



of the French revolution. At the commencement of the 
revolution he embraced the popular side, and defended 
it a^nst the majority of the nobles of La Franche QomiA 
in t£e assembly of the states of that province, held at 
Quingey, a.d. 1788. He published about this time a pam- 

Shlet, under the title of ' Principes Naturels et Gonstitutiis 
es Assemblies NationaJes.' This, which appears to have 
been his first publication, ^ned him oonaaerable pojni- 
larity, and led to his appomtment as one of the deputies 
of the nobility of the province in the Staites-C^neral ot 
1789. He was one of Chose nobles who separated them- 
selves from their order to unite with the tiers-^tat, or 
commons, in one chamber, which assumed the title of the 
National Assembly. In the years 1790-91 he acted with 
the moderate revolutionists; and at the close of the 
session, presaging the approaching troubles, he quitted 
public life, and retired to an estate which he possessed 
m Le Nivernais, the sole remain of his patrimonial in- 
heritance, and which was considerably diminished in value 
by the loss of the feudal services which had been sup- 
pressed at the revolution. His early retirement preserved 
him from the perils of the reign of terror. His subsequent 
life was devoted to literary and to agricultural pursuits. 
He was elected a member of the Institute, a.b. 1797, 
in the class of the moral sciences (a class suppressed at 
the reorganization of the Institute, a.d. 1803) ; and, in the 
same year, brought out a periodical, entitled • L*£sprit 
Public,* with the view of calming the violence of party 
spirit ; but only six numbers of the work appeared. He 
was chosen, a.d. 1802 and 1809, deputy for the department 
of Nidvre in the legislative body ; and was subsequently 
made a commander of the Legion of Honour. He died 
suddenly, 23rd December, a.d. 1812, and was buried in 
the cemetery of Montmartre, where his children have 
raised a monument to his memory. 

The principal works of Toulongeon are : — * Histoire de 
France depuis la Revolution de 1789 ;* ' Manuel du Mu- 
seum Frangais ;' * Manuel R^volutionnaire, ou Pens^es 
Morales sur TEtat Politique des Peuples en Revolution ;' 
a poem, entitled * Recherches Historiques et Philosophiques 
sur TAmour et le Plaisir ;' and a translation o^ L^sesar^s 
• Commentaries.' He published some smaller works ; and 
some of his papers read at the Institute were published 
either in the * Mdmoires de Plnstitut,' or separately, by 
himself. His * Histoire de France * never appears to nave 
attained a high reputation, and has been superseded by 
later histories of the same period ; but the exactness of 
its military details gives it some value. The first edition 
was without date, in 2 vols. 8vo. ; the second edition (a.d. 
1801-1810) was published in 4 vols. 4to., or 7 vols. 8vo., 
with maps and plans of battles. The * Manuel du Museum ' 
is a catalogue ra2sonn6 of the paintings of the antient 
masters : it was published in ten thin volumes, 8vo., a.d. 
1802-8 : the first nine volumes have the initials of Tou- 
longeon on the titlc'pages ; the tenth volume is by another 
hand. The * Manuel Revolutionnaire ' (a.d. 1796) went 
through two editions, and was translated into German. 
The translation of Caesar was published after Toulon^eon's 
decease (a.d. 1813), in 2 vols. 18mo., with plans ana mili- 
tary notes on the text. A new edition, interpaged with 
the original text, was published a.d. 1826 : part of a col- 
lection (by M. A. Pommier) of the Latin classics, inter- 
paged with French versions. 

{Biographic Universelle; Biographie dee Contempo- 
rains ; Qu^rard, La France Littbraire,) 

TOULOUSE, a city in France, formerly capital of the 

Province of Languedoc, and now the chief town of the 
epartment of Haute Garonne, 363 miles in a direct line 
south by west of Paris, or 438 miles by the road through 
Orleans, Chdteauroux, Limoges, Cahors, and Montauban, 
in 43^ 35' N. lat. and 1* 26' E. long. 

The notices of this town in antient writers are more 
numerous than of most towns in Gaul, and relate to an 
earlier period : the name was written by the Greek writers 
Strabo and Rolemy ToKitoaa^ ToXS^a, and ToAo<r<ra ; and 
by the Latin authors and in inscriptions Tolosa and Tho- 
losa. By a similar variation to this last the name has 
been written in later times Toulouse and Thoulouse, but 
the h is now generally omitted. In the time of the Gauls 
this city, which belonged to the Volcae Tectosa^es, a 
Celtic nation, contained an enormous treasure in gold and 
silver which was seized by the Romans under Caepio, b.c. 
106. As the treasure had been deposited in consecrated 



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places, the seizure of it was regarded as sacrilege ; and 
the misfortunes which afterwards overtook the perpetrators 
occasioned * the gold of Toulouse ' C aurum Tholosanum ') 
to become a proverbial expression for treasure which 
brought ruin upon its owners. (Aulus Gellius, Nodes 
Atticae^ IIL ix.) Toulouse was afterwards subject to the 
Romans, the Visigoths, and the Franks, and in the middle 
ages had counts of its own, who were potentates of great 
importance in the south of France. [Lanoubdoc] The 
last historical event of importance connected with it was 
the battle fought, 10th April, 1814, between the allied 
army under the duke of Wellington, and the French under 
Marshal Soult. The English were victorious, and Soult 
was obliged to evacuate the town. 

Toulouse is situated on the right or east bank of the 
Garonne, which, flowing from the south, bends westward, 
forming a crescent, on tne concave side of which the town 
stands. As the Canal du Midi, or Canal de Languedoo, 
which unites the Garonne with the Mediterranean, opens 
into the river a short distance below the town, and has its 
course for some distance parallel to the river, the site of 
the town and iti suburbs is a peninsula, enclosed between 
the Garonne, close to the town, on the west, and the canal 
at a little distance on the north and east. On the south 
side, but at some distance, are the heights of Pech- 
David ; and on the east, bejrond the canal, and between it 
and the little river Lera (which flows parallel to the canal, 
and falls into the Garonne below it), are the heights of 
Mont Rave, on which the fiercest part of the battle of 
Toulouse, in 1814, took place. 

The town and the suburb of St. Cyprien, which is on 
the opposite bank of the river, are enclosed by walls, 
erected in the middle ages, and are united by a bridge 
of seven arches, the Pont Neuf, about 860 feet long, 
erected under Louis XIV., from the designs of Souffron, 
which crosses the river in the middle of the bend. The 
river is lined with handsome quays. The walls (which 
have nine gates) appear to have been, in 1814, tolerably 
entire, and * so thicK as to admit sixteen and twenty-four 
pound guns ' (Napier, Peninsular fVar) ; but later autho- 
rities describe them as gradually disappearing in the pro- 
gress of improvement. Beside St. Cyprien, there are seve- 
ral faubourgs or suburbs : Bazacle, on the north-west, close 
to the river ; Arnaud-Bemard, on the north ; Matabiaii, 
on the north-east ; St. Etienne and Guillem^rie, on the 
east ; and St. Michel, on the south : the faubourgs Arnaud- 
Bemard, Matabiau, and St. Etienne, extend to the Canal 
du Midi ; and Guill^m^rie lies beyond the canal, adjacent 
to St. Etienne. On the south-east side of the town, be- 
tween St. Etienne and St. Michel, is the Esplanade, a 
circular space surrounded by trees, planted so as to 
form four concentric circles, and having six avenues radi- 
ating from it, each with four rows of trees, forming three 
alleys. The streets of the town itself were, till of late 
years, narrow and crooked ; the squares irregular in form, 
the houses built of brick, and few of the edifices of a 
handsome appearance (Millin, Voyage dam les Dcparte- 
mens du Midi, a.d. 1811) ; but improvement has latterly 
been very rapid. The town is still however as it were in 
a state of transition : * its streets, commonly narrow and 
crooked, become still more irregular, as in takin&f care to 
give them a better direction, old houses are replaced by 
others arranged upon a new line ; so that, with some ex- 
ceptions, the streets present only houses, some protruding 
and some receding.' (Malte-Brun.) They are paved with 
round stones, very fatiguing for foot passengers. The old 
houses are generally covered with stucco. * The squares 
are still unfinished, out thev show what they will be when 
completed ' (Ibid.) : the Place Royale, Place St. George, 
and Place Angouldme are the handsomest. Ten or more 
fountains and a hundred * homes fontaines,' or fountains 
issuing from walls, serve to cleanse and refresh the streets. 
Many of these fountains owe their erection to M. Montbel, 
formerly mayor of the city, and afterwards one of the 
ministers who signed the unlucky * ordonnances' of Charles 
X.: especially he erected one of white marble in the 
Place itoyale, adorned with bas-reliefs of events in the 
Spanish campai^ of 1823. 

The principal public buildings are the cathedral, the 
capitol or Hotel de Ville, the ex-archiepiscopal palace, and 
the church of the Grands Augustins, now occupied as a 
museum. The nave and portal of the cathedral are more 
antient than the choir, and are described by Malte-Brun 



as belon^ng to * an old heavy Gothic church :' the choir, 
erected m the sixteenth century as part of a new edifice 
designed to replace the older one, but which has never 
been finished, b described by the same author as one of 
the most beautiful in France, In receiving the judg- 
ment of MaJte-Brun regard must be had to the difference 
of architectural taste in England and France. The 
choir is not in a line with the nave ; so that the whole 
structure has a veiy irregular figure, somewhat like this. 
^.--^ In the tower of the Cathedral is * tiie bell of 
/choirA Cardaillac,'weighinff 50,000 lbs. French. The 
(—1 — I town-hall or capitol is almost entirely a mo- 
I'f'^l dem building, erected on the site of a more 
antient one. It has a front of about 380 feet 
long by 128 high, and is of most imposing appearance. The 
court is shown in which the duke ol Montmorency is said to 
have been beheaded, a.d. 1632, and which must therefore 
be a remain of the older building. A gallery termed 
*GaJerie des Illustres,' is set apart for busts of those persons, 
natives of the city or connected with it, whom the town has 
thought worthy of the honour of a place. The ex- palace 
of the archbisnop, now occupied by the prefect oi the 
department, is the handsomest modern building after the 
capitol. The museum in the cloister and church of the 
Grands Augustins contains a number of antiquities, which 
have been collected in the department. Besides these 
edifices may be noticed the theatre ; the new court-houses 
for the Cour Royale and the tribunal de premidre instance ; 
the veterinary school ; the church of La Dorade, built on 
the site of an antient heathen temple, and that of St. 
Satumin, the interior of which is very impressive; the 
vast hospitals of the H6tel Dieu and St, Joseph-de-la- 
Grave ; the mill of Bazacle ; the abattoirs ; and the bridge 
and bas-relief at the junction of the Canal du Midi and 
the Canal de Brienne. This latter canal, which is very 
short, connects the Garonne at the mill of Bazacle, adjacent 
to the town wall, with the Canal du Midi. In the He de 
Tonnis, a small island in the Garonne opposite the town, 
and indeed forming part of it (for the island is covered 
with buildings), are the mins of the Castle of Narbonnais, 
the former residence of the counts of Toulouse. Toulouse 
has scarcely any remains of Roman buildings. There are a 
large public warden ; a botanic garden, rich especially in 
plants from the Pyrenees, and in exotics, where courses of 
instmction in botany are given j and a public walk, * Cours 
Dillon,* in the Faubourg St. Cyprien, on the bank of the 
Garonne. 

The population of the commune of Toulouse in 1826 
was 55,319 ; in 1831, 59,630 ; and in 1836, 77,372. There 
are bell-foundries and copper-mills, a very large manu- 
factory of sickles, files, and other hardwares, and a 
number of establishments for different branches of the 
iron-manufacture; printing-offices, oil-mills, brandy dis- 
tilleries, breweries, dye-houses, tan-yards, rope-walks, flour- 
mills; manufactories of wax, wax-candles, paper-hang- 
ings, oil-cloth, musical strings, morocco leather, cotton 
and woollen yarn, blankets, cotton counterpanes, printed 
cottons, hats, straw-hats, earthenware, porcelain; and a 
government snuft-manufactory. Trade is carried on with 
Spain, with the ports of Bordeaux and Marseille, and with 
the interior : the Spanish trade is the most important. 
The chief export is of wheat and flour, the produce of the 
surrounding country, which was eminent for its produc- 
tiveness in com as early as in the time of Caesar {Ve Bell. 
Gall., i. 10). Toulouse is celebrated also for its ducks' 
liver pies, of which a great number are sent to other parts 
of France. There are two great markets in the year for 
flowers and salt pork ; and eight fairs, including four of 
eight days each, and two of three days ; one of the eight- 
day fairs is an important fair for wool and woollen cloth. 

Toulouse is the chief town of the department ; it is the 
seat of a Cour Royale, whose jurisdiction comprehends the 
departments of Arridge, Haute Garonne, Tarn, and Tam 
et Garonne, and of an Acad^mie Universitaire, which has 
authority over the same departments ; it is the head-quar- 
ters of the tenth military division, comprehending the 
departments of Aude, Pyrenfies Orientales, Arri^ge, Haute 
Garonne, Hautes Pyrenees, Gers, and Tam et Garonne. 
It has an assize court, a chamber of commerce, a tribunal 
of commerce, a tribunal de premi^.re instance, or subordi- 
nate court of justice, a mint, and several fiscal govemment 
offices. There are a royal cannon foundry, an arsenal, and 
an artillery school. 



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The archbishopric of Toulouse orinnated as a bishopric 
in the third century ; St. Satuminus, uie first bishop, is said 
to have suffered martjrrdoxn a.d. 250 ; it did not attain to 
its metropolitan rank till the fourteenth century. It is 
now united with the archbishopric of Narbonne, to which 
its bishops were antientlv suffragans ; the style of the pre- 
late is archbishop of Toulouse and Narbonne. The diocese 
includes the department of Haute Garonne, and the arch- 
bishop's suffragans are the bishops of Montauban, Pamiers, 
and Carcassonne. 

Toulouse is distinguished by the attention of the towns- 
men to literature. It possesses a number of establishments 
for public instruction : its schools include 2000 students ; 
and there are several learned societies which distribute 

Jrizes. The most eminent of these is the Academic des 
eux Floraux, which distributes prizes for the best poems ; 
the prizes, which are golden flowers, are open to the com- 
petition of all France. This society originated in the 
middle ages, probably in or before the thirteenth century ; 
certainly not later than the fourteenth ; and appears to 
have been an association of trouv fires, or troubadours. The 
poetical contests held by the society, and known as the 
Jeux Florauij, are thought to have been revived from the 
neglect into which they had fallen by C16mence Isaure, a 
young lady of family, who devoted her property to form a 
perpetual endowment for these * games,' or annual poetical 
contests, which are still kept up. There is an antient 
statue of C16mence in the Galerie des lUustres, but the 
epoch at which she lived is not ascertained. There are 
an academy of inscriptions, sciences, and belles-lettres ; an 
academy of painting, sculpture, and architecture ; a royal 
college or high school, a seminary for the priesthood, a 
secondary school of medicine and surgery, a school of arts 
and trades, a drawing-school ; a royal nding, music, and 
singing school ; courses of instruction in geometry and 
practical mechanics ; on experimental philosophy, chemis- 
try, and midwifery, at the HOtel Dieu ; and societies of 
medicine, of the fine arts, and of agriculture. There are 
two public libraries, one of 30,000, the other of 24,000 
volumes : one of these (attached to the college) has the 
prayer-book (les Heures) of Charlemagne, written in 
golden letters on vellum, given by that prince to the Abbey 
of St. Semin, a.d. 778. There are (or were lately) eleven 
printing-offices, twenty-three booksellers* shops : two poli- 
tical journals, and nine devoted to literature and the 
sciences, are published. There are a botanic garden, a 
departmental nursery, and an observatory, where courses 
of instruction on astronomy are given. 

There are a society of maternal charity, a Protestant Bible 
Society, and a society for granting loans on security without 
interest ; two hospitals, an orphan asylum, and six maisons 
de secours, or houses for the relief of the destitute. 

fhe arrondissement of Toulouse has an area of 612 
square miles ; and comprehends 138 communes ; the popu- 
lation, in 1831, was 139,927; in 1836, 159,064. The 
arrondissement is divided into twelve cantons or districts, 
each under a justice of the peace. 

(Dictionnaire Geographique Universel ; Millin, Voy^ 
age dans les Departemens du Midi; Malte-Brun, Geogra- 
phie Um'verselle.) 

TOULOUSE, COUNTS OF. [Langubdoc] 

TOUP, JONATHAN, was bom at St. Ives in Cornwall, 
in December, 1713, and was partly educated at a grammar- 
school in that town. He was afterwards entered at Exeter 
College, Oxford, where he took his bachelor's degree, but 
his master of arts degree he took at Cambridge. Toup 
entered the church, and obtained successively the rectory 
of St. Martin's, Exeter, and a prebend's stall in Exeter 
cathedral. He died on the 19th of January, 1785, in his 
72nd year, and was buried in St. Martin's cnurch. 

Toup was an accurate scholar, and one of the best Eng- 
lish critics in the middle of last century. The work by 
which he is best known is his * Emendations of Suidas ;' the 
first volume of which was published in 1760, under the 
title of * Emendationes in Suidam, in quibus plurima loca 
veterum Grsecorum, Sophoclis et Aristophanis imprimis, cum 
cxpKcantur tum emendantur.' This was followed by two 
volumes more in 1764 and 1766, and by a fourth in 1775, 
under the title of* Appendiculum Notanim in Suidam.' This 
work gained for him the friendship of Bishop Warburton, 
to whose influence Toup was mainly indebted for his church 
preferment. In 1767 Toup published his * Epistola Critica 
ad virum celcberrimum Giuielmum episcopum Glocestri- 



ensem,' containing various corrections and explanations of 
many passages in the Greek authors. Toup was also a 
large contributor to the Oxford edition of Theocritus edited 
by Wharton, which was published in 1770. A note of his 
upon the fourteenth Idyl was cancelled by the vice-chan- 
cellor on the ground of its indecency, principally, it is said, 
at the wish of Dr. Lowth. Toup, however, was highly 
displeased at this, and published the objectionable note in 
1772 in his • Curse Posteriores, sive Appendicula Notarum 
atque emendationum in Theocritum, Oxonii nuperrime 
publicatum,' in which he attacks the taste and the learning 
of those who had it omitted. Toup's last work was an 
edition of Longinus, published at Oxford in 1778, and re- 

grinted in 1789, which is still one of the best editions we 
ave of this writer. 

(Nichols's Bowyer.) 

TOUR, MAURICE QUENTIN DE LA, an eminent 
French portrait painter, bom at St. Quentin in 1704. De 
la Tour was distinguished for his portraits in crayons, which 
he executed the size of life ; he painted very slowly and 
finished very highly, but gave his pictures the appearance 
of having been executed with great ease by adaing a few 
bold and effective touches to the already finished work. 
He painted many portraits, and was much m fashion in the 
time of Louis XV., with whom he was a favourite, and 
whose portrait he painted. The following are among his 
best pictures : — a large full-length of Madame de Pompa- 
dour ; the portrait of Louis, Dauphin of France ; one of 
Prince Charies, the Pretender ; and portraits of Restout, the 
king's painter, presented to the Academy of Arts of Paris 
in 1746, when De la Tour was elected a member of the 
Academy ; of R6n6 Fremin, the king's sculptor ; of J. B. S. 
Chardin, the painter ; of the Marfechal de Saxe, and others ; 
and his own portrait, which was engraved by G. F. Schntfdt 
in 1742. 

De la Tour was a man of very eccentric habits, and 
towards the end of his life he grew silly, and spoiled many 
of his works b^ painting out the beautiful accessories 
which he had originally introduced, upon the principle that 
in portrait ever^hing should be sacrificed to the nead — 
the portrait of Restout was one that suffered in this way ; 
he turned his brilliant silk vest into one of simple brown 
stuff. He died in 1788, aged 84. He gave 10,000 francs 
to the Academy of Paris to found an annual prize of 500 
francs for the best picture in perspective, aerial and linear 
eJternately ; he ^ave also an equal sum for the foundation 
of an annual pnze for the most useful discovery for the 
arts, to be awarded by the Academy of Amiens ; and he 
founded a gratuitous school of design in his native place, 
St. Quentin. 

(Watelet et Levesque, Dictionnaire des Arts, ^,; 
Biographie Universelle.) 

TOURACOS. [MusoPHAGiDJE, vol. xvi., p. 29.] 

TOURCOING, a town in the department of Nord, in 
France, about six miles north-east of Lille and 146 north- 
north-east of Paris. The town is well laid out and well 
built, and has a large and handsome square, called I^ 
Grande Place. There are two churches, those of St. 
Christophe and St. Jacques, and a town-hall and the 
remains of an antient castle. The town is supplied with 
water by Artesian wells. The population of the town, in 
1831, was 8094; of the whole commune, 17,973. The 
manufactures of the town are important and of early 
origin, having acquired some celebrity in the twelfth cen- 
tury: they comprehend cotton and woollen yam, swan- 
skin, camlet, table-linen, a variety of fabrics of wool and 
cotton, carpets, and soap. There are dye-houses, tan-yards, 
and brick-yards. There are two yearly fairs, one of which 
continues nine davs. There are a chamber of manufactures, 
a council of piTid'hommes, a college, and an hospital or 
almshouse for old women. 

{Dictionnaire Geographique Universel; Dupin, Forces 
Productives de la France.) 

TOURMALIN. Schorl. This mineral occurs crys- 
tallized. Primary form a rhomboid ; secondary forms, 
prisms with from three to twelve sides, terminatea by very 
irregular summits. Cleavage parallel to the faces of Uie 
primary form. Fracture uneven, conchoidal. Hardness : 
scratches glass easily. Electricity: according to Hauy 
the transparent varieties when heated become electric; 
the termination of the prism which presents tiie greater 
number of faces becoming positive, while tfie other end 
becomes negative. Colour white, Jj^own, blue, yellow, 



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green, red. and black. The blue variety is called indi- 
• colitCy and the red rubnllite. Lustre vitreous. Trans- 
parent, translucent, opaque. Specific gravity 3*069 to 
3 '070. Before the blow-pipe all the vaneties fuse readily 
with borax, producing at first slight effervescence. 

Tourmalin occurs most commonly in primary rocks, 
especially in granite, gneiss, and mica slate. Its localities 
are too numerous to be stated. We may however men- 
tion that the red variety, or nibellite, occurs in Sibena ; 
the blue, or indicolite, at Uto; the ^reen in Brazil; 
the black in Devonshire and many other places. Tlie 
composition of tourmalin is extremely various ; that of the 
red appears, from the analysis of Vauquelin, to be the sim- 
plest, consisting of, — 

Silica .... 42 
Alumina . . . .40 
Soda .... 10 
Oxide of manganese . 7 

99 

Some varieties contain also potash, lithia, lime, mag- 
nesia, oxide of iron, and boracic acid ; the propoilions of 
these constituents are extremely variable, and no one 
variety contains all the enumerated substances. The 
black tourmalin from Devonshire yields nearly 19 per 
cent, of oxide of iron, and that of Eibenstock nearly 24 
per cent, of the same oxide. 

TOURN. [Leet, p. 388.1 

TOURNAMENT, or TOURNEY, is from the French 
Tourfioi, formerly Tournoienient, for which the Latin 
writers of the middle ages use torneamentum^ tornamen- 
tum^ or turneimentumj and sometimes also tomay torne, 
tornatioy tomen'um, or tometa. The Bjrzantine annalists 
have transformed the word into ternementum (JTspvifuvrov). 
Among other etymologies which have been proposed one 
is» that tomeamentum is a corruption of an imaginary word 
Trojamentum, meaning the game of Troy (called by the 
Romans Troja or Indus Trojae), which Viigil describes 
(uEn. V. 545-602), as performed by the Trojan youth 
under the direction of -/Eneas, at the tomb of Anchises in 
Sicily, and which is also mentioned by Suetonius (Jul. 39 ; 
August, 43 ; Claud, 21) ; by Dion Cassius, or Xiphilinus 
(xlviii. 20 ; xlix. 43), and even by Claudian (vi. Cons. 
Honoriiy 622, &c.), as still practised in his day, the end of 
the fourth or beginning of the fifth century. There can 
be little doubt, however, that toumoiement means merely 
a turning or wheeling about, from the common French 
verb * toumer,' to turn. This will agree with other toums. 
We have in England the sheriff's turn or tourn. Other 
barbarous Latin words of the same connection are 
tornarey to turn about in fight, and also to call out 
or challenee to combat (in which last sense there is 
also the old French lui toumer (or tomer), par gage de 
bataille) ; tornearey torniarey tumeare (in French tour- 
noier)y torniamentarey and torneizarey to take part in a 
tournament ; torniator, a performer in a tournament, 
(Du Cange, Glossarium ad Scriptores Med. et Inf. 
Latinit.y vi. 1184-1192; Carpentier, Glossarium Novumy 
iii. 1033 : H. Spelman, Glossarium Archaiologicumy 
p. 541; Fr. Jumi Etymologicum Anglicanumy ad vv. 
Tourneying and Tournoy.) 

A tournament may be defined to have been a species o£ 
combat in which the parties engaged for the purpose of 
exercising and exhioiting their courage, prowess, and 
skill in arms, and not either out of enmity (as in ordinary 
warfare), or even (as in the modem duel) for the mere 
purpose of wiping off some dishonourable imputation (a 
purpose which was served rather by the antient ordeal, or 
wager of battle, than by the tournament). It is obvious, 
however, that although the primary and professed design 
of the tournament was nothing more than to furnish an 
exciting show, and to give valour and military talent an 
opportunity of acquiring distinction, other passions would 
be very apt to intermin^e in the heat of contest with the 
mere ambition of supenority, and sometimes even to dis- 
guise themselves under that pretext. The attempt to 
defeat and disarm an adversary, indeed, could hardly fail 
in some cases to involve the desire of injuring or even of 
destroying him. In this way a tournament would often 
become a hostile conflict. On the other hand, whenever, as 
also frequently happened, a combatant engaged in a tour- 
nament with the view of vindicating his courage from 
question or aapersion, it might be said to resemble the 
P. C, No. 1563. 



modem duel, at least if we adopt what is perhaps the 
most rational theory of tliat process, namely, that, on the 
principle of courage being the point of honour in a man, 
it is only intended to give a calumniated party an oppor- 
tunity of showing that he possesses enough of that 
essential quality to entitle him to exemption from 
reproach on any other account. 

The origin of the tournament, as we have seen, has been 
carried back at least to the Roman times. Virgil's 
description is, in some passages, not unlike what the 
name would lead us to suppose the tournament may 
have originally been ; but the resemblance of the Game 
of Troy is certainly better preserved in the evolutions 
of a modem review, in which the charge, and m816e, 
and retreat of cavalry are exhibited, than it was in 
what the tournament is known to have actually be- 
come. The tournament, like the other customs of 
chivalry, must be properly considered to have taken its 
rise after the establishment of the feudal system. Some 
writers attribute the invention of the tournament to the 
emperor Henry, surnamed the Fow^ler, who died in 936 ; 
and another common account, given on the authority of 
the Chronicle of Tours, and the Chronicle of St. Martin of 
Tours, is that its inventor was Greoffrey of Preuilly, an- 
cestor of the counts of Anjou, who died in 1066 ; but 
Du Cange, in his Dissertations * De TOrigine et de TUsage 
des Toumois,' at the end of his edition of Joinville, quotes 
various notices of tournaments held before the age of 
either of these personages : — among others one which took 
place at the celebrated interview between Louis of 
Crermany and Charles the Bald of France, at Strassburg in 
841, as mentioned by the contemporary chronicler Nit- 
hard. Geoffrey of Preuilly perhaps introduced the tourna- 
ment into Westem France. From the French it appears 
to have passed to the English and the Germans, anc^ in a 
later age, to the Italians and the Greeks. Tournaments 
are said to have been first practised by the English in the 
time of Stephen ; but they were forbidden by Henry IL, 
as they had already been by the church ; and it was not 
till the reign of Richard Coeur-de-Lion that they were 
properly established in this country. The flourishing sera 
of the tournament, here as well as in Fi-ance and else- 
where, was in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries ; but 
it continued in frequent use down to the middle of the 
sixteenth, and was not altogether abandoned till a con- 
siderably later date, although the few tournaments that 
were held in the latter part of that century were rather 
such mere shows or spectacles as have been sometimes 
exhibited under the same name even in our own day, than 
the real combats which were so called in an earlier age. 
The accident of Henry II. of France meeting his death at 
a tournament in 1559 almost at once occasioned the cessa- 
tion of the practice everywhere as well as in France ; 
but the spirit by which it was formerly kept up had long 
before this been decaying under the influence of the 
various circumstances which, at least from the middle of 
the preceding century, had been operating a general 
change in the social condition of Europe. Among the 
physical causes in question the chief may be considered 
to have been the introduction of fire-arms into war; 
among the moral, the extension of the commercial spirit, 
and the rise everywhere of a new hterature, together 
bringing with them other habits, other tastes, another 
civilization. The church, however, it may be observed, 
which had set its face very stoutly against tournaments 
from about the middle of the twelfth to the middle of the 
thirteenth century, prohibiting persons from engaging in 
them by some of its decrees on pain of excommunication, 
and denying Christian burial to such as lost their lives in 
these contests, had long been reconciled to them, and for 
some ages had rather cherished and encouraged the 
practice than otherwise. 

Tournaments were usually held on the invitation of 
some prince, which was proclaimed by his heralds through- 
out his own dominions, and at all the foreign courts or 
other places whence it was expected or desired that parties 
might come to take part in the martial competition. A 
detaQ of the forms and ceremonies that were observed in 
fixing the lists (or boundaries within which the fighting 
was to take place), in offering and accepting the challenges, 
in declaring the issue of each encounter, and in assigning 
and bestowing the prizes (which last office was often 
performed by female hands), cannot be attempted here. 

Vol. XXV.— N 



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All these particulars, together with the usual laws or 
regulations of the combat, and the mode of fighting (which 
was commonly with lances and swords, and m the first in- 
stance jdways on horseback, although parties who were dis- 
mounted frequently continued the contest on foot), may be 
most conveniently learned from the many accounts of tourna- 
ments in Froissart and other old chroniclers, or even from 
such fictitious narratives as the ♦Knight's Tale of Palamon 
and Arcite,' in Chaucer (or Dr}'den's paraphrase of it), or that 
of the tournament at Ashby, in Scott's • Ivanhoe.* Scott, 
in his •Essay on C\nya\ry^ (Miscellaneous Prose fVorks, 
vi. 60, &c.), remarks that it is a mistake to assume, as has 
been done by Cervantes among others, that the combatants 
at a tournament were always knights; the more dis- 
tinguished among the esquires, he shows, were frequently 
admitted to that honour. In another part of this * Essay ' 
(pp. 44, 45), Scott represents the dangers of the original 
tournament as having been subsequently * modified by the 
introduction of arms of courtesy, as they were termed; 
lances, namely, without heads, and with round braces of 
wood at the extremity, called rockets, and swords without 
points and with blunted edges.' According to Ducange, 
on the contrary {Dissertation des Armes d Outrance, des 
Joustes, de la Table Ronde^ des Behourds, et de la 
Quintaine, in his edition of Joinville), the arms of 
courtesy, armes courtoises (which he compares with the 
lusoria arma and lusoria tela mentioned by Seneca), 
were the weapons originally used, and were afterwards 
exchanged for those with sharpened edges and points, 
which were denominated armes d outrance, Outrer means 
properly to pierce an enemy with sword or lance ; and at a 
tournament, when one of the pai-ties was vanquished, 
either by being killed, or by surrendering and asking 
quarter, or by being thrown out of the lists, the contest 
was said to be outrS—' le gage de bataille 6toit outr€.' 

The distinction between a tournament and a joust, or 
just, is not very clear. Ducange makes the joust to be 
properly a single combat or duel, whereas in a tournament 
a considerable number of combatants were commonly 
engaged on each side. But this distinction is certainly 
not generally observed in the use of the two words ; and 
our English archaeologist, Spelman, who defines torniare, 
* gladiis concutere, justas facere^ hastitudium exercere,' 
does not appear to have been aware of it. The term 
jouste or joust has been derived, improbably enough, from 
the Latin * juxta,* near to, because, say the etymologists, 
the combatants here fought hand to hand. It is, no 
doubt, connected with the verb to justle, of jostle (in 
French, jouster), though possibly the original word 
may be best preserved in the Italian form giosira, 
which the Byzantine writers have imitated in their 
rZovQTpa and rZouarpia, There was also the species of 
single combat termed a pas d'armeSy or passage of arms : 
it was at a pas d'armes that Henry II. was killed. On this 
subject, besides the works quoted above, the reader may 
consult the * Traits des Tournois, Joustes, Carrousels, et 
autres spectacles publics* (par Claude Fi*an9ois Menes- 
trier), 4to., Lyon, 1669 ; ,and * MSmoires sur Tancienne 
Chevalerie, consid^r^e comme un Etablissement politique 
et militaire,' par J. B. de la Cume de St. Palaye, 3 torn. 
12mo., Paris, 1759-17S1. 

TOURNAY,orDORNICK, or DOORNIK, an import- 
ant town in the province of Hainault, in the kingdom of 
Belgium, 46 miles south-west of Brussels by Hal, Enghien, 
Ath, and Leuze. This town is mentioned by Jerome in 
the beginning of the fifth century; under the name of Toi- 
nacus, as being among the places which had been seized 
by the barbarians who overran Gaul. It was among the 
early acquisitions of the Franks ; and was the capital of 
the as yet infant empire of Clovis. It under^vent various 
changes in the middle a^es, and was besieged and taken 
(A.D. 1513) by the English under Henry VIII., who erected 
a castle here. Having reverted to the FVench, it was 
again taken (a.d. 1521) by the count of Nassau, one of the 
generals of the emperor Charles V., and ceded by the 
treaty of Madrid (a.d. 1525) to the emperor. During the 
religious troubles of the Netherlands, the Protestants com- 
mitted great disorders here (a.d. 1566); and the town, 
having joined in the revolt against Spain, was taken (a.d. 
1581) by the duke of Parma, and remained under the do- 
minion of Spain. It was taken by Louis XIV. (a.d. 1667) 
and ceded to France by the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (a.d. 
1668) : but having been again taken (a.d. 1709) by the 



allies under Marlborough and Eugene, it was at the peace 
of Utrecht (a.d. 1713) ceded with the rest of the Spanish 
Netherlands to Austria. It was taken (a.d. 1746) by the 
French under Louis XV., but restored at the peace of 
Aix-la-Chapelle, a.d. 1748. It was repeatedly taken (a.d. 
1792-4) in the early part of the war of the French revolu- 
tion ; and has changed masters with the rest of Belgium 
several times. 

This town is situated on the Schelde, which here flous 
north-west and divides the town into two parts, the old 
town on the left bank and the new town on the right : 
the old town occupies the site of the Tomacus of the 
antients: tiie new town is of later origin and is dis- 
tinguished from the old by the neatness and tolei-aWe 
straightness of its streets, by its well-built houses, and by 
its handsome quay planted with trees, which forms the 
most frequented promenade of the city. The cathedral in 
the old town is a large and fine Gothic building with 
seversd towers (one of our authorities says four, another 
five) surmounted with spires. The interior of the church 
is adorned with the richest carving and other omstmcnts. 
The tomb of the Prankish king Child^ric I. waa discovered 
nearly two centuries ago, in demolishing an old house, 
near the cathedral, seven feet below the surface of the 
ground : a number of coins and other antiquities were also 
found. The church of St. Martin, the Episcopal jpalacc, 
the town-hall, the bell-tower, and the hospital for old 
clergymen, are among the other principal edifices. Tlie 
town is fortified, and is entered by seven gates : it lias 
several suburbs. 

The population of Toumay is not adequate to the great 
extent of the town ; it amounted in 1835 to 29,000. The 
manufactures of the town are important, and comprehend 
cotton-yam, printed cottons, dimities and other cotton 
goods, carpets, hosiery, hnen, swanskin, paper, hats, 
leather, earthenware, porcelain, oil, liqueurs, especially 
Cura9oa, bronze, &c. There are dye-houses and lime- 
kilns, and (at least) four large flour-mills, built by Vauban : 
considerable trade is carried on. Tnere are a subordinate 
court of justice, and a commercial court, a chamber of 
commerce, an exchange, a theatre, and an Athenaeum ; an 
academy of drawing, sculpture, and architecture, in which 
instruction in outHne drawing is given ; an orphan-house, 
some schools of mutual instruction, five hospitals, and 
several churches. Limestone and sandstone are quarried in 
the neighbourhood. Toumay is the seat of a bishopric 
which dates from the latter part of the fifth century ; the 
bishop is asufPragan of the archbishop of Mechelen or 
Malines. (Malte-Bran, G(ograpkie ; Dictionnaire Gio- 

graphiqtte Universel.) 

TOURNEFORT, JOSEPH PITTON DE, a celebrated 
botanist, was bora June 5, 1656, of a noble family at Aix, 
in Provence, in the present department of Bouches du 
Rhdne. Having a great taste for observation, the study 
of nature soon disgusted him with scholastic philosophy 
and theology, in which he was employed, in order to 
please his relations, who wished him to enter holy orders. 
The death of his father, in 1677, enabled him to follow his 
own inclination ; and having exhausted the fields of his 
own country and the garden of an apothecary, he went to 
the Alps, in order more fully to satisfy his curiosity. At 
Montpellier, whither he had gone to study medicine, and 
where he was received by Magnol, and became the friend 
of Chirac, he found fresn stores of information ; and he 
collected still richer from the C^vennes, the I^rrenees, and 
from Catalonia, to which places his zeal earned him. In 
these excursions he was twice robbed by the Spanish 
miquelets (or foot soldiers), who left him nothing but 
his plants ; he was buried also for two hours under the 
roins of a hut where he was passing the night ; and thus 
he seemed to be inuring himself to the fatigues he was one 
day to undergo in longer travels. He was already pos- 
sessed of rich collections and numerous observations, when 
he repaired to Paris, where Faeon, chief physician to the 
queen, and curator of the Jardin du Roi, was the sole pa- 
tron of botanical studies. Fa^on knew how to appreciate 
both knowledge and merit ; his character, as well as his 
rank, placed him above jealousy ; and Touraefort found 
in him a disinterested protector. In 1683 he was appointed 
assistant professor with Fagon at the Jardin du Roi, whose 
numerous other occupations allowed him but little time for 
teaching. The way in which Touraefort fulfilled this 
office soon made him known, and attracted lh>m all parts 



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a crowd of students to his lectures and herborising excur- 
sions. In 1688 he was commissioned to travel through 
Spain and Portugal, and shortly after through Holland and 
Kna:]and, in order to enrich the Jardin du Roi wiih the 
plants of these countries. These travels made him ac- 
quainted with the most distinguished scientific men of the 
countries he visited « and gained him their friendship and 
esteem. Being made, in 1692, a member of the Acaa6mie 
des Sciences, he proved by his * El^mens de Botanique,' 
wliich was published shortly afterwards, how well he de- 
served that honour. The title of Doctor of Medicine was 
conferred upon him by the Faculty of Paris in 1698. He 
aarain left France in 1700, being sent by the king to the 
East to collect plants and make observations of aU kinds. 
In company with the German botanist Gundelsheimer, 
and the celebrated artist Aubriet, he spent two years in 
travelling through tlie islands of Greece, the borders of the 
Black Sea, Georgia and the environs of Mount Caucasus, 
Asia Minor, and Armenia. He was preparing to go to 
Egypt, when, hearing that the plague was ravaging that 
country, and that his patron Fagon was dangerously ill, 
he hastened back to his own countiy, to which he was 
called both by gratitude and friendship. Having resumed 
his duties at the Jardin du Roi, and being also appointed 

Erofessor to the Faculty, he spent the Tittle spare time 
e had in arranging his numerous collections and in draw- 
ing up different works, especially the account of his travels 
in the Levant. The fatigues of work and his travels had 
much weakened his originally robust constitution, and a 
violent blow which he received on the breast from the 
axletree of a carriage tended still more to impair it ; so 
that, after lingering some months, he ended his laborious 
life the 28th day of November, 1708. By his will he left 
to the king the valuable zoological mus«um which he had 
formed, and his library to the Abb^ Bignon. 

A judicious and lively mind, and a nalural gaiety of dis- 
position, rendered Toumefort equally fitted to succeed in 
scientific investigations and to form tne charm of his friends 
in society. His attachment to his own country made him 
refuse the solicitations of Paul Hermann, who wished to 
have him for his successor, and offered him, in the name 
of the states of Holland, the situation of professor of 
botany at Leyden, with a salary of 4000 francs (160^.). 

The system of Toumefort was an advance on those of 
Cesalpino, Morison, Hermann, Ray, and Rivinus, but has 
fiace been displaced by those of Jussieu, DeCandolle, and 
others. Authors had previously only employed them- 
selves in grouping plants into classes ; the much more 
important determination of the genera was still almost 
entirely wanting. It is this subdivision of the subject 
which Toumefort executed with such admirable acute- 
ness, and which distinguishes his labours from all that 
had preceded him ; and it is this, joined to a classifica- 
tion simple, easy, and almost always natural, which caused 
his method to be afterwards adopted by the botanists of all 
countries. 

Toumefort adopted the principle that genera should be 
constmcted on characters derived from both the fructifica- 
tion and organs of vegetation. In seeking for order he had 
the good sense not to pretend to an absolute regularity, 
which nature nowhere presents ; and felt (which has been 
too often forgotten in our day, and which has introduced into 
natural history so many useless genera, and so many parasiti- 
ca] denominations) that the generic characters niust admit of 
exceptions which are commanded by nature itself. Lin- 
naeus, when again reforming the science, adopted the greater 
part of the genera of Toumefort ; but having constmcted 
his genera on characters derived from the fructification 
alone, he was obliged to reject many of Toumefort 's ge- 
nera. The principle of Linnseus is now generally acted 
on by modern botanists. The plates which Toumefort 
has given characteristic of the genera are, even to the pre- 
Fent day, for the most part, the best means of understand- 
ing them : they are well executed, and upon a plan at 
that time quite new, and are a proof of his taste, as well as 
of his spirit of order and observation. 

Although he did not think that the consideration of 
the natural relations of plants (of which the first glimpses 
were to be met with in the works of Lobel and Mag- 
nol) could serve as the basis of an easy classification, still he 
generally observes the most marked of these relations, and 
the greater part of his classes form one or more large 
families. The separation of the woody from the herba- 



ceous plants, which nature frequently offers together in 
the same genus, and which was admitted by the botanists 
of Toumefort's time, is in his system a defect which an 
increased knowledge of the stmcture and functions of 
plants has long since caused botanists entirely to abandon 
m their systems of classification, however much advantage 
may be derived from it for practical purposes. 

Toumefort did not do for the species what he had 
so well accomplished for the genera; as he lett con* 
founded with them simple varieties, even those which 
are evidently only the result of cultivation. Neither did 
he think of giving them names more convenient than 
those which were then in use, and which were commonly 
vague, and often very long and complicated. These in- 
conveniences Linnseus got rid of; and at the same time he 
arranged the vegetable kingdom according to his cele- 
brated sexual system, in which plants were placed in 
classes and orders according to the number of their sta- 
mens and pistils. But the system of Toumefort was never 
abandoned in France, and the study of its principles re- 
sulted in the labours of Adanson, Jussieu, and De CandoUe, 
to whom we are so greatly indebted for the present posi- 
tion of systematic botan)[. 

The * institutiones Rei Herbariae * is distinguished for 
its cleamess and precision, and for a number of very just 
observations. The historical part of this work, which is 
the most considerable, displays much solid learning, 
which has been of great use to those who have since 
his time written on the history of botanical science. The 
different travels of Toumefort enriched botany with a great 
number of species, and even of genera. He brought oack 
from his. travels in the East more than thirteen hundred ' 

Slants, the greater part of which were in the Herbarium of 
Gundelsheimer, his companion; and have been since 
examined by Willdenow, who has mentioned them in 
his * Species Plantamm.* If the history of the plants in 
the environs of Paris, by Toumefort, divided into six 
herborizations, is of little importance as to the number of 
species described (which is only four hundred and twenty- 
seven), still it is a very valuable work in other respects. 
Bv the exactness of the synonymes, and by the skill with 
which the plants are referred to the nomenclature and to 
the plates of the antient botanists, whose errors Toume- 
fort corrects, this work furnishes an excellent model of 
criticism. There is also to be found in it a faithful de- 
scription of some rare plants, which are omitted in his 
other works. Haller however rather over-estimates its 
value, when he is inclined to regard it as the chief of 
Toumefort's writings (* praecipium fortft Toumefortfi 
opus'). One may judge of Toumefort's reputation, and 
of the value that was put upon whatever he wrote, from 
the fact of his lectures on Materia Medica havine been 
collected by his pupils, and translated and publifSied in 
English before they appeared in French, which was not 
till some years after his death. The account of Toume- 
forf s travels was for a long time the source of our most 
accurate information about the countries which he visited. 
The simplicity of the style does not lessen the interest of 
the narrative. To the observation of nature he joins every- 
where that of men, manners, and customs, and shows an 
extensive knowledge both of history and antiquity. 

Among the manuscripts left by Toumefort was a botanical 
topography of all the places which he had visited, and a 
large collection of critical and other observations, which 
has never been published, though it was entmsted to Itfi- 
n^ulme to arrange for that purpose. The genua of Ame- 
rican shmbs, to which Plumier, out of honour to his 
master's memory, gave the name of * Toumefortia,' derives 
its chief interest from this celebrated name. [Tourice- 

FORTIA.] 

There are few of the scientific men of Fi-ance whose 
reputation has extended more widely than Toume- 
fort's, and who have done more honour to their country. 
A judicious and methodical mind, an ingenious acuteness 
joined to extensive views, are his peculiar characte- 
ristics. If he had not the profound and original 
genius of Linnseus, nor such an extensive knowledge of 
nature, in botany at least Toumefort's name still continues, 
in spite of the revolutions of science, to be one of the very 
highest which can be placed by his side ; and he has in addi- 
tion the glory of having opened to him, by the creation 
of the genera, the extensive field which he afterwards 
trayersed, 

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The foUowinpr is a list of Toumeiort's principal works : — 
* Elfimens de Botanique, ou Methode pour connattre les 
Plantes/ Paris, 1694, 3 vols. 8vo., with 451 plates. Some 
imperfections in this work were pointed out by Ray, to 
whom Toumef6rt replied in a Latin work, entitled * De 
Optima Methodo Instituendst in Re Herbaria ad Sapientem 
Virum G. Sherardum Epistola, in qu5 respondetur Disser- 
tationi D. Raii de variis Plantarum Methodis,' Paris, 1697, 
8vo. In 1700 he published a Latin version of his * Elements 
of Botany,' with many additions, and a learned preface, con- 
taining the history of the science ; it was entitled * Institu- 
tiones Rei Herbariae, ed. altera, GallicS longfi auctior,* 
Paris, 3 vols. 4to., with 476 plates. After his expedition to 
the East he published * Corollarium Institutionum Rei Her- 
bariae, in quo Plantae 1356. . . . in Regionibus Orientalibus 

observatae, recensentur et ad sua Genera revocantur,' 

Paris, 1703, 4to., with 13 plates. This was afterwards 
added to Ant. de Jussieu's edition of the * Elements,* in 
1719, Lyons, 3 vols. 8vo. *Histoire des Plantes qui nais- 
sent aux Environs de Paris, avec leurs Usages dans la M6- 
decine,' Paris, 1698, 12mo. An improved edition of it was 
given by Bernard de Jussieu, in 2 vols. 12mo., 1725 ; and 
an English translation was published by Martyn, London, 
2 vols? 8vo. in 1732. * Relation d'un Voyage du Ldvant, 
fait par Ordre du Roi, contenant THistoire Ancienne et 
Moderne de plusieurs lies de VArchipel, les Plans des 
Villes et des I^eux les plus consid6rables, et enrichie de 
Descriptions et de Figures de Plantes, d'Animaux, et d'Ob- 
servations singuliSres touchant I'Histoire Naturelle.' The 
first volume of this work was printed at the Louvre before 
his death ; the second was completed from his manuscripts ; 
and both were published in 1717, 2 vols. 4to. There have 
been several French editions, and it has been translated into 
English, London, 1741, 3 vols. 8vo. * Trait6 de la Mati^re 
Medicale, ou THistoire et I'Usage des M^dicamens et leur 
Analyse Chimique, Ouvrage posthume de M. Tournefort, 
mis au jour par M. Besnier,* Paris, 1717, 2 vols. 12mo. 
This work, which was not published in French until after 
the death of the author, had been already translated and 
published in English, London, 1708 and 1716, 8vo. {Bio- 
graphie Mcdiccue.) 

TOURNEFO'RTIA, a ^enus of plants of the natural 
family of Boraginaces, so named by Linnaeus in honour of 
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, celebrated as the author of 
the * Institutiones Rei Herbariae,' which is the chief founda- 
tion of the method of arranging plants afterwards extended 
and formed into a system by Jussieu. He was author 
also of *- Travels in the Levant,' and of other works. The 
genus Toumefortia is characterized by having a salver- 
shaped or rotate corol, of which the throat is naked ; the 
stamens included within the tube of the corol. The stigma 
is peltate, and the fruit consists of a berry which contoins 
four l-seeded nuts. The species are about fifty in number, 
forming small shrubs or nerbs, diffused through the hot 
parts of the world, as the West Indies, South America, 
Indkm islands, and India. The flowers are small and in- 
conspicuous, and the plants, though easy of culture, are 
seldom worth it ; but T, loxensis, a native of Quito, at an 
elevation of 6000 feet, is a shrub which, like the Helio- 
ti*ope, has a very grateful scent. 

TOURNEMmE, LE PE^RE RENE' JOSEPH, Jesuit, 
occupies a subordinate but useful and honourable position 
in the literary history of France. He belonged to an 
antient family in Bretagne, and was bom at Rennes on the 
26th of April, 1661. 

In 1680, at the age of nineteen, he entered the Society of 
the Jesuits. His superiors thought that his peculiar talents 
Qualified him for a teacher, and his subsequent career showed 
the correctness of their opinion. For about twenty years he 
taught in different colleges of the Order, with eminent suc- 
cess, humanity, rhetoric, philosophy, and theology ; and 
while thus instructing others he was accumulating infor- 
mation in the bellesSettres, — ^physical, moral, and meta- 
physical science — theology, history, geo^phy,and numis- 
matics — ^that was to fit him for the employment of nearly 
twenty years of his matured intellect. 

During the period of his life which was spent in dis- 
charging the duties of a teacher, he was regarded by his 
brethren as possessed of an active and penetrating mind, a 
lively imagination, which sometimes overcame his judg- 
ment, and a fervid but not ascetic spirit of devotion. In 
the colleges he undertook voluntarily the superintendence 
of the religious studies and exercises of the pupils ; and he 



extended his watchfulness not only to the students in the 
colleges, but to those in the academies and seminaries in 
which the young nobility received the rudiments of their 
education under the direction of the Jesuits. 

In 1701 Tournemine was called to Paris to take the 
management of the * Journal de Trevoux,' a periodical 
publication, which, although at times disfigured by the 
narrow views and unamiable temper of sectarianism, has 
rendered services to literature that entitle it to a better 
i-eputation than the equivocal one in which it is held by 
the mass of readers who know it only from the sarcasms 
of Voltaire. Tournemine was the principal editor of 
this work for nineteen years, from 1701 to 1720. He con- 
tributed to the journal during this time a number of curi- 
ous dissertations and analyses which procured for it a high 
reputation throughout Europe. Superior to the partisan 
spirit of many of nis brethren, he was sufficiently impartial 
to combat the systems of Hardouin and Panel ; and free 
from bigotry, although sincerely religious, he praised highly 
the * Merope ' of Voltaire, and even when engaged in con- 
troverey with its great author, always treated him with 
respect. 

In 1720 he was freed from the laborious task of editor- 
ship, but still continued to contribute largely to the 
pages of the • Journal de Trevoux.* Indeed the variety 
of studies to which, as teacher and editor of a critical 
journal, he had found it necessary to turn his atten- 
tion, appears to have produced in him desultory habits 
of thought, and prevented the concentration of his powers 
upon any one topic so as to enable him to exhaust 
it. The Order, regretting that his time and talents should 
be thus wasted, appointed him librarian to the residence of 
professed Jesuits (maison de professe) at Paris, and after 
the death of Bonami (1725) employed him to continue the 
literary history of the Society from the period to which it 
had been brought down by Southwell. Tournemine en- 
tered with enthusiasm upon his new task. He called upon 
all the provinces to supply him with memoirs, and insti- 
tuted reseai'ches in the archives of the Society at Rome. 
The habits of thought however which he had contracted 
led him to undertime the work on a scale beyond what it 
was possible to accomplish, and unfitted him at the same 
time for persevering routine labour. The over-minute 
investigation of details, and the episodical inquiries into 
which he was continually seduced, diverted him from the 
completion of the work he had undertaken, and he failed 
to perform his engagements. 

Tournemine died at Paris on the 16th of May, 1739, in 
the seventy-ninth year of his age, regretted by all who 
knew him. He has left no work worthy of his talents and 
opportunities, yet he has not been without influence upon 
literature. As a teacher and journalist, and in the con- 
versation of private society, he prompted and encouraged 
many young writers. His knowledge was at the service of 
every one who asked it, and the information which he did 
not himself elaborate into any enduring work was yet of 
material service to others. He belonged to a class of minds 
which, although they leave little or no permanent trace ef 
their individuality, are indispensable to the creation of a 
national literature — ^those who go to form a literary public, 
animating and instructing writers by its sympathy and 
subordinate co-operation. 

A list of Toumemine*s writings is given in the forty- 
second volume of the ' M^moires de Niceron,' and in the 
Dictionary of Chauft)i6. They consist chiefly of his con- 
tributions to the * Journal de Trevoux.' He contributed 
the chronological tables to the edition of the Bible pub- 
lished by Duhamel in 1706. He published in 1719 an 
edition of Menochius's * Scriptural Commentaries,' to which 
he appended a system of cmronology and twelve disserta- 
tions on different points of the chronology of the Bible. 
In 1726 he published an edition of Prideaux's • History of 
the Jews,' and added to it a dissertation on the books of 
Scripture not recognised as canonical by Protestants, and 
some remarks upon the ruins of Nineveh and the destnic- 
tion of the Assyrian empire. Toumemine's ' Reflexions 
sur TAthdisme were printed as an introduction to two 
editions of F6n61on's * Traits sur I'Existence de Dieu ;' and 
in reply to Voltaire, who had invited him to clear up his 
doubts, he published in the * Journal de Trevoux' (October, 
1735) a letter on the immateriality of the soul, \^uch does 
not appear to have convinced the philosopher. Sketches 
of the life of Tournemine are contained in the * Journal de 



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Trevoux' for September, 1739 ; and in Belin^n*s * Obser- 
vations sur les Ecrivaina Modernes,' vol. xviii. There is 
also a well-executed memoir of him by M. Weiss in the 
' Biogi-aphie Universelle.* 

TOURNEUR, PIERRE LE, was bom at Valognes in 
1736 ; he studied in the college Des Grassins at Coutances, 
where he distinguished himself; and appears to have re- 
paired to Paris about the year 1767 or 1768, with a view to 
earn his subsistence by literary labour. His history from 
that time till his death, in 1788, is little more than an ac- 
count of liis publications and the reception they met 
with. 

He published in 1768 a thin octavo containing a few 
prize essays which had been crowned by the academies 
of Montauban and Besan9on in the years 1766 and 1767 ; 
and an * Eloge de Charles V., Roi de France,' which had 
been unsuccessful in the competition of the French Aca- 
demy in the letter vear. This seems to have been his only 
attempt at original publication, with the exception of a 
number of prefaces and some verses in two little volumes, 
entitled * Jardins Anglais, ou Vari6t6s tant originales que 
traduites,' which appeared in 1788. His original com- 
position betrays an entirely common-place mind. 

In 1769 Le Toumeur published a collection of tales trans- 
lated from the English, of no importance in itself, and 
which attracted little or no attention. Towards the close 
of the same year, or in the beginning of 1770, he brought 
out a translation of * Young's Night Thoughts * and miscel- 
laneous poems, which was more successful. He has taken 
great liberties with the * Night Thoughts,' omitting several 
passages, and altering the whole arrangement of the poem, 
with* a view to render it less startling to French taste. 
Grimm sneered at the work, but Diderot and Laharpe de- 
clared themselves warmly in its favour. * The first edition,' 
says the former, * has been exhausted in a few months, and 
they are preparing a second. It has been read by our 
petits-mattres and petits-mattresses, and it is no slight 
merit to persuade a gay and frivolous people to read Je- 
remiads.' He saj's m the same letter, * This translation, 
full of harmony and varied expression, one of the most dif- 
ficult to execute in any language, is one of the best that 
has been executed in ours.' The success of the translation 
of the * Night Thoughts ' appears to have decided Le Tour- 
neur to confine himself in future to that kind of employ- 
ment. 

His first undertaking was a complete and accurate trans- 
lation of the dramatic works of Shakspere. In this enter- 
prise he was associated at first with the Comte de Catuelan 
and Fontaine Malherbe, both of whose names are sub- 
scribed along with his in the dedication to the king, pre- 
fixed to the first volume. But his associates deserted 
him after the publication of the second volume, and the re- 
maining eighteen were the unaided work of Le Toumeur. 
The first volume appeared in 1776 ; the last in 1782. It 
is difiicult for an Englishman to do justice to the merits of 
a translation of Shakspere into any foreign language. 
He feels the unavoidable defects too strongly. Thus much 
however may be said of Le Tourneur's, that it honestly 
aims at giving Shakspere as he is. The translator has 
evidently benefited by his knowledge of the German 
translation by Eschenburg (Ziirich, l';75-87), and has pre- 
fixed the remarks of that critic to several of the plays. 
The version is in prose, and by a prosaical mind, yet 
enough of Shakspere remains to impress minds which 
know him through no other medium with some sense of his 
greatness. It is still the best French translation of Shak- 
spere, and as such has been revised and republished by M. 
Guizot in 1824. Some expressions in the prefatory dis- 
course excited the anger of Voltaire, who thought he saw 
in it an attempt to decry the merits of the great French 
dramatists. Tne controversy to which Voltaire's denunci- 
ations gave rise was of advantage to the work by creating 
a public interest in it. Le Toumeur seems to have taken 
no part in the discussion : in an advertisement prefixed to 
the ninth volume he quietly observes, *This work has 
triumphed over the absurd hostility declared against it at 
its first appearance, and the extraordinary wrath of a great 
poet, the most ardent panegyrist of Shakspere so long 
as he was unknown, his unaccountable enemy since he has 
been translated.' C)f the original subscribers to the quarto 
edition a large proportion were English : the sale however 
increased as the work advanced ; a quarto and an octavo 
edition were published simultaneously : and Le Toumeur, 



who seems to have become publisher as well as author, ad 
ventured on the speculation of publishing in numbei-s, by 
subscription, pictorial illustrations of Shakspere. 

The translation of Shakspere was far from being the 
only employment of its author, during the time he was 
engaged unon it. In 1770 he published a translation of 
Hervey's * Meditations among the Tombs ;' in 1771, a trans- 
lation of Johnson's * Life of Savage,' together with an 
abridgment of the same author's * Life of Thomson ;' in 
1777 he published a translation of Macpherson's * Ossian ;' 
in the same year a translation of Soame Jen)ms's ' View 
of the Evidences of Christianity :' in 1784-7, a translation 
of • Clarissa Hai-lowe ;' in 1788, a translation of * Interest- 
ing Memoirs of a Lady ;' and his translation of Pennant's 

* Description of the Arctic Regions ' appeared the year 
after his death. He also revised the translation of the 

* Universal History ' begun by Psalmanazar, which some 
young authors had undertaken at his suggestion. 

These ai-e his most important publications. They de- 
serve a place in the history of letters, inasmuch as they 
contributed to nourish that taste for English literature 
which was then growing in France, and which has contributed 
so much to modify not only the taste, but the character of 
the nation. Diderot, the first to recognise the merits of Le 
Toumeur as a translator, was the first eminent author of 
France who really felt the merits of English imaginative 
writing ; his sanction encouraged others to feel, or affect 
to feel, its beauties. Le Toumeur had the principal share 
in enabling merely French readers to judge in some mea- 
sure for themselves. The literary taste of France has not 
become assimilated to England since the time of Diderot 
and Le Toumeur, but it has been since their publications 
entirely revolutionised. Gothe, in his • Dichtung und 
Wahrheit,' and in his * Rameau's Neffe,' has explained the 
influence which Diderot exercised over the modem litera- 
ture of Germany, both by his own writings and by directing 
attention to English authors. It was in part through the 
medium of French literature that the English literature 
was made to exercise so strong an influence over that of 
Germllny. The part which Le Toumeur played in this 
intellectual revolution was an humble but still an im- 
portant one. 

It has been intimated above that Le Toumeur in trans- 
lating Shakspere was indebted to Eschenburg, and this of 
itself would imply that he was acquainted with the Ger- 
man as well as with the English language. He published 
some translations from the former : in 1787 one of Spar- 
mann's * Journey to the Cape of Good Hope ;' in 1788, one 
of the * Memoirs of Baron Trenck.' In 1785 he trans- 
lated and published a selection from the Elegies of 
Ariosto. 

The persevering industry displayed in this brief recapi- 
tulation of what was accomplished by Le Toumeur in tne 
space of eighteen years, would lead to the inference that he 
must have secured an independence by his labours. In 
addition to this source of income, he held for a number of 
years the appointment of private secretary to Monsieur, 
afterwards Louis XVIII. ; and for a short time before his 
death that of censeur-royal. He died on the 24th of 
January, 1788. An anonymous biography is prefixed to 
his * Jardins Anglais ;' and M. Weiss has contributed a cor- 
rect outline of" its leading incidents to the Biographic 
Universelle. Le Toumeur had not the slightest pretension 
to the character of a man of genius, but he was a respect- 
able and useful labourer in the field of letters. 

TOURNIQUET is a peculiar kind of bandage applied 
to a limb for the purpose of arresting the current of blood 
through its main artery. It is employed for this purpose 
in several cases, but especially in amputations of parts of 
the limbs, where large arteries have to be suddenly cut 
across. Before the invention of the tourniquet surgeons 
used to constrict the limb with a simple tight bandage ; 
but, although this plan may well be resorted to in an emer- 
gency, it not only produces excessive pain, but by obstmct- 
ing the current through the veins more than that through 
the arteries, produces an extreme engorgement of the 
limb, and in amputation permits severe hemorrhage. A 
slight improvement in this plan was that of twisting pieces 
of wood under the band, and so gradually tightening it ; 
but the first instmment formed on the principles of the 
tourniquet was invented by Jean Louis Petit in 1718. 
Since that time various changes have been introduced, but 
at present the construction of all tourniquets is nearly 



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similar. They consist of a very tough band, about an 
inch and a half wide, upon which tnere is a moveable 
leather pad, to be placed immediately over the artery on 
which It is desirable that the chief pressure should be 
applied. For this purpose also the surface of the pad 
must be directed towards the bone of the limb, that the 
artery may be pressed firmly against it. The rest of the 
band is passed round the limb and is fastened by a buckle. 
It is tightened and loosened by means of a bridge of 
brass, which is capable of being elevated or let down by a 
screw passing through it, and at the ends of which there 
are two small rollers, around each of which the band is 
made to take a half turn. In use, the bridge and screw 
are placed on the opposite side of the limb to the pad. 

The tourniquet is now not so generally used as formerly. 
Many surgeons prefer to have the artery compressed 
during an amputation by an assistant ; because the tourni- 
quet is not tree from the objection of compressing the 
veins as well as the artery, and is liable to accidents which 
cannot be instantly repaired. An instrument has also 
been recently invented by Signor Signoroni, a surgeon at 
Milan, which seems likely to supersede the tourniquet 
altogether. It is composed of two arches of steel, con- 
nected by a hinge at one end, and each bearing at the 
other end a pad. By an Archimedes screw ingeniously 
placed at the hinge, the pads can be approximated and 
separated like the ends of the blades of a pair of callipers, 
and can be immoveably fixed in any position. In use one 
pad is put over the artery, and the other on the opposite 
part of the limb, and the screw is worked till, in theu* ten- 
dency to approximate, the pads have sufficiently compressed 
the artery, upon which alone the pressure is thus made 
to fall. 

As already said, in an emergency, such as that of a 
wound of any of the large arteries of a limb, when medical 
aid is not near, the old-fashioned tourniquet should be in- 
stantly applied. A piece of strong tape or cord should 
be tied in a double knot round the limb above the wound ; 
a piece of wood, or anything firm, should be then passed 
under it, and twisted, just as packei-s tighten thcT cords 
round bales and boxes, till the flow of blood has ceased. 
For hemorrhage from large veins or small arteries this 
tourniquet should not be employed, but simple pressure 
with the finger or the hand. 

TOURNON, a town in the department of Ard^che in 
France, on the ri^ht bank of the iihone, 339 miles south- 
south-east of Pans by Lvon, Vienne, and Tain, which last 
town is on the left bank of the Rhone, immediately op- 
posite Tournon, with which it communicates by a sus- 
pension-bridge of iron bars, the first erected in I' ranee on 
a large scale. The town consists of ordinary houses ; the 
college is the only public building of any pretensions ; 
but there is a handsome cjuay along the Rhdne. On a 
rack adjacent to the town is an old castle of the dukes of 
Soubise ; and at a little distance north of the town is a 
handsome bridge of one arcn over the Doux, which joins 
the Rhdne just above Tournon. The population in 1831 
was 3150 for the town, or 3971 for the whole commune. 
The townsmen manufacture leather and silk, and trade in 
the woollen cloths manufactured in the neighbourhood, in 
wine, timber, and chesnuts. There are one or two govern- 
ment offices, a college or high school, which in the time 
of Napoleon was in high repute for its excellent manage- 
ment, and an agricultural society. There are eight fairs 
in the year. The arrondissement of Tounion compre- 
hends 124 communes, and had, in 1831, a population of 
129,560. 

(Vaysse de Villiers, ItinSraire Descriptif de la France ; 
Malte-Brun, Gdographie ; Dictionnaire Oiographique 
UniverseL) 

TOURNUS. [SAdNE ET Loire.] 

TOURRETTE, MARO-ANTOINE-LOUIS CLARET 
DE LA, naturalist, was bom at Lyon in Augiist, 1729, 
where his father was commandant of the city, Pr6v6t des 
Marchands, and Prdsident i la Cour des Monnaies. He 
commenced his elementary studies at a college of Jesuits 
in Lyon, and was afterwards sent to the College de Har- 
court at Palis. He was early admitted a member of the 
Academy of Sciences at Lyon, and during the last twenty- 
five years of his life acted as secretary to that body. On 
returning to his native city he was appointed a Conseiller 
& la Cour des Monnaies, but he pursued the study of the 
helleB-lettres with great assiduity. Dissatisfied however 



with the tendency of these studies, he engaged in that ot 
natural history. He commenced with zoology and mine- 
ralogy, and soon formed a large collection of insects and 
minerals. The establishment of a school of veterinary 
medicine, by Bourgelat, at Lyon, directed his attention to 
botany. In cor\junction with the Abb6 Rozier, he was 
appointed to superintend the formation of a botanical gar- 
den, and the giving instruction to the pupils in botany. 
The result of these exertions was the publication, in 1766, 
of an elementary work on botany, entitled ' Demonstra- 
tions 616mentaircs de Botanique,* 8vo. This work, at first 
in two volumes, contained a general introduction to a 
knowledge of the structure of plants and their arrange- 
ment, with descriptions of the most useful and curious. In 
the first edition the introductory matter was entirely done 
by Tourrette, the description of the plants by Rozier. In 
a second edition nearly tne whole was rewritten by Tour- 
rette. This work has since gone through other editions. 
The fourth consists of four volumes of letteV-press in 8vo., 
and two volumes of engravings in 4to., containing notices 
of the lives of both Tourrette and Rozier. 

In 1770 Tourrette published a voyage to Mount Pilat, 
giving a geographical account of the district, and a list of 
the plants whicn he discovered there. In 1795 he pub- 
lished the * Chloris Lugdunensis ' (Svo.), in which he de- 
scribed the plants of the neighbourhood of Lyon, and paid 
especial attention to those belonging to the class Cry pto- 
gamia. He published numerous papers on various de- 
partments of natural history, in the Transactions of Societies 
and Journals. Those most worthy of mention were on the 
origin of Belemnites, on vegetable monstrosities, and on 
the Helminthocorton, or Corsican moss. 

He made numerous excursions for the purpose of col- 
lecting plants in various parts of France and Italy. In 
some of these herborisings he was accompanied by Jean 
Jacques Rousseau, with whom he was intimate ; and in the 
published correspondence of that philosopher aie several 
letters written to Tourrette. He took great pains in in- 
troducing foreign trees and shrubs, which he cultivated in 
his father's park near Lyon, and at his own residence in 
the city he had a garden containing 3000 species of plants. 
He was a correspondent of most of the great botanists of 
his day, as Linnaeus, Adanson, Jussieu, and others. During 
the sie^e of Lyon he was exposed to fatigjue, anxiety, and 
hardship, which brought on an attack of inflammation of 
the lungs that terminated his existence in 1793. 

Tourrette, like most of the botanists who adopted the 
system of Linnseus, mistook its object, and made it to 
assume a position and importance of which it was utterly 
unworthy. The consequence was that in his ' Demonstra- 
tions ' and other works ne sought more anxiously to add to 
our knowledge of existing species than .to elucidate the 
structure and functions of the vegetable kingdom. 

(Notice mr la Vie de M. Tourrette, in the fourth edition 
of the Dimonstrations El^mentaires de Botanique,) 

TOURS, an important city in France, capital of the 
department of Indre et Loire, situated on the south bank 
of the Loire, 124 miles in a direct line S.W. of Paris ; 
140 miles by the road through Verswlles, Chartres, Chii- 
teaudun, and Vendome ; or 142 miles by the road through 
Origans and Blois: in 47** 24' N. lat. and 0° 40' E. 
long. 

Tours was known to the Romans by the name of Csesar- 
odunum ; and towards the close of the Roman dominion 
assumed, like many other towns, the name of the people 
(Turones or Turoni, a Celtic nation) whose capital it was. 
It was included in the kingdom of the Visigoths, irom 
whom it was taken (a.d. 507) by Clovis, king of the Franks. 
In the feudal period it came, about the middle of the tenth 
century, into the hands of Thibaud le Tricheur, count of 
Blois, one of whose successors in the following centui^ 
ceded it to Geofiroi Martel, count of Anjou, from whom it 
passed by inheritance to the Anglo-Norman king Heniy 
il. It was wrested from his son John by Philippe Auguste, 
and finally ceded to France (a.d. 1259) by Henry III., son 
of John. Louis XI. had a favourite residence at Plessis 
ies Tours, in the immediate vicinity of the city, where he 
died A.D. 1483. The remains of his palace are occupied as 
a farm-house : the chamber in whicn he died, and that in 
which Cardinal La Balue was confined by lus order, are 
still pointed out. 

The town stands on a fiat tongue of land between the 
Loire on the north, along the bank of which the town ex 



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tends, and the Cher on the south, which flows a short 
distance from the town ; an arm of the Cher passes into 
tlie Loire just below Tours, but the main stream does not 
join the Loire till several miles lower down. East of the 
town is a canal from the Cher to the Loire, and a port for 
river craft. Opposite Tours, on the north bank of the 
Loire, is the suburb of St. Symphorien, which is united 
with Tours by a modem bridge of fifteen elliptical arches 
of eighty feet span : the whole length of the bridge, which 
is horizontal, and, before the erection of Waterloo Bridge, 
London, was considered the finest in Europe, is about 
1420 feet ; the breadth is between 44 and 45 feet. The 
avenue by which the road from Paris by Chartres 
approaches the bridge, the bridge itself, a new street 
opened through the heart of the city, and lined with hand- 
some houses uniformly built of white freestone and roofed 
with slate, and the avenue by which the Bordeaux road 
leaves the town, are in one line, forming the principal 
thoroughfare, and give to the traveller a high idea of the 
beauty of the city. The handsome places or squares at 
each end of the bridge, and the quays which skirt the 
river on the town aide, above and below bridge, confirm 
the impression ; but the back streets are narrow, crooked, 
and lined with poor houses, and present a striking contrast 
to the beauty of the principal thoroughfare, which divides 
the town into two parts. The cathedral of St. Gratien is 
in the eastern part of the city, and is a fine Gothic build- 
ing, remarkable for the two towers, more than 260 feet 
high, crowned with • domes,' which adorn the front, and 
for its well-preserved stained-glass windows. It contains the 
tombs of Cnarles YIIL and of his wife Anne of Bretagne. 
The archbishop's palace, near the cathedral, the ofiice of 
the prefect, the town-hall, the college, and the museum 
are nandsome buildings ; and there ai*e several pub- 
lic buildings of less striking appearance, including six 
other churches. Two towers jret remain of the autient 
church of the abbey of St. Martin in the western part of 
the city : Alcuin was abbot of St. Martin's in the last part of 
the eighth century. In the eastern part, on the quay, is an 
antient castle, formeiiv used as a state prison, and now or 
lately as a barrack, llie foundations of this castle are Ro- 
man. The town is walled on all sides except towards the 
river, and has several suburbs. There are some agreeable 
promenades and several fountains in the town ; and near it 
are two bridges over the Cher, one of seventeen arches 
and one of eight arches. 

The population of the commune of Tours was, in 1826, 
20,d20; in 1831, 23,295; and in 1836, 26,669. The silk 
manufacture established here by the care of Louis XL, 
and which long flourished, is still maintained, though 
Tours is now outstripped as a manufacturing town by 
others in the south of France : there are some considerable 
silk-mills, and silk stufls (known as Gros de Tours) and 
ribands to a considerable sunount are made : silk trimmings 
and silk stockings are also made; to which articles of 
manufacture may be added woollen stufls, carpets, cotton- 
hose, pottery^ earthenware, porcelain, red lead, small shot, 
wax candles, musical strings, starch, leather, &c. There 
are some djre-houses, and an establishment for washing 
wool. Considerable trade is carried on in hemp, wine, 
dried fruits, wax, and raw silk. There are two important 
lairs of ten days each. A number of English are settled 
at Tours : in 1826 they were computed to amount to 
1600. 

There are several government offices for fiscal, adminis- 
trative, or judicial purposes. Hie bishopric dates from 
the earliest period of tne establishment of Christianity in 
G«ul : St. Grratien was the fiist bishop ; and among his 
successors were St. Martin, an eminent Father of the fourth 
century, and St. Gregory, a Father of the sixth century, 
known as Gregory of Tours, the father of the French 
historians. It was raised to the rank of an archbishopric 
in the ninth century. The diocese now comprehends the 
department of Indre et Loire ; and the archbishop has for 
his suifragans the bishops of Angers, St. Brieuc, Le Mans, 
Nantes, Quimper, Rennes, and Yannes. 

The arrondissement of Tours has an area of 1033 square 
miles, and comprehends 127 communes : the population in 
1831 was 146,570, in 1836 it was 151,119: it is subdivided 
into 11 cantons or districts, each under a justice of the 
peace. 

Touraine, the country of the antient Ttirones, constituted 
one of the military governments of Rrance before the Revo- 



lution, and was celebrated for its richness and fertihty. 
It nearly coincides with the present department of Indre 
et Ix)ire. [Indre et Loire.] 

(Vaysse de Villiers^ Itiniraire Descript^ de la France ; 
Malte-Brun, G^ographie Universelle ; Dictionnaire Geo- 
graphique UniverseL) 

TOUSSAINT LOUVERTURE, one of the most extra- 
ordinary men known to have been bom of the negro race. 
It is impossible, amid the highly coloured pictures of him 
which both the love and hatred of partisanship have pro- 
duced, to form a fair estimate of his character. We must 
therefore content ourselves with recapitulating the leading 
events of his life as correctly as they can be collected from 
the white-lies of the friends of the negroes, and the some- 
what darker-tinged falsehoods of some French repub- 
licans. 

Toussaint Louverture was bom at Breda, a property 
which then belonged to the Count de No€, near Cape 
Town in St. Domingo, in 1743. His father and mother 
were both African slaves. During the prosperity of Tous- 
saint, a genealogy was compiled, it is insinuated with his 
privity, which made hS father the younger son of an 
African king. This may be true or not ; it is of little con- 
sequence. 

The first employment of Toussaint-Breda(so called from 
the place of his birth) was to take care of the cattle on the 
estate. He received the elements of education from 
a negro of the name of Pierre-Baptiste. As soon as he 
could read and write his name, he was promoted by M. 
Bayon de Libertat, manager of the estate, to be his coach- 
man. He gained the confidence of his master, and was 
appointed to exercise a kind of superintendence over the 
other negroes. In this position the Kevolution found him. 
He took no part in the first insurrections, and is said to 
have expressed himself violently against the perpetrators 
of the massacres of 1791. 

The negroes not unnaturally made attachment to 
the royal cause the pretext for rising in arms against 
masters who, with equality and the rights of men in their 
mouths, still sought to keep them slaves. Toussaint, from 
1791 and till the appearance of the proclamation of 4th 
February, 1794, which declared all slaves free, was alike 
conspicuous for his zeal in the cause of the Catholic 
religion and of royalty. He held at first the title of 
* M6decin des Armies du Roi,' in the bands of Jean Fran- 
cais, but soon exchanged it for a military appointment. 
Though placed under arrest by the chief just named, and 
deliverea by the other negro leader, Biassou, the ferocity 
of the latter determined Toussaint to ally himself most 
closely with Jean Fran^ais. He became his aide-de-camp. 
At this time Toussaint was hi^h in the confidence of the 
Spanish president, Don Joachim Garcia, and apparently 
entirely guided by his confessor, the cure of Laxabon. 
When the negroes rejected the first overtures of the 
FVench commissioners, Toussaint assigned as his reason, 
that they had always been governed by a king; could only 
be governed by a king; and having lost the king of 
France, had betaken themselves to the protection of the 
king of Spain. 

Tne proclamation of the 4th of February, 1794, emanci- 
pating the slaves, worked a change in his sentiments. He 
opened a communication with General Laveaux; and 
receiving the assurance that he would be recognised as a 
general of brigade, occupied the Spanish posts in his 
neighbourhood, and repaired to the camp of the French 
general. His defection was followed by the surrender of 
Marmalade and other strong places, and threw confusion 
into the Spanish ranks. An exclamation of Laveaux on 
learning the consequences of Toussaint's joining his stan- 
dard (* Comment, mais cet homme fait ouverture partout') 
is said to have been the origin of the name Toussaint sub- 
sequently adopted. Laveaux, left by the departure of the 
commissioners governor of the colony, treated him at 
first with coldness and distrust ; and Toussaint, now past 
his fiftieth year, reduced to inaction and jealously watched, 
had reached to all appearance the close of his political 
career. 

In 1795, in consequence of a conspiracy of three of the 
Mulatto generals, Laveaux was arrested at Cape Town. 
Toussaint Louverture assembled his negroes ; soon found 
himself, by the support of the partisans of France, at the 
head of ten thousand men ; marched upon the capital, and 
released the governor. Laveaux, in the enthusiasm of his 



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gratitude, proclaimed his deliverer the protector of the 
whites and the avenger of the constituted authorities. * He 
is,* runs the governor's proclamation, * the black Spartacus, 
who, Raynal predicted, would arise to avenge his race.' 
Toussaint Louverture was created a general of division, 
and became in fact the supreme arbiter of the fortunes of 
the colony. When the peace between France and Spain 
WQS concluded, Jean Fran^ais repaired to Madrid, leaving 
Toussaint the only powerful negro leader in St. Domingo. 
He reduced the whole of the northern part of the island 
to the dominion of France, with the exception of the Mole 
of St. Nicholas, of which the English retained possession. 
He was the iirst who succeeded in establishing discipline 
among the armed negroes. 

The aiTival of the commissioners sent by the Directory 
to proclaim the constitution of the year 3, confirmed 
the credit of Tousssdnt. In April, 1796, Sonthonax ap- 
pointed him commander-in-chief of the armies of St. Do- 
mingo. In the month of August Toussaint proceeded to the 
Cape at the head of a large body of cavaJiy on a visit to 
Sonthonax. The day after his aiTival he proposed, at a 
meeting of the civil and military^hiefe, that the commis- 
sionei's should be sent back to France. Raymond, a Mulatto, 
was the only commissioner allowed to remain. The civil 
administration of the colony was confided to him in the 
first instance, but he soon resigned the charge into the 
hands of Toussaint. Fully aware of the boldness of the 
step he had taken, Toussaint hastened to remove any 
suspicions that might arise in the minds of the Directory. 
He sent two of his children to receive their education at 
Paris ; and along with them Vincent, a chef de brigade^ 
charged with the task of explaining everything to the 
Directory's satisfaction. The Directors professed to be 
perfectly satisfied, and appointed a new commission, at the 
head of which was placed General H6douville. 

H6douville on his arrival at St. Domingo showed his sus- 
picions of the negro general by landing within the Spanish 
territory. Toussaint was at this time engaged in negotia- 
tions with General Maitland for the surrender of the strong 
places held by the English. It was generally known that 
H6douville's staff spoke openly in the most hostile and in- 
sulting terms of Toussaint ; nevertheless he visited the 
commissioner with scarcely any attendants, and professed 
the utmost devotion to the French government. Hedou- 
ville asserted his right as agent of the republic to reserve 
the power of ratifying or refusing to ratify any convention 
betw een Toussaint and the British commanders. The negro 
chief nevertheless received the capitulation of Port-au- 
Prince, St. Marc, J^r^mie, and the Mole of St. Nicholas 
without consulting H6douville. On the day when the 
British troops marched out, a public exchange of civilities 
took place between Toussaint Louverture and General 
Maitland. All this increased the distrust of the commis^ 
sioner, who showed it by seeking to thwart the St. Domingo 
chief in everything. Toussaint Louverture persuaded his 
countrymen to resume their agricultural occupations. H6- 
douville soon after issued a proclamation denouncing the 
emigres and professing to regulate the political relations 
of whites and negroes. Toussaint immediately issued 
another proclamation declaring that there were no imigrcs 
among the natives of the island; and that the negroes 
were de facto free, but that it was desirable they should 
continue during five years to labour for their old masters, 
receiving one-fourth of the produce. His partisans were 
in the mean time industriously spreading the opinion that 
Hedouville was an enemy to the negroes and to the tran- 
quillity of the colony. An insurrection broke out at the 
Cape, which was suppressed by Toussaint ; but the commis- 
sioner with all his adherents, to the number of twelve or 
fifteen hundred men, took refuge on board three French 
frigates which were lying off the island, and sailed for 
Fmnce. 

Their departure was the signal for the breaking out of 
the animosity between the mulattoes and negroes into acts 
of open violence. Rigaud, the mulatto chief, sanctioned 
the massacres committed by his partisans ; Toussaint did 
all in his power to repress the ferocity of his. One strong 
place was taken from the mulattoes by the negroes after 
another, until Rigaud was shut up in C;ayes, the only hold 
that remained to him. This was towards the close ot 1799, 
and Bonaparte had already assumed the reins of govern- 
ment in PVance. One of the first steps of the new ruler 
\^as to send a deputation to Toussaint, composed of his 



personal friends Raymond and Vincent, and General Miche.. 
They brought the intelligence that Toussaint was confirmea 
in his authority ; and Rigaud, seeing himself abandoned 
even by his own partisans, embarked with a few of his re- 
tainers to seek an asylum in France. 

Toussaint Louverture was now at the summit of his 
prosperity. He assumed much state ; and affected to cast 
a shade of mystery round the circumstances of his earlier 
career ; and took pride in proclaiming himself the negro 
deliverer foretold by Raynal. He preserved great sim- 
plicity in his own person, but surrounded himself with a 
briUiant staff. In January, 1801, he conquered the Span- 
ish part of St. Domingo. ' He presented to a central meet- 
ing of his partisans a scheme of a colonial constitution, by 
which he was appointed governor for life, authorised to 
name his successor, and to nominate to all offices under 
government. He exercised this authority to the full ex- 
tent. He quelled an insurrection of the negroes, and did 
not hesitate to punish with death his own nephew, who 
was at the head of it. Under his strict but just sway the 
agriculture and commerce of St Domingo flourished. 

Bonaparte in the meantime preserved an ominous silence 
towards all Toussaint's overtures of friendship\ The mind 
of the latter, disjjuieted by the coldness of the First Consul, 
was not tranquillized by the proclamation issued immediat ely 
after the peace with England, declaring that slavery was to 
continue m Martinique and Cayenne, and St. Domingo to be 
restored to order. Toussaint met it by a counter-proclama- 
tion, issued on the 18th of December, 1801, in which he pro- 
fessed obedience to the republic, but at the same time ap- 
pealed to the soldiers in language which left no doubt as 
to his resolution to repel force by force. Bonaparte dis- 
patched a squadron of fifty-four sail, under the command 
of General Xe Clerc, his brother-in-law, to reduce St. 
Domingo. 

The first view of this force discouraged Toussaint him- 
self. He soon rallied, but his followers were intimidated 
and divided. The flatteiy of the First Consul, and the soli- 
citations of his own children, were brought to bear on the 
negro chief in vain. He retired to the Mome of Chaos, 
and entombed his treasures where the enemy might seek 
them in vain. On the 17th of February, 1802, he was pro- 
claimed an outlaw. The negroes who remained in arms 
were defeated in all parts of the island ; Toussaint con- 
tinued nevertheless to defend himself, making a desert 
around him to obstruct the approaches of the enemy. At 
last the defection of Christophe and Dessalines obliged him 
to listen to terms. The sentence of outlawry pronounced 
against him was reversed. He was received with military 
honours on paying a visit to Le Clerc, and General Brunet 
took his advice on the imposition of taxes, and the selec- 
tion of cantonments. 

Brunet invited Toussaint to a conference mid-way 
between Sancey and Gonidves, on the 10th of June ; and 
when the generals retired to hold a consultation, the 
negro guard was disarmed, and their chief arrested and sent 
on board the Creole, which immediately set sail for Cape 
Town, where he was transfeiTed to the Heres, a vessel of 
the line. After a voyage of twenty-five days he was 
landed at Brest, and without delay sent to Paris. He was 
for a short time lodged in the Temple, but soon after con- 
veyed to the castle of Joux, near Besan9on, where he was 
f subjected to a close and severe confinement. His faithful 
attendant Mars Plaisir was removed from him. After ten 
months of rigorous imprisonment, he died on the 27th of 
April, 1803. 

Toussaint, like all eminent and successful politicians, 
was marked by a strong inclination and power of con- 
cealing his sentiments and intentions. There was a good 
deal of imagination or romance in his composition. He had 
strong devotional feelings, and a nice sense of domestic 
morality. His reserved and energetic nature commanded 
the respect of the negroes, enabled him to restrain them 
from excesses and keep them to steady labour, and he thus 
restored confidence to the whites. He loved splendour in 
his attendants, but was plain in his personal habits. St. 
Domingo was peaceable and prosperous under his govern- 
ment. These facts are proved by the concurring testimony 
of friends and enemies ; and they entitle him to be classed 
among great men. More it would be imprudent to say 
positively, considering how conflicting are the witnesses 
respecting him, and how biassed by passion their evidence. 
Of the selfish meanness of Bonaparte's conduct towards 



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ium there can be scarcely two opinions, and the vexatious 
imprisonment at St. Helena wears all the appearance of 
one of those mysterious exercises of the lex talionis by 
Providence, which sometimes occur in real life. 

After the death of Toussaint Louverture, his family 
were confined at Brienne-en-Agen, where one of his sons 
died. The survivors were set at liberty after the restora- 
tion of the Bourbons. The widow died in 1816, in the 
arms of her sons Placide and Isaac. M. du Broias has 
published a sketch of the life of Toussaint Louverture. 

TOWCESTER. fNoRTHAMPTONSHntE.] 

TOWER OF LONDON. That large assemblage of 
buildings, presenting so many varieties of aspect, age, and 
purpose, which we call generally by the name Tower, oc- 
cupies an elevated area of twelve or thirteen acres, just 
beyond the old walls of the city of London eastwai-ds, on 
the northern bank of the Thames. The outline of the 
buildings, as of the area on which they stand, is an irre- 
gular square, gradually narrowing towards the city side. 
Looked at from without, the Tower plan presents first a 
broad and deep moat encircling a lofty battlemented wall, 
with strong towers at intervals through its entire course ; 
then a similai* line of wall and towers at some little 
distance within ; among which are interspersed a consider- 
able number of modem building for the accommodation 
of the garrison and other inhabitants of the Tower ; and, 
lastly, a great central space, where stands the White 
Tower, the lofty keep of the older fortress, with the 
Horse Armouiy at its base ; whilst around the sides of the 
area, against the inner walls, are, in different parts, the an- 
tient chapel, the remains of the grand storehouse or 
Armoury, the Jewel-office, and the buildings of the Board 
of Ordnance. The chief entrance is by the spur, a small 
enclosure at the south-west comer, onginally forming a 
kind of barbican ; between this spot and the central space 
of the interior the road passes over the moat by a draw- 
bridge, and is defended by three strong towers, the first 
placed to secure the passage of the moat, the second the 
entrance into the ballium or outer ward, and the third, the 
Bloody Tower, to secure the entrance into the inner ward, 
or the central space before mentioned. Opposite the ex- 
terior front of the Bloody Tower— 40 called, it is supposed, 
from the suicide or murder within its walls of the eighth 
duke of Northumberland, sent here by Elizabeth for his 
treasonable correspondence with the ui^ortunate Mary — ^is 
the Traitor's Gateway, which, during the long period of 
the history of the Tower as a state-prison, formed the 

feneral entrance for the prisoners. When Elizabeth was 
rought here, it will be remembered she at first refused to 
land ; but seeing force would be used if she did not, she 
cried out in tiie bitterness of her indignation, * Here landeth 
as tme a subject, being a prisoner, as ever landed at these 
stairs ; and before thee, 6 God, I speak it, having none 
other Mend than thee.' 

' The more interesting of the separate buildings of tlie 
Tower may be classed as follows : — 1, the White Tower ; 
2, the towers and other buildings or places which have 
been used for the confinement, execution, or burial of 
prisoners, and which are still full of interesting personal 
memorials ; 3, the buildings forming or connected with the 
ai-senal, as the Grand Storehouse, Horse Armoui^r, &c. ; 4, 
the miscellaneous portions of the Tower not previously in- 
cluded. The White Tower, as a building devoted to all the 
uses mentioned, and as the most antient and interesting part 
of the fortress, we may with propriety notice first and 
alone. This is a large quadrangular structure, measuring 
on its north and south sides 96 feet, and on its east and 
west 116, and rising to the height of 92 feet. Turret 
towers rise at each of the four comers ; that at the north- 
east, wliich is considerably larger than the otJiers, was used 
by Flamsteed as an observatory before the erection of a 
building for such purposes at Greenwich. In the interior, 
the chief apartments on the ground floor are the Volunteer 
Armoury, where immense quantities of small-arms are 
kept in convenient and beautiful order, and the room 
where Raleigh was so long a prisoner ; on the floor above, 
two other armouries, chiefly for the cavalry and naval ser- 
vice ; and on the top, the Council-Chamber ; whilst the 
chapel in its height occupies both these upper stories. 
Tlie Council-Chamber is a very long, broad, and high 
apartment, with a dark-looking timber roof, formed in a 
great measure with beams of the largest size, and sup- 
ported by a double range of wooden pillars or posts. The 
P. C, No. 1564. 



vndls are pierced on the one side with windows, on the 
other with arches, both undecorated. This mde primeval- 
looking place formed the council-chamber of our early 
kin^s; and here did Richard II. resign his crown to 
Bolingbroke in September, 1399, saying, in the words of 
Froissart, * I have been king of England, duke of Aqui- 
taine, and lord of Ireland about twenty-one years, which 
seignory, royalty, sceptre, crown, and heritage I clearly 
resign here to my cousin Hemy of Lancaster ; and I desire 
him here in this open presence in entering of the same 
possession to take this sceptre ;' and so * he delivered it to 
the duke, who took it.' The Chapel is one of the most perfect 
specimens we possess of Norman architecture in its most 
unadorned, but, for the size, grandest shape. The chief 
features are a double range of massive and lofty pillars 
with intervening arches, meeting and forming a semicircle 
at one end, with an upper stoiy of similar arches divided 
by plain flat piers. A gallery encircles the latter, and an 
aisle the former ; through both of which (but on one side,^ 
and at the rounded end only) light passes from the exterior 
windows of the Tower. The view of the chapel is now 
sadly obscured by the presses, in which are kept a portion 
of the Tower records. These comprise crown grants from 
the reign of the Confessor to the beginning of the thirteenth 
century; a series of the Rolls of Chancery from the 
Ist year of John to the last of Edward IV. ; the Almain 
rolls from the 22nd of Edward I. to 15th of Edward III., 
referring to continental negotiations, treaties, &c. ; charter 
rolls from 1st of John to last of Edward IV. ; a most valu- 
able series of the Close rolls, fiill of various and important 
historical, political, and social memoranda ; with a variety 
of others, such as the coronation rolls, rolls of parliament 
(from 5th of Edward II. to last of Edward IV.), patent rolls, 
Scotch rolls, Welsh rolls, &c. &c. The Record-Office is 
held in the Wakefield tower. At the foot of the staircase 
leading into the chapel were found the boiies whch were 
supposed to have belonged to the young princes murdered 
here by Richard III., and which in consequence were in- 
terred in We8tmin.<iter Abbey by Charles II. 

The chief memorials of the state prisoners occur in the 
Beauchamp tower, so called, it is supposed, from the 
confinement in it of Thomas de Beauchamp, earl of Wa>.'- 
wick, in 1397. By a circular staircase we ascend to the 
first story, a place now used as the officers' mess-room. 
The walls are full of inscriptions, many of them of the 
most touching character. ' Since fortune hath chosen 
that my hope should go to the wind to complain, I wish 
the time were destroyed : my planet being ever sad and 
unpropitious ;' is the mouraftil lament of William TyiTel, 
1541.* * Geffiye Poole, 1562,' records the infamy of the 
brother of the famous cardinal, who was enabled to live to 
write this inscription, bv giving evidence against his own 
aged mother, the marcoioness of Salisbury, and who in 
con8e(|uence suflered death in the adjoining area, under 
peculiar circumstances, the executioner kiUing her as he 
followed her round the scafibld. Among many others the 
memorials of the friends and husband of Lady Jane Grey, 
of Thomas Miagh, where the writer speaks of * torture 
strange,' and of Edmund and A. Poole, the last descendants 
of George, duke of Clarence, may be mentioned as highly 
interesting ; but above all, let every visitor to the Beau- 
champ tower look for and ponder over the golden sentence 
inscribed here by C. BaiUy, the agent of the bishop of 
Ross, in the correspondence between the latter and Mary 
Queen of Scots, respecting a foreign alliance against 
Elizabeth: — * The most unhappy, man is he that is not 
patient in adversities: for men are not killed %vith the 
adversities they have, but with the impatience which they 
suffer.' Bailly was at that time aged twenbr-nine. The 
governor's house, formerly the lieutenant's lodgings, in the 
south-west comer of the central area, is chiefly noticeable 
for its connection with the Gunpowder conspirators, who 
were examined in a chamber called the council-room. A 
marble memorial, erected against the wall, records the 
particulars of the attempt. In an adjoining room is 
an inscription cut by the countess of Lenox, • epmmitted 
prisoner to this lod^ng' in 1565, * for the marriage of her 
son, my lord Henry Damley, and the queen of Scotland.' 
The Bell tower owes its chief interest to the imprison- 
ment of Bishop Fisher within its walJs, when com- 
mitted, with his illustrious friend and fellow-sufferer More, 
by Henry VIII. It is said that here also Elizabeth 
* The original is in old Ttaltan. 

Vol. XXV.-O 



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was confined. In the Bowyer tower (where the fire 
broke out in 1841), Clarence, Edward IV.'s brother, was, 
according to tradition, drowned in a butt of malmsey. 
Most of the other towers have interesting recollections 
attached to them, but we can only refer to one, the Flint 
tower (a modem stmcture erected in the place of an 
antient one), for the purpose of observing that the ruins of 
the last were long known as ' the httk hell,' possibly from 
its containing; the Little-ease, where the prisoners could 
neither stand, sit, nor lie without bending. The locality 
of the Rats* dungeon, into which innumerable vermin were 
driven with eveiy flow of the tide, appears to be unknown. 

the chapel of St. Peter's, at the north-west angle, is the 
only one now used for Divine service. This was built in 
the reign of Edward the First, and, like the other chief 
buildings of the fortress, is rich in its associations. Here 
lie Anne Boleyn, with her brother Lord Rochford, 
Bishop Fisher, the great chancellor More, the venerable 
countess of Salisbury before mentioned, the minister 
Cromwell, the two Seymours (the protector and the 
admiral). Lady Jane Grey, with her uncie and husband, the 
duke of Norfolk beheaded by Elizabeth for his pretensions 
to the hand of Mary, Elizabeth's favourite Leicester, the 
duke of Monmouth, and the Scotch lords beheaded for the 
rebellion of 1745. The spot on which the scaffold was 
erected for many of these executions is immediately in 
front of the chapel ; no one can for a moment mistake 
the outline which the darker appearance of a portion of the 
pavement of the area presents. Another and the chief 
place of execution was outside the walls on the neigh- 
bouring Tower HiU. 

The largest of the buildings connected with the Arsenal 
exists no longer but as a ruined shell ; scattered about the 
floor of which are the few pieces of ordnance that alone 
escaped destruction of all its extensive and valuable stores. 
The building was modem, and in that point of view its 
loss becomes a mere matter of money ; the same may be 
said of the greater part of its contents. These consisted of 
a collection of pieces of ordnance on the ground-floor, of 
all shapes, sizes, and periods ; memotials chiefly of our 
naval and military successes, some of the most valuable of 
which are preserved ; and secondly, of the Small-Arms 
Armoury on the floor above, fitted up in the most conve- 
nient and picturesque manner for the reception of a stand of 
150,000 arms. The fire by which the building was so 
completely destroyed broke out on the night of the 30th 
of October, 1841 ; in its course great apprehensions were 
felt for the safety of the entire fortress, but ultimately it 
was extinguished without further injury. A novel kind of 
sale followed the fire (and indeed still continues), of the 
debris of the conflagration, generally weapons, fttsed into 
a variety of peculiar forms and appearances. The othe^ 
storehouses of the Arsenal are the rooms already mentioned 
in the White tower and the large modern building paral- 
lel with the southern side of the latter; in ad<tition to 
which there is a Map-office on the eastern side. Under the 
care of the Board of Ordnance, forming as it were the ap- 
propriate historical museum of their department, are the 
places of exhibition known as the Horse Armoury and 
tjueen EUzabeth's Armoury. The former is a low building 
resting against the base of the White tower, exactly oppo- 
site the Ordnance-ofiice, and from it a staircase leads up- 
wards into the Tower, where we find the prison of Raleigh 
changed into the smaller armoury that now bears the name 
of his royal mistress. The Horse Armoury is principally 
occupied by a row of mounted figures, intended for the 
display of complete suits of armour, which are here found, 
from the plain ringed net-work of the days of the Crusaders, 
through all the growth and decline of the more spkndid 
plate-armour, down to the merely helmeted and cuirassed 
warriora of the reign of James the Second. Among the 
Buits which demand especial notice is that worn by lieniy 
VIII. (a present from the emperor Maximilian I.), which is 
most picturesquely elegant m its outlines, and sumptu- 
ously decorated in its details. The eiltire mass of armour 
for both man and horse is washed with silver, and engraved 
with legends, devices, mottoes, arms, &c. of the finest 
workmanship. Among the other suite dispersed about the 
armoury are two that attmct much attention for their di- 
minutiveness : one of them, a complete suit of steel plate, 
was worn by Charles II. when only in his fifth year. Queen 
Elizabeth's Armoury was formerly supposed to be in the 
main a collection of the spoils of the Armada, and the 



various instruments of torture here ahoiwn were looked on as 
so many monstrous inventions of the S|Miniard8. These are 
now known in most cases to be as genuine English as were 
the limbs they were intended to torture. Whatever truth 
there may be in the opinion as to the formation of this 
collection from the Armada spoils, it is certain that the 
great variety of weapons of which it consists are mostly of 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. They comprise rapiers, 
bucklers, glaives, catchpoles, blackbiils, stilettoes, gisarmea, 
vouUges, Lochaber axes, Scotch targets, with several kinds 
of shot, instmments of torture (bilboes, collar of torture, 
thumb-screw, &o.), and numerous curiosities, among which 
is the axe that severed the fair neck of Anne Boleyn. 

Since the fire the Regalia [Regalia] have been ex- 
hibited in the new and haodsome building recently erected 
for the purpose in the comer by the old Jewel-office. 
The mode of . exhibition has been strikingly improved. 
The Regalia are enclosed within a glass screen m the centre 
of the building, over which is a strong open frame-work 
that, without in the slightest degree interfering with the 
view, renders any possibility of the repetition of such an 
attempt as that of Colonel Blood almost impoasible ; at 
the same time the spectators can walk round and examine 
the objects thoroughly. We hardly need add that the lions 
have been removed from the Tower for some years. The 
Mint also is no longer here, but on the neighbouring hill. 

Of the history of the Tower it can be only possible for 
us to give a very slight notice. Half the history of Eng- 
land might very well be introduced into a complete history 
of the building which has fbr so many centuries been the 
palace, prison, and arsenal of our kings. Tradition 
attributes the building to Julius Ceesar ; but to speak from 
less questionable authority. Stow says, * I find in a fair 
register-book of the acts of the bishop of Rochester, set 
down by Edmund of Hadenham, that William I., sur- 
named the Conqueror, builded the Tower of London, to 
wit, the great white and square tower there, about the 
year of Christ 1078, appointing Gundulph, then bishop of 
Rochester, to be principal surveyor and overseer of that 
work, who was for that time lodged in the house of 
Edmere, a burgess of London.' This then was the original 
building, which has grown, by successive additions," into 
the Tower of the present day. Of the exact purposes to 
which it was applied we learn nothing earlier tnan the 
reign of Henry I., wheti it was used as a state prison ; 
Ralph Flambard, the warlike bishop of Durham, was then 
confined in it, and escaped. Stephen held his court here 
in 1140, BO that by that time, at least, the Tower had 
become both the palace and the prison of royalty. Some 
of the most interesting historical events that have taken 
place in the ToWer have been already incidentally referred 
to ; as to the remainder our space will allow us only to 
mention the most important, and these in the briefest 
manner. Prom the lower and the chief palace the 
coronation processions formerly set out. These appear to 
have commenced with the coronation of Richard II., and 
to have terminated with that of Charles II. The other 
memories of the palace are of a very dilFerent nature. 
Richard II.*8 deposition, Henry VL's supposed murder, 
the similar fate of the young princes, Anne Bole}Ti*s 
execution, — ^these are but a few of the incidents wliich 
are recorded in connectidn with this regal home. But 
even these recollections sink into Insignificance beside 
the lon^ and bloody roll which records the names of the 
prison inhabitants. Among those who pined away in 
captivity, oi* were relieved by the scaffold, to which 
the prison doors so often led, we find Hubert de Burgh ; 
the Scottish king Baliol ; Wallace, dmgged hence on a 
hurdle to Smlthfield ; another Scottish king, David Bmce ; 
the ftir-faraed citizens of Calais ; Sir Simon Burley, executed 
on Tower-hill ; the poet Chaucer (through his connection 
with John of Gaunt and support of Wickliffe) ; the king 
of Scotland (the royal poet James I.) ; the intrepid qiicch 
of Henry VI. ; * poor Edward Bohun,' executed ; Sir 
TliomasWyatt, the same; Raleigh, the same; Elict, Marten, 
Monk ; Strafford and Laud, both executed, as were Sydney 
and Russell, &c. &c. ; whilst in many cases hundreds of 
their less distin^iished ftiends, associates, and followers 
shared their captivity or death. 

The government of the Tower is vested in the Constable, 
an officer of the highest rank. Langton, archbishop of 
Canterbury; Hubert de Burgh (prisoner at one time, 
constable at another) ; Hugh le Bigod ; Sir Hugh Despenser 



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killed with Mootfori: at Evesham ; Tiftoft, earl of Worceeter, 
Caxton's accomplished palron ; Fairfax, the parliamentary 
genera] ; lord Cornwailis — have been among the chief 
officers of the Tower. The Constable at present (1842) is 
the Duke of Wellington. 

TOWERS, JOSEPH, LL.D., was born in Soutbwark, 
the 13th of March, 1737. His education was much 
neglected, but being fond of reading, he picked up a good 
dedi of knowledge in a miscellaaeous way. He was 
apprenticed to a printer at Sherborne in Dorsetshire, and 
returned to Lonaon in 1764, where at first he got his 
living as a journeyman printer, and aften\'ards set up a 
bookseller's shop in Fore Street. During this time he was 
also actively engaged in writing for the press, and, in 
addition to other publications, wrote the first seven 
volumes of * British Biography,' of whioh the first was 
publi^ed in 17€6. As his business did not answer, — a 
thing not surprising, considering his literary engagements, 
— he relinquished it in 1774, and became the minister of a 
Dissenting chapel at Highgate. His theological opinions 
were Arian, though he was closely connected with the 
Unitarian body. In 1778 he was chosen forenoon preacher 
Bt a diapel in Newin^n Green. About this time he was 
engaged by the propnetors of the * Biographia Britannica ' 
to write several lives for the new edition of the work 
edited by Dr. Kippis, of which however only ^ve vdumes 
appeared (1777-1783, down to the letter F). Towers 
received the degree of LL.D. from the University of 
Edinburgh in 1779. He died on the 20Ui of May, 1799, 
in his sixty-third year. His pamphlets and smaller works 
were collected and published in 1796, in 3 vols. 8vo. They 
are of a miscellaneous nature, but most of them on 
political subjects. 

(Lindsay's Funeral Sermon.^ 

TOWN, in its popular sense, is a iaxge assemblage of 
adjoininfl^ or nearly adjoining houses, to which a. maiket is 
usually meident. Formerly a wall seems to have been 
considered necessary to constitute a town ; and the deriva^ 
tion of the word, in its Anglo-Saxon form * tun,' is usually 
referred to the verb * tinan,' to shut or endose ; in its 
Dutch fonn * tuyn,' it signifies a garden ; and in its German 
form * zaun,' it means a hedge. In legsl lan^age ' town' 
correspcmds with the Norman * vill,' by which latter term it 
is frequently spoken of in order to distinguish it from the 
word town m its popular sense. A vill or town is a sub- 
division of a county, as a parish is part or subdivision of a 
diocese ; the vill, the civil district, being usually co-exten- 
sive with the parish, the ecclesiastical district, and, primd 
faciey every parish is a vill, and every vill a parish. Many 
towns however, not only in the popular, but in the legal 
sense of the term, contain several parishes, and many 
parishes, particularly in the north of £higland, where (pro- 
bably firom the difficulty of obtaining a resident dergy in 
places exposed to hostile inroads) the parishes are exceed- 
ingly large, contain several vDls, which vills are usually 
called tmiings or townships. As matil the contrary ts 
shown the law presumes towns (or vills) and parishes to 
be co-«xtensive. Lord Coke goes so fair as to say that 
it cannot be in law a vill unless it hath, or in times past 
hath had, a church, and celebratioa of divine service, sacra^ 
ments, and burials. But this, for which no authority is 
given, appears to confound parish and vill, and to be in- 
consistent with the cases in which it has been hdd that a 
parish may consist of several viUs. (1 Lord Raymond, 22.) 
The test proposed by Lord Holt is, that a viU must have a 
coxatid)le, and that otherwise the place is only a hamlet, 
an asseiid>iage of houses having no spedfic legal character. 
Hence a vill is sometimes called SkCcmstaiUewick. Towns 
are divided into cities, boroughs, and upland towns, or (as we 
should now call them) country towns. Towns belonging 
to the last of these classes have been described as places 
which, though enclosed, are not. governed, as cities and 
boroughs are, by th^r own electea officers. The Anglo- 
Saxon ' tun^ terminates the names of an immense number 
of plaocs in England; and in the southmn coiuxties the 
farm enclosure in whidh the homeatead stands is usually 
called the barton (basn-ioaaR), in Law Latin, .bertona. 

TGWNLEV MABiiBIiBS, tihe name of an aasemblage 
of Greek <aid Roman sculptitre xihiich now forms a portion 
of the eietensive OaHeaiy of Antiquities in the British 
Museum. It recdired ks appellalian from C^isides Town- 
ley, Esq., of rpwiAey in Lancaahire, who began forming 
this ooosatioaiit Rome i^ «ttily as -^S&S^ 



About 1772 he brdueht such acquiations as he then 
possessed to London, ana placed them in a house in Park 
Street, Westminster, where by gradual accessions his col- 
lection was advanced to its highest celebrity. 

It was not to marbles alone that Mr. Townley directed 
his attention. He had also a collection of terracottas; 
and he laid out large sums in the purchase of antient 
bronze figures and utensils, Greek and Roman coins, gems, 
antique pastes, and drawings, the greater part of which 
served essentially to illustrate his sculj^ures. During two 
or three of the latter years of Mr. Townley's life, feeling 
his health to be rapidly decUning, he employed himself in 
preparing designs for a Statue Gallery and Library to be 
added to the mansion at Townley ; and ei^joined his exe- 
cutors in his last will, dated November 9th, 1802, to com- 
eete his plans within iive years, otherwise he directed his 
arbles to be riven to the British public, and- to be pre- 
served in their Museu;n. 

Mr. Townley died January 3rd, 1805. After his decease, 
his executors, upon a mature consideration of all the cir- 
cumstances of nis fortune and collection, came to the 
decisicm of offering the marbles and terracottas only to the 
nation, and of immediately fulfilling; Mr. Townley's condi- 
tional view with respect to the British Museum. An Act 
was consequently passed for purchasing them, and the sum 
voted was 20,00&. An additioncd edifice was built at the 
Museum for their accommodation, and the collection was 
opened to public view in 1808. 

Mr. Tovmley's remaining collection of anticputies, illus- 
trative of his Marbles, was purchased and deposited in the 
same institution under another Act, in 1814, for the sum 
of 8200/. 

The Marblxs and TE£RAtx)TTAs of the Townley collec- 
tion at present (1842) occupy rooms L, XL, III., IV., VI., 
XL, and XII. of the Museum Gallexy. The collection of 
sepulchral urns, which fonneriy filled, tlie Columbarium in 
Room Vll., are at present removed to the south recess of 
the ante-room to the Hugaleian saloon. 

The Terracottas in Room I. consist of eight statues, 
sixty-seven bas-relie&, and nine amphorae. Son^ of these 
were collected in Italy by Mr. Townley himself, withers he 
purchased after his return of NoUekens the sculptor, who 
had acquired them in Rome at an earlier day. The 
statues, with one exception, were found al^out 1765, in a 
dry well near the Porta Latina. The collection of terra- 
cotta bas-relie£i is believed to be the most valuable in 
Europe. As iar aa terracotta statues are concerned, Uie 
Townley collection is excelled by the museum at Naj>les. 
The numbers 7, 8, 16, 24, 26, ^, 56, 59, and 60, among 
the bas-reliefs, are the most deserving of attention. 

Of the Marbles of the Townley collection, about two 
hundred and fifty in number, we shall point out the most 
important, as they stand in the several rooms. 

Room II., No. 4. A C!aryatid larger than life, ibund 
in the ruins of the Villa Strozzi, deserves the first notice. 
It was formerly in the Montalto collection, and is supposed 
to have formed one of the supports of a amall temple, and 
to have been the work of two Athenian aitists of the names 
of Criton and Nicolaus. 

No. 8, in the same room, a statae of Venus, or Dione, is 
of the highest order. When Canova visited England in 
1814, he qx>ke of it as the finest female statue he had seen 
in Exuriand. It consiBts of two pieces of marble imper- 
ceptibly joined at the lower port of the body, within the 
drapery ^ and was found in the ruins of the maritime baths 
of tne emperor Claudius, at Ostta, in 1776. 

Two vases of ezquasite workmanship stand one on each 
side of the statue of Venus. One, No. 7, more than three 
feet high, represents the celebration of the orgies of 
Bacchus. It was fimnd in detached pieces at Monte Cag- 
nuolo, the site of the viUa of Antoninus Pius, at the antient 
Lanuvium. The other vase. No. d, of smaller size, pre- 
sents a Bacchanalian group of four figures only, on the 
front ; btxt there is no record of the place where this was 
discovered. ^ 

Two busts of Hercules— one of hard character and of 
an early period of art, found at the Pantanella in Hadrian's 
villa ; the o^ee of the Famese Hercules, offiiie sculpture, 
dug up at the foot of Mount Vesuvius — also decorate this 
room, with two colossal heads of Minerva, Nos. 1 and 16 ; 
one with hallow sockets to the eyes, supposed to be of a 
date from 550 to 600 years before the Christian sera : it was 
jEound in the iwighbouchood -of Rome. Theibust of the 

02 



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Farnese Hercules however does not belong to the Tewnley 
collection. 

Room III. of the Townley Galleiy contains an assem- 
blage of statues of a smaller size, busts, terminal heads, 
and bas^reliefe ; these last for the most part are let into the 
walls. 

The Statues consist of a figure of the goddess Fortune, 
No. 18, her right hand resting on the ruddar of a vessel ; 
found at a short distance from Rome, on the Via Latina : 
a Venus, No. 22 ; found in a bath at Ostia, in 1775 : a 
Faun, from the Macaroni palace. No. 24 : one of Diana's 
nymphs resting after the chase ; found, in 1766, in the 
villa Verospi, No. 28 : a statue of a youth. No. 31, for- 
merly part of a group of two Boys quarrelling for tali, or 
huckle-bones : two statues of Fauns, found, m 1775, near 
Civitil Lavinia, Nos. 33 and 43 : and Act«on attacked by 
his dogs. No. 45 ; found, in 1774, in the ruins of the villa 
of Antoninus Pius, near Civiti Lavinia. 

Among the Busts, a head of Hippocrates, No. 20 ; found 
near Albano : three tenrnnal heads of the bearded Bacchus ; 
one. No. 19, of very early Greek work, found at Hadrian's 
villa : a head of Homer, found in some ruins at Baise 
in 1790 : a head of Pericles, No. 32 : and a terminal head 
of Periander, No. 42, are the most remarkable. 

Of the Bas-reliefs, No. 5, representing warriors consult- 
ing the oracle of Apollo : No. 6, Castor managing a horse, 
in an early style of Greek sculpture: No. 7, Hercules 
securing the Minalaean stag, in a very early style : and 
No. 12, a Bacchanalian ^oup, are most important. 

The Townley Marbles m Room IV. consist of a bust of 
Trajan, No. 1 ; found in an excavation in the C&mpagna 
di Roma in 1776 : a head of Apollo, of early Greek work. 
No. 3 : a head, supposed to be that of Arminius, No. 4 : 
a statue of Thalia, No. 5 ; found at Ostia : colossal busts 
of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, Nos. 6 and 7 : a 
group of Bacchus and Ampelus, No. 8, found near La 
Storta : a head of the young Hercules, No. 9 ; formerly in 
the Barberini palace : a head, supposed of Dione, No. 10 : 
a statue of Diana, found near La Storta in 1772, No. 11 : 
and a bust of Hadrian, No. 12, formerly in the Villa 
Montalto. 

In Room VI. the more exquisite Statues are, a small torso 
cf a Venus, No. 20 : another small one of Cupid bending his 
bow. No. 22 ; found, in 1775, at Caste! lo di Guido, on the 
road from Rome to Civiti Vecchia, within a large amphora 
tilled with earth : two figures of Victory sacrificing bulls, 
Nos. 26 and 31 ; both found in the ruins of the villa of 
Antoninus Pius : a statue of Libera, No. 40 : another of 
Ceres, No. 43 : a small statue of Jupiter sitting. No. 48 : 
another of a Musa, the plftith inscribed EYMOYSIA, No. 
60 : and a small statue of Hercules sitting on a rock, the 
apples of the Hesperides in his right hand. 

The Heads and Busts in Uiis room of highest interest are. 
No. 15, a head of Jupiter ; No. 18, Apollo Musagetes ; 
No. 27, a bust of Hadrian with the imperial paludamen- 
tum ; a bust of Sevenis, No. 29, found in 1776 on the 
Palatine hill ; Nos. 32 and 35, heads of the two Faustinas ; 
No. 39, a head of Plautilla ; No. 41, of Atys, found in the 
Villa Palombara ; No. 44, a head of Nero, brought from 
Athens, in 1740, by Dr. Askew ; No. 47, a head of one of 
the Homeric heroes, from the Pantanella at Hadrian's 
villa; No. 51, a bust of Caracalla ; No, 53, a bust of the 
young Marcel] us ; and No. 65, a head of Domitia, formerly 
called Messalina, found in the Villa Casali. 

The more curious of the Bas-reliefs are. No. 2, part of 
the front of a sarcopha^s, representing Achilles among 
the daughters of Lycomedes ; No. 4, part of the front of a 
large sarcophagus, representing a marriage ; No. 5, the 
front of another, representing the nine Muses from the 
Villa Montalto ; No. 7, part of a sarcophagus, representing 
a funeral car; No. 11, the fragment of a sarcophagus, re- 
presenting a poet and his muse ; No. 23, a funeral monu- 
ment inscribed SANOinnoS; No. 28, a beautiful bas- 
relief of a Bacchante ; and No. 54, a bas-relief represent- 
ingPriam supplicating for the body of Hector. 

This room likewise contains a swan in red marble. No. 
21 ; an eagle in marble," No. 34 ; several altars, cippi, &c. 

The Townley Marbles of Iloom XI. deserving most 
notice are. No. 16, a statue of an intoxicated Faun : No. 
19, a Discobolus, supposed to be an antient copy in marble 
from the celebrated bronze statue executed by Myro; 
found, in 1791, in the ruins of Hadrian's viUa: No. 21, a 
statue of Mercury. sleeping on a rock : a statue of Bacchus, 



from the ruins of the villa of Antoiunus Phxs, No. 22 : and 
a small Mithraic group, No. 45. Beside these, this room 
contains two statues in bronze ; one of Hercules, No. 24, 
carrying away the apples from the garden of the Hespe- 
rides ; tne other of Apollo, purchased by Mr. Townley at 
Paris in 1774. 

The bas-reliefs and fragments of sepulchral monuments 
in this room are numerous, but of less important character 
generally than in the preceding rooms. There are nume« 
rous articles also in this room, which originally foimed no 
part of the Townley collection. 

Room XII. contains the following Townley Marbles of 
a superior character : — No. 1, a Head of Juno ; No. 2, 
Cupid in his character of Somnus, sleeping upon the skin 
of a lion ; this sculpture was found in a vineyard near the 
Flaminian gate of Rome, and once belonged to Cardinal 
Alessandro Aibani : No. 9, a Head of Adonis covered with 
the pyramidal hood : No. 11, a small bust of Antoninus 
Pius : No. 12, a singularly beautiful bust of an unknown 
female, commonly called Isis. It is gracefully terminated 
by the flower of the Nymphsea lotus, on \duch it ap- 
pears to rest. It was purchased at Naples irom the 
Lorenzano family in 1772, and was considered by Mr. 
Townley to be the gem of his collection. No 13, a Head 
of one of the Dioscuri : No. 11, acoloKud head of Antinous, 
in the character of Bacchus : and No. 20, a bust of Mi- 
nerva, found in 1784, in the Villa Casali ; the helmet and 
bust of bronze are modem additions to' it. 

The sepulchral urns in the south recess of the ante-room 
approaching the Phigaleian Saloon, belonging to the 
Townley collection, are the Numbers 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 
13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21, 25. 26, 27, 28, 30, 30*, 31, 33, 35, 36, 
37, 37*, 38, 40, 41, and 42. 

Since the opening of the Townley Galleiy in the spring 
of 1808, the trustees of the British Museum have added 
numerous marbles of high character to this pact of their 
collection, and a few have been added by benefactors. 
The more prominent additions have been, a terminal Head 
of Mercury, purchased in 1812, at the sale of antiquities 
belonging to WiUiam Chinnery, Esq., Room III., No. 21 ; 
a Bas-relief of the Apotheosis of Homer, found at Frat- 
tochi, about ten miles from Rome, No. 23, purchased in 
1819 at the expense of 1000/. ; In Room IV. a statue of 
Apollo, of very early Greek work, purchased in 1818 for 
5(X)/. at the sale of the Comte de Choiseul-Gouffier's an- 
tiquities ; Room XI., No. 14, a Mithraic group of large size, 
brought from Rome in 1815, purchased for 300/. ; No. 18, 
a statue of a Faun, formerly in the Rondinini palace at 
Rome, purchased for 350/. ; No. 23, a statue of Cupid 
winged, purchased at the sale of the Right Hono\irai>ie 
Edmund Burke's marbles in 1812 ; and No. 46, a Head 
of Demosthenes, purchased in 1818. 

Beside these, which have been interspersed with the 
Townley Marbles, King William IV. presented a statue of 
Venus preparing for the bath, which, together with a statue 
of the emperor Hadrian, purchased by the trustees in 1821 
has been placed in the recently built grand central saloon. 
A statue of a Faun, in white marble, found at Antium, has 
since been added to this part of the Museum collection ; 
and in 1840, a bronze statue, the size of life, supposed to 
represent Eros Apteros, the eyes inlaid with silver, and the 
nipples with copper; found at Zifteh. 

TOWNSHEND, CHARLES, VISCOUNT TOWNS- 
HEND, an eminent statesman in the reigns of George I. 
and George II., was the second viscount of that name, and 
was born in the year 1676. The family of the Townshends 
was a very antient family in Norfolk, and had been settled 
at Rainham from the middle of the fifteenth century. Sir 
Horatio Townshend, the father of the subject of this article, 
had been one of the leading members of the Presbyterian 
party previous to the Restoration, and having zeidously co- 
operated to bring about that event, was rewaMed by Charles 
II. with the title of Baron Townshend in 1661, and was, in 
1682, raised to the rank of viscount. He died in 1686, 
when his son was only ten years old. On the latter's taking 
his seat in the House of Lords, when he became of age in 
1697, he first acted with the Tories, but very soon attached 
himself to the Whigs, and especially to Lord Somers. 
When Waiiam III., just before his death, in the beginning 
of 1702, was endeavouring to form a Whig administration, 
Lord Townshend had attained sufficient politiod con- 
sequence to be named for the Lord Fiivy Seal. (Coxe's 
Memoirs of Sir Robert JValpole, vol. i., p. 113, 8vo. ed*) 



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During the reign of Anne, Lord Townshend was appointed, 
in 17cS, one of the commissioners to treat for the union 
with Scotland ; in 1707, captain of the yeomen of the 
queen's guard ; in 1709, joint plenipotentiaiy with the duke 
of Marlborough in the negotiation for peace at Gertruy- 
denberg, and m the same year ambassador extraordinary to 
the States-Greneral of the United Provinces. In this last 
capacity he concluded the treaty known by the name of the 
Barrier treaty, which secured the assistance of the States- 
General for carrying out the Hanoverian succession, and 
engaged the endeavours of England to procure in a treaty 
of ^eace the Spanish Low Countries as a barrier for the 
Slates-General against France. On the dismissal of the 
Whigs and the formation of the Oxford ministry in 1710, 
Lord Townshend lost his appointment of captain of the 
yeomen of the queen's guard. 

In the session of 1712 the Commons fell violently on the 
Barrier treaty, and voted that * the Lord Viscount Towns- 
hend, and all who negotiated and signed, and all who ad- 
vised the ratifying of the said treaty, are enemies to the 
queen and kingdom.' This vote was followed up by the 
Representation to the Queen, in which the treaty was dis- 
cussed very severely and at length. The Representation 
may be read in the * Parliamentary History,^ vol. vi., p. 
1095 ; or in Swift's * Histoiy of the Four last Years of the 
Queen' {Works^ Scott's edition, vol. v., p. 269). 

With the accession of George I., in 1714, there came a 
complete change of foreign policy; and the persecuted 
negotiator of the Barrier treaty was now selected to be 
^ chief minister of the new king. Lord Townshend had 
been one of the Lords Justices named by George I., in 
jjui-suance of the Act passed in 1706 for securing the suc- 
cession ; and while George was yet at the Hague, on his 
way to England, he appointed Lord Townshend secretary of 
state, with the power to name his colleague. On the re- 
commendation of Horace (afterwards Lord) WaJpole, his 
brother-in-law. Lord Townshend named as his colleague 
General (afterwards Eari) Stanhope. [Stanhope, Jambs, 
Earl.] Lord Townshend had been recommended to George 
by Bothmar, his agent in England, and with Bothmar's 
recommendation the praises of all the principal statesmen 
at the Hague had concurred. 

Lord Townshend had now been twice married. His first 
wife was Elizabeth, the second daughter of Thomas, Lord 
Pel ham, and half-sister of the subsequent duke of New- 
castle. After her death he married, in 1713, Dorothy, 
sister to Sir RobeH Walpole. 

The administration formed under Lord Townshend was 
entirely Whig. Charles II. on the Restoration, and Wil- 
liam and Anne, on their respective accessions to the 
throne, had pursued the plan of combining the leading 
members of opposite parties in the ministry : but during 
Anne's reign party warfare assumed a more determined 
character, and her last ministry, that of Lord Oxford, had 
consisted exclusively of Tories, This monopolizing pre- 
cedent was now turned to the advantage of the Whigs. Lord 
Townshend was prime minister, though this name had not 
yet come to be established ; and WaJpole, who in a short 
time aoproached him in influence in the ministry, held at 
first only the subordinate post of paymaster of the forces, but 
after the death of Lord Halifax, in the next year, became 
chancellor of the exchequer and first lord of the treasury. 
[Walpolb, Sir Robert.] 

The principal acts of Lord Townshend's ministry were 
the impeachments of the principal members of that which 
had preceded, and the Septennial Bill. The latter mea- 
sure is-a standing reproach against its Whig authors ; and 
though the objection, so often urged, to the power of par- 
liament to prolong the existence of the then sitting House 
of Commons is on the face of it absurd, the reproach is in 
other respects deserved.^ Archdeacon Coxe states that 
Lord Townshend and Walpole were opposed to the im- 
peachment of Lord Oxford for high treason, and strongly 
recommended the more judicious course of charging him 
with high crimes and misdemeanours. {Memoirs of Sir 
Robert Walpole, vol. i., p. 126.) 

The Scotch rebellion took place at the latter end of 
1715. When the participation of Sir William Wyndham 
in the preparatory intrigues was discovered, his relation- 
ship to the duke of Somerset, an influential Whig noble- 
man, and a member of the cabinet, caused a difficulty 
about arresting him, which the firmness of Townshend sur- 
mounted. The scene in the council on this occasion is 



minutely described by Archdeacon Coxe. {Id., p. 128..^ 
' As the king retired into his closet he took hold of Lord 
Townshend's hand, and said, " You have done me a great 
service to-day." * 

In the summer of 1716 George visited Hanover, and 
was accoinpanied by Stanhope ; Lord Townshend re- 
mained in England. He had strongly opposed the king's 
wish of revisiting his native dominions ; and even after the 
repeal of the restraining clause in the Act of Settlement, 
had reiterated his objections to the king s departure from 
England. While the king was in Hanover various causes 
combined to estrange him from the minister in whom 
hitherto his confidence had been unbounded, and the 
ultimate result was Lord Townshend*s dismissal from office. 
The causes of this event have been considered at some 
length by Archdeacon Coxe, in his « Memoirs of Sir Robert 
Walpole ;* and lately by Lord Mahon, in his * History of 
England from the Peace of Utrecht to the Peace of Aix- 
la-Chapelle ' (vol. i., ch. 7, 8;. Lord Mahon has made it 
his object to vindicate the conduct of his ancestor Lord 
Stanhope in the transactions that led to Lord Towns- 
hend's dismissal, and has succeeded in this object, and 
has also corrected some mistatements in Coxe's account. 

Lord Townshend had made himself obnoxious to the 
king s German mistresses and favourites, whose schemes of 
avarice and ambition he resisted. His temper was impe- 
tuous, and his manner of speaking and writing frank and 
abrupt, so that if the king was predisposed to take offence, 
there would be no lack of opportunity. Lord Sunderland, 
who had aspired to be premier on George's accession, and 
had deepljr resented the precedence given to Townshend 
in the ministry, joined the king after a time in Hanover, 
and was too well disposed to join with the German cliqtie 
in underndning Lord Townshend's influence. Subjects of 
difference between the king and Lord Townshend occurred 
after the former's going to Hanover. The king, with 
Hanoverian objects, was eager to declare war against 
Peter the Great of Russia, a measure which Townshend 
vehemently resisted. A negotiation was proceeding at 
the Hague between England, France, and the StateanGre- 
neral, for a treaty to secure the successions to the English 
and French thrones, and for the expulsion of the Pretender 
from France, which the king and Lord Stanhope in Han- 
over were anxious to accelerate ; and some delays occurred 
through Lord Townshend, which were attributed to design, 
owing to disapproval of the way in which the treaty was 
to be concluded. The king was greatly offended at this, 
and ordered Stanhope to write a strong reproof to Towns- 
hend. He was however appeased by Townshend's reply, 
in which he fully vindicated himself from the charge of 
wilftil delay. But though this storm blew over, another 
soon succeeded. The king, anxious to continue in Han- 
over during the whole winter, had directed Townshend to 
transmit to him the sentiments of the cabinet on what was 
to be done in the next session, and on the means of carry- 
ing on the business of the country without his own pre- 
sence. Townshend, to gratify the king's inclination, did 
not press his return, but strongly urged that a discretionary 
power should be g^ven to the prince of Wales. The king^ 
jealousy of his son took fright at this recommendation ; 
and it seemed to him to confirm stories which Sunderland 
had been assiduously spreading of intrigues carried on by 
Townshend with the duke of ^gyll and others for placing 
the prince of Wales on the throne. The king immediately 
formed the determination of dismissing Townshend ; and 
it was with much difficulty that Stanhope prevailed upon 
liim to offer the lord-lieutenancy of Ireland by way of 
breaking the fall. This offer, conveyed by stanhope, 
together with the announcement of his dismissal from the 
secretaryship, was indignantly refused. ' I am highly sen- 
sible,' Lord Townshend wrote to the king, ' of the honour 
which your majesty confers on me by condescending to 
appoint me lord-lieutenant of Ireland ; but as my domestic 
affairs do not permit me to reside out of England, I should 
hold myself to be totally unworthy of the choice which 
your majesty has been pleased to make, if I were capable 
of enjoying the large appointments annexed to that 
honourable office without doing the duty.' (Coxe's Me- 
moirs of Sir /?. fValpoley vol. i., p. 191.) This was irony 
aimed at Sunderlancl, who had been lord-lieutenant from 
George I.'s accession, and had never visited Ireland. Sir 
Robert Walpole wrote to Stanhope, who had tirgentljr soli- 
cited his mediation with Townshend, to prevail on him to 



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accept the lord-lieutenancy : — * When you desired me to 
prevail with mv lord Townshend to acquiesce in what is 
carved out for him, I cannot but say you desired an im- 
possibility ; and 'tis fit you should know that there is not 
one of the cabinet council with whom you and Lord Sun- 
derland have agreed in all thin^ for so many years, but 
think that, considering all the circumstances and manner 
of doing this, nobody could advise him to accent of the 
lieutenancy of Ireland And be assured that who- 
ever sent over the account of any intrigues or private cor- 
respondence betwixt ufi and the twio brothei-s, or any 
management in the least tending to any view or purpose 
but the service, honour, and interest of the king — ^I must 
repeat it, be assured, they will be found, pardon the ex- 
pression, confounded liars (Vom the beginning to the end.' 
(/rf., vol. i., p. 310.) And in another letter to Stanhope, 
whose conduct on this occasion was misapprehended, not 
perhaps unnaturally, by Townshend and Walpole, the 
latter made this jxHuted appeal : — * What could prevail on 
you to enter into such a scheme as this, and appear to be 
the chief actor in it, and undeitake to carry it through in 
all events, without which it would not have been under- 
taken, is unaccountable. I do swear to you that Lord 

Townshend has no way deserved it of you Believe 

me. Stanhope, he never thought you could enter into a 
combination with his enemies.' (/rf., p. 310.) Stanhope 
had concurred in the king's resentment against Towns- 
hend, when he w^as supposed to be purposely delaying the 
French treaty, and had showed his teeling by immediately 
tendering tiis reagnation, which the king refused. But 
having been satisfied that his suspicions asrainst Towns- 
hend on this occasion had been unjitst, he now had borne 
no other part than to transmit the king's commands, and 
to endeavour to conciliate him towards Townshend, and 
soften his determination. The king had conceived a dis- 
gust, Stanhope wrote in his first letter on the subject to 
Sir Robert WaJpoie, at Townshend's temper. The ialse- 
hoods told him of Townshend's intrigues with the prince, 
of which Stanhope naturally said nothing, but with which 
there is no evide*iee to connect him, drove the Iring into a 
IViry. And the determinaition which the king had come to 
under the inflnence of those violent personal feelings it 
wasimpjossible to alter. Stanhope wrote to Methuen, who 
sided with Townshend and Walpole, though he had been 
destined to succeed Townshend : — ^ If you have any in- 
terest or credit with tliem, for God's sake make use of it 
upon this occasion. They may possibly unking their mas- 
ter, or (which I do before God think very possible) make 
him abdicate England, but they will certainly not force 
him to make my lord Townshend secretary.' (Id.) The 
king's desire to consult tl>e interests of the Whig party 
had led him, though with some reluctance, to adopt Stan- 
hope's suggestion of off'ering Townshend the lord-lieute- 
nancy ; and now, when he Ibund the degree of resentment 
felt % Walpole and many of the leading Whigs, led him 
also to keep the appointment open till hh return to Eng- 
land, in the hope that Towndiend might yield. Stanhope 
saw a gleam of Townshend's return to his fonner post, if 
he woiiM first accept the lord-lieutenancy ; and he wrote 
to Walpole, January 16, 1717:—* Believe me, dear Wal- 
pole, when I swear it to you, that I do not think it possible 
for all the men in England to prevail upon the king to re- 
admit my lord Townshend into his service, upon any 
other terms than of complying with the offer made of Ire- 
land. The king will exact from him this mark of duty 
and obedience.' (Id., p. 319.) It was not unnatural that 
Townshend and Walpole, at a distance from the scene of 
the intrigues again^ them, indignant at the false charges 
of which they heard, and abounded at the strong step 
to which the king had, without giving any notice, had 
recourse, should attribute to Stanho^ a share in the 
cabal against them; and suefti was the opinion of the 
public. 

The effect of Lord Townshend's dismissal, when it was 
•made known, on the public mind and on the Whig party, 
was such, that the king took ^ght, and on his arrival in 
England sent Count Bemsdoif to Lord Townshend to tell 
him, that having taken away the seals, though perhaps on 
false reports and too hastily, he yet could not with due 
regard to his o^ti character at once restore them to him, 
and to beg Townshend te accept the lord-lieutenancy as a 
temporary office, to be exchanged hereafter for another 
more influential one. Townshend now yielded, and those 



who had sided with him m the ministry were satisfied. 

But the union thus effected did not last long. Stanhope 
and Sunderland had acquired an ascendency x^ith the king-, 
from which they were now not to be deposed by Towns- 
hend and Walpole. Tliese showed their mortification by 
cold support m parliament of the ministerial measures. 
On the motions for granting a supply against Sweden, on 
the 9th April, 1717, almost sSl Townshend's personal friends 
voted against the ministry, which narrowly escaped a defeat 
by a majority of four. The next day Townshend received 
a dismissal from his office of lord-lieutenant of Ireland. 
Walpole immediately tendered his reagnation, which, tl is 
said, the king received with so much surprise and sorrow, 
that he returned the seals to him ten times before he 
would finally accept them. [Walpole, Sir Robert.] The 
example of Walpole was followed by Methuen, Pulteney, 
the secretary at war, Lord Orford, ana the Duke of Devon- 
shire. 

Lord Townshend now went into opposition, and, like 
Walpole, is open to the charge of having out of office 
opposed principles and measures which he had previously 
supported. In the differences between the king and the 
pnnce of Wales, he and Walpole were now the friends of 
the latter. A reconciliation having been brought about 
l)etvveen the king and prince of Wales, in April, 1720, 
Lord Townshend was admitted a few days after, with the 
Duke of Devonshire, Lord Cowper, Walpole, Methuen, 
and Pulteney, to kiss the king's hands ; and received more 
decided proofs of restoration to the king's favour by being 
appointed in June one of the lords jussfices, on the king's 
going to Hanover, and president of the council. Walpole 
was appointed at the same time paymaster of the forces. 
The breaking up of the South Sea scheme and the deaths 
of lords Stanhope and Sunderland, led in 1721 to a recon- 
struction of the ministry, in which Lord Townshend became 
again secretary of state, and Walpole also resumed his old 
posts of first lord of the treasury and chancellor of the 
exchequer. Walpole had now attained to a more influen- 
tial position in the country, and was considered prime 
minister. 

Townshend and Walpole had now again complete influ- 
ence with the king. Lord Carteret, who was the other 
secretaiy of state, beginning, together with Count Berns- 
dorf, to intrigue against Townsliend, did not find success, 
as Lord Sunderland had done in former days. When the 
king went again to Hanover, Town^end now took care to 
accompany him, and Lord Carteret accompanied him also. 
* The superior influence of Townshend and WaJijole,* says 
Archdeacon Coxe, * was not solely gained by court intrigues, 
or by the corruption of German favourites, and w^as not 

E restituted by a preference of Hanoverian interests to 
lose of England. In the midst of these cabals, the con- 
duct of the brother ministers was firm and maoly, moving 
in direct opposition to the king's prejudices and the 
wishes of the German junta. Townshend prevented the 
adoption of violent measures against Russia, proposed by 
Bernsdorf and seconded by Carteret, which, if pursued, 
must have involved England in hostilities with the Czar ; 
and he exultingly informed Walpole that the king con- 
tinued true to fiis resolution of signing no paper relating: 
to British affairs but in his presence.' (Memoirs of Sir 
R, Walpole, vol. ii., p. 166.) Lord Carteret was removed 
from the secretaryship of state in 1724-, and made lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland. The duke of Newcastle, the brother 
of Townshend's first wife, succeeded him ; and eventually 
became , what Carteret had been, Townshend's rival . There 
soon arose also a coolness between Townshend and his 
other brother-in-law, and old friend and colleague, Wal- 
pole, owing, it is supposed, to their altered positions and 
Townshend's jealousy of Walpole's growing superiority. 
It was not until 1730 that the breach between the two 
brother ministers, and Lord Townshend's resignation, took 
place : but there were symptoms of a rising misunder- 
standing as early as 1725, two years before fie death of 
George I. Walpole does not appear to have been to blame 
in the beginning. 

On George II. 's accession, in June, 1727, Lord Towns- 
hend's pre-eminence was fully established; and it was 
owing entirely to his influence that Townshend was 
retained in the secretaryship. During this year Towns- 
hend had a dangerous illness, which was expected to be 
fatal; and when he was supposed to be -dying, W^pole 
wrote, that he considered him * the bulwark of the con- 



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stitution,' and that he trusted * Providence would interfere 
to save the man without whom all must fall to the 
ground.' (Coxe'a Memoirs of Sir R, Walpole, vol. ii., p. 
382.) But Walpole's generous conduct was destined to be 
fruitless. 

In the year 1729 Walpole and Townshend had become 
determined opponents in the ministry, and Walpole, 
having the support of Queen Caroline, who was all-power- 
ful with the king, had no difficulty in alwa^ gaimng the 
victory over Townshend. Almost every question that arose 
became a subject of dispute. The duke of Newcastle and 
Walpole endeavoured to bring Lord Harrington into the 
cabinet : Lord Townshend brought forward a rival candi- 
date in Lord Stanhope, after warns the celebrated cai-1 of 
(Jhestei-field. Ix)rd Townshend's object was defeated. Dr. 
Maty has related the following anecdote in his * Memoirs 
of Lord Chesterfield' (p. 112) : * The first time he ' (Lord 
Chesterfield) * appeared at court on his return to London, 
Sir Robert Walpole took him aside and told him, " I find 
you are come to be secretary of state." " Not I," said his 
lordship, " I have as yet no pretensions, and wish for a 
place of more- ease. But I claim the garter. ... I 
am a man of pleasure, and the blue riband would add two 
inches to my size." " Tiien I see how it is," replied Sir 
Kiiljert, " it is Townshend's intiigue, in which you have no 
share ; but it will be fruitless, you cannot be secretaiy of 
state, nor shall you be beholden for the gratification of 
your wishes to anybody but myself." ' Disputes arose also 
ijttween Townshend and Newcastle on an important ques- 
tion of foreign policy. Townshend had advised strong 
measures against the emperor, and had obtained the con- 
sent of the king to a despatch directing an invasion of the 
Austrian Netherlands. He went out of town to Norfolk 
for a short time, and in liis absence Newcastle, with the 
aid of Walpole and the ^ueen, had brought the kin^ to 
approve of a contrary policy. Townshend now determined 
to resign. Angry words, and even blows, passed between 
hmi and Walpole before he did so. A particular account 
of their quarrel is given by Archdeacon Coxe^ in liis ' Me- 
moirs of Sir Robert Walpole.' 

Lord Townshend's resignation took place on the 15th of 
iVIay, 1730. He retired immediately to his seat at Rain- 
ham, and, never again returning to London, devoted him- 
self to agricultural pursuits for the remainder of his life. 
He introduced the cultivation of the turnip from Germany 
into this country. Lord Chesterfield vuiited him in his 
retirement, to press his coming to London to be present at 
an important debate, and Lord Townshend refused, saving 
that he remembered Lord Ci)wper, though a staunch Whig, 
had been betrayed by personal pique into voting with the 
Tories, and he abided, * I know i am extremely warm, and 
I am apprehensive, if I should attend the House of Lords, 
I also may be hurried away by the impetuosity of my tem- 
per to adopt a line of conduct which, in my cooler mo^ 
inents, I may regret.' * He left office,' says Lord Mahou, 
'' with a most unblemished character, and« what is still less 
common, a most patriotic moderation. Had he gone into 
opposition, or even steered a neubal course, h^ must have 
caused great embarrassment and difficulty to his trium- 
phant rival. But he must thereby have thwarted a policy 
of which he approved, and hindered measures which he 
wished to see adopted. In spite of the most flattering 
advances from the opposition, who were prepared to 
receive him with open arms, he nobly resolved to retire 
altogether from pubhc life. He withdrew to his paternal 
acres at Rainham, where he passed the ei^ht remaining 
years of his life in well-earned leisure or m agricultural 
improvements.' (^History of England fi^om the Peace of 
Utrecht, &c., vol. ii., p. 208.) 

Lord Townshend died on the 2lBt of June, 1738, in his 
sixty-third year. He was an able and honest minister, but 
his ability and honesty were unfortunately uncontrolled by 
temper or prudent tact. He was not conspicuous as an 
orator. Lord Chesterfield has left a description of his 
speaking which is not altogether fiatteringi * The late 
Lord Townshend always spoke materia lly« with argument 
and knowledge, but never pleased. Vvhy? His diction 
was not only inelegant, but frequently ungiummatical, 
and always vulgar ; his cadences false, his voice unhar- 
nionioua, and his action ungraceful. Nobody heard 
him with patience ; and the youn^ fellows used to joke 
upon him, and repeat his inaccuracies.' 'Letters, vol. ii., 
p. 318.) 



TOWNSHEND, RIGHT HONOURABLE CHARLES, 
was the second son of the third viscount Townshend, by 
Audrey, only child of Edward Harrison, Esq., governor of 
Ma(kas, and grandson of the subject of the preceding 
article. He waa born in 1725. He entered the House <3 
Commons in 1747, and very soon gave earnest of his 
future distinction. He supported the Pelham administra- 
tion, and was selected to move the address on the opening 
of the session in November, 1749, of peace after the 
full establishment by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. The 
Marriage Bill, introauced in 1753, was opposed by Towns- 
hend in a speech of singular power ancl beautv, which, 
happily combining humour, argument, and eloquence, 
fixed his reputation as a debater. An excellent report of 
the speech has been preserved, and is printed in the 
* Parliamentary History ' (vol. xv., p. 58). Lord Hills- 
borough, who replied to Townshend, began his speech by 
remarking, * I am very sensible of the danger X am in, 
when I nse up to speak after the honourable gentleman 
who spoke last ; his manner of speaking is so engaging, 
there is such a music in his voice, that it pleases tne eax, 
though it does not inform the understanding ; at the same 
time he expresses his sentiments in such beautiful terms, 
is so ingenious in finding out arguments for supporting his 
opinion, and states those arguments in so strong a h^ht, 
tnat he is always most deservedly heaid with attention, 
and even with a soi-t ofprejudice m favour of everything 
he says ' {Id., p. 62). This is a clear and decisive testi- 
mony to the position which Townshend had now taken in 
the house, and to that eloquence, of which Flood, com- 
paring Townshend with Barr6, Conway, and others, towards 
the end of his career, observed, ' He is the orator ; the rest 
are speakers.' {Charlemont Correspondence, p. 27.) 

Townshend's speech on the Marriage Bill has been com- 
memorated by another contenjporary, Horace Walpole, 
earl of Orfora. ^A second adversary appeared against 
the bill. This was Charles Townshend, second son of my 
lord Townshend, a young man of unbounded ambition, of 
exceeding application, nnd, as it now appeared, of abilities 
capable of satisfying that ambition, and of not wanting 
that application : yet to such parts and such industry he 
was fond of associating all the httle aits and falsehoods 
that always depreciate, though so often thought necessary 
by a genius. I^e had been an early favourite of Lord 
Halifax, and had already distinguished himself on afiaira 
of trade, and in drawing plans and papers for that pro- 
vince: but not rising in proportion to his ambition, he 
comforted himself with employing as many stratagems aa 
h|id ever been imputed to the most successful statesman. 
His fi^re was tali and advantageous, his action vehement, 
his voice loud, his laugh louder. He had art enough to 
disguise anything but his vanity. He spoke long, and 
wi& much wit, and drew a picture with much humour at 
least, if not with much humility, of himself and his own 
situation, as the younger son of a capricious father, who had 
alreadv debarred him from Hn advantageous match. ** Were 
new shackles to be forged to keep young men of abilities 
from mounting to a level with their elder brothers P'' ' Lord 
Orford proceeds to draw a comparison between Towns- 
hend and Conway, who also distmguished himself on the 
same side in this debate, and to speculate on their future 
careers. ' What will be their fiettes I know not, but this 
Mr. Townsliend and Mr. Conway seemed marked by 
nature for leaders, perhaps for rivals, in the government of 
their country. The cjuickness of genius is eminently with 
the first, and a supeiiority of application ; the propriety 
and amiableness ot char^^ter with the latter. One grasps 
at fortune ; the other only seems pleased to accept fortune 
when it advances to him. The one foresees himself equal 
to everything ; the other finds himself so, whenever he 
essays. Charles Townshend seems to have no passion but 
anibition ; Harry Conway not even to have that. The one 
is impetuous and unsteady ; the other cool and determioed. 
Conway is indolent, but can be assiduous; Charles Towns- 
hend can onlv be indefatigable. The latter would govern 
mankind for his o>vn sake ; the former, for theirs.' i^Last Ten 
Years of ike Reign cf George IIL, vol. i., p. 296.) 

In the changes in tlic administration which followed the 
duke of Newcastle's death in 1754, Townshend received 
the appointment of a lord of the Admiralty. On the 
duke of Newcastle's resignation in November, 1756, and 
the formation of a ministry by tha duke of Devonshire, 
with Mr. Pitt as secretary of state, Townshend was ap* 



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pointed to the lucrative post of treasurer of the chamber. 
Tliere are some letters m the lately-published • Corre- 
spondence of Lord Chatham,' which show the importance 
that was attached at this time to Charles Townshend's 
support, and the trouble taken to secure him (vol. i., pp. 
181, seq.) Townshend demanded the place of cofferer, a 
lucrative post in the household. This was already 
engaged. The treasurership of the chamber was then 
offered, and represented as 'in every respect exactly 
equal to the cofferer.' Lord Bute went to Townshend, and 
not finding him, to Townshend's brother, afterwards 
marquis of Townshend, to press his acceptance of this 
office, and, with the aid of the Prince of Wales's name, 
succeeded in satisfying him. 

Tliis ministry was but short-lived. Pitt resigned in the 
spring of next year, in consequence of the dismissal of 
Lord Temple, and Townshend resigned also. Townshend 
refused onera to join the new ministrj', which Lord Wal- 
dcgrave had been commissioned to form. After some 
months of fruitless negotiations, the king was obliged to 
return to Pitt, and in the ministry formed by mm as 
premier, in June, 1757, Townshend resumed his post of 
treasurer of the chamber. 

In March, 1761, Townshend was appointed secretary-at- 
war. The next year, I-ord Bute's ascendency having led 
to the resignations of Pitt and Lord Temple in the first 
instance, and shortly after of the dukes of Newcastle and 
Devonshire, an offer was made to Townshend of the secre- 
taryship of the plantations, which he refused. Mr. Nut- 
hall writes to Lady Chatham, October 14, 1762 :— ' My 
countryman the nght honourable Charles Townshend 
was yesterday sent for by the earl of Bute, who opened 
to him this new system, and offered him the secretaryship 
of the plantations and board of trade, which he not only 
refused, but refused all connection and intercourse what- 
soever with the new counsellor, and spoke out freely. He 
was afterwards three times with the kmg, to whom ne was 
more explicit, and said things that did not a little alarm. 
On his coming out of the closet, Mr. Fox met him and 
gave him joy : he asked, " For what ?" Mr. Fox replied, ♦* Of 
your being secretary of state for the plantations." Mr. T. 
answered, ** Don't believe that. Sir, till you hear it from 
me." Mr. Fox was struck, and said he was greatly aston- 
ished, for he had understood that this had been settled.' 
(Correspondence of the Earl qfCkathavfiy vol. iii., p. 183.) 
Townshend however supported in parliament the prelimi- 
naries for the peace, but soon after was among the oppo- 
sition to Lord Bute's ministry. On Lord Bute's resignation, 
in 1763, it was rumoured that Townshend was to be offered 
the place of first lord of the Admiralty. He was after- 
wards appointed first lord of trade and the plantations. 
In the fruitless negotiations which took place with Mr. 
Pitt towards the close of the year, Townshend was one 
of those named by Pitt to the king. {Chatham Corre* 
spondencey vol. iii., p. 265.) 

Mr. Grenville's Stamp Act, introduced early in 1765, 
was zealously supported by Charles Townshend m a speech 
which elicited from Colonel Barr^, in reply, one of his 
most successful parliamentary efforts. Townshend had 
concluded with the words, * And these Americans, children 
planted by our care, nourished by our indulgence, pro- 
tected by our arms until they are grown to a good degree 
of strength and opulence, will they grudge to contribute 
their mite to relieve us from the heavy load of national 
expense which we lie under ?* * They planted by your 
care ! ' cried Colonel Barr6 : * No, your oppressions planted 
them in America ;' and so he went on, overthrowing each 
clause of the peroration. (Grordon's History of the Ame- 
rican Revolution, vol. i., p. 160.) Under Lord Rocking- 
ham's administration, formed in July, 1765, Townshend 
held the place of paymaster of the forces. It appears from 
a letter of Mr. Conway's, who was secretary of state and 
leader of the House of Commons in this administration, 
that the posts held by him had been offered to Townshend, 
and refused by him. Afterwards, with a vacillation cha- 
racteristic of him, and by which he acauired the name of 
the weathercock^ he repented his refusal, and was willing 
to sacrifice the superior profits of paymaster for the 
greater honour of secretary and leader. * C. T., with all 
his cordiality, fixes conditions to his good will : " confidence 
and the cabmet" were the words a little while ago ; now he 
wishes to be useful, and the way in which he can be so 
most is as leader of the House. I closed at once, with 



the addition that he should then be secretary of state too. 
.... To-day I have privately heard that he has said 
in a letter that things were changed since he refused.' 
{The Companion to the Newspaper y 1835, p. 365, where 
there are several extracts from Conway's unpublished 
letters.) Townshend, who carried his vacillation into his 
public conduct, and the effect of whose brilliant talents 
nas been lessened, both for his time and for posterity, by the 
versatility of his politics, now supported the repeal of the 
Stamp Act, which he had helped the previous session to 
introduce. Shortly after the formation of the Rockingham 
administration, he had been detained in the country by 
illness, which many supposed to be a cloak for dissatisfac- 
tion with the new arrangements, and with the position in 
which he found himself. A pleasant newspaper skit upon 
this circumstance has been preserved by Lord Chesterfield 
{Letters, vol. iv., p. 263) :— ' We hear that the Right Hon- 
ourable Charles Townshend is indisposed, at his house in 
Oxfordshire, of a pain in his side ; but it is not said in 
which side.' 

The Rockingham administration died in July, 1766, 
' having lasted,' as Burke has chronicled it, in his * Short 
Account of a late Short Administration,' • just one year 
and twenty days.' In the new administration fonnea by 
Pitt, now created Lord Chatham, Townshend was chan- 
cellor of the exchequer and leader of the House of Com- 
mons. There had been difficulty, as before, in previdling 
upon him to give up his lucrative post of paymaster : he 
first said he would do so, and then said he would not ; but 
the firmness of Lord Chatham kept him to his first state- 
ment. The letters which passed on the subject between 
Lord Chatham, the duke of Grafton, the king, and Towns- 
hend, may be seen in the * Chatham Correspondence,' vol. 
iii.^p. 458-63. 

The course of this Chatham administration is well 
known. Lord Chatham was soon too ill to transact any 
business or exercise any control over his colleagues, who 
quarrelled with one another, and among whom Townshend 
was looked upon as presuming and contumacious. Towns- 
hend insisted, as chancellor of the exchequer, on a tax 
being laid on the American ports. If this were not done, 
he declared, the duke of Grafton wrote to Lord Chatham, 
March 13, 1767, * he would not remain chancellor of the 
exchequer.' * His behaviour on the whole,' adds the duke, 

* w«iS such as no cabinet will, I am confident, submit to.' 
{Chatham Correspondence, vol. iii., p. 232.) And on the 
same day Lord Shelbume writes to Lord Chatham, — '' I 
was surprised at Mr. Townshend*s conduct, which really 
continues excessive on every occasion, till I afterwafds 
understood in conversation that he declared he knew of 
Lord North's refusal, and from himself. .... It appears 
to me quite impossible that Mr. T. can mean to go on in 
the king's service.' {Id., p. 235.) The policy of Towns- 
hend prevailed, and on the 2nd of June he introduced into 
the House of Commons those unfortunate resolutions im- 
posing duties upon glass, paper, tea, and certain other 
articles imported into Amenca, which rekindled rebellion 
in the colonies, and eventually led to their separation from 
the mother-country. This was done under the nominal 
premiership of Lord Chatham, the determined opponent 
of American taxation, but who was now kept by illness 
aloof from business, and had not been consulted. Soon 
the necessity of constructing a new administration with an 
efficient head was perceived, and a negotiation between 
the marquis of Rockingham, the duke of Bedford, and the 
duke of Newcastle having failed, it was understood that 
Charles Townshend was to be entrusted with the formation 
of a ministry. When the highest power in the state was 
then just within his grasp, he was suddenly carried away 
by a putrid fever, on the 4th of September, 17^. 

The talents and character of Charles Townshend have 
been embalmed in a splendid passage in Mr. Burke s 
celebrated speech on American taxation. The orator had 
already passed in review Mr. Grenville and his Stamp Act, 
and the repeal of that act during Lord Rockingham*s 
ministry, and having come to Lord Chatham's administra- 
tion, and the policy of Charles Townshend, so abhorrent to 
the tenour of Lord Chatham's principles, he proceeds : — 

* For even tlien, Sir, even before this splendid orb was en- 
tirely set, and while the western horizon was in a blaze 
with his descending glory, on the opposite quarter of the 
heavens arose another luminaiy, and for his hour became 
lord of the ascendant. This light too is passed and set for 



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ever. You understand, to be sure, that I speak of Charles 
TowTishend, officially the reproducer of the fatal scheme, 
whom I cannot even now remember without some degree 
of sensibility. In truth. Sir, he was the delight and orna- 
ment of this House, and the charm of every piivate society 
which he honoured with his presence, rerhaps tliere 
never arose in this country, nor in any country, a man of a 
more pointed and finished wit, ana (where his passions 
were not concerned) of a more refined, exquisite, and 
penetrating judgment. If he had not so great a stock as 
some have had, who flourished formerly, of knowledge 
long treasured up, he knew better by far than any man I 
ever was acquainted with how to bring together within a 
short time all that was necessary to establish, to illustrate, 
and to decorate that side of the question he supported. He 
stated his matter skilfully and powerfully. He particulaily 
excelled in a most luminous explanation and display of 
his subject. His style of argument was neither trite and 
vulgar nor subtle and abstruse. He hit the House just 
between wind and water ; and not being troubled with too 
anxious a zeal for any matter in question, he was never 
more tedious or more earnest than the preconceived opi- 
nions and present temper of his hearers required, to whom 
he was always in perfect unison. He conformed exactly 
to the temper of the House ; and he seemed to guide, be* 

cause he was always sure to follow it There are 

many young members in the House (such of late has been 
the rapid succession of public men) who never saw that 
prodigy Charles Townshend, nor of course know what a 
ferment he was able to excite in everything by the violent 
ebullition of his mixed virtues and failings, — for failings 
he had undoubtedly ; many of us remember them ; we are 
this day considering the effect of them. But he had no 
failings which were not owing to a noble cause ; to an 
ardent, generous, perhaps an immoderate passion for 
fame ; a passion which is the instinct of all great souls. 
He worshipped that goddess vilieresoever she appeared ; 
but he paid his particular devotions to her in her favourite 
habitation, in her chosen temple, the House of Commons. 
... .He was truly the child of the House. He never 
thought, did, or said anything, but with a view to you. 
He e>'ery day adapted himself to your disposition, and ad- 
justed himself before it as at a looking-glass.* 

Townshend had married Caroline, the daughter and 
heiress of John, second duke of Argyll and Greeg^vich, 
and widow of the earl of Dalkeith, eldest son of the duke 
of Buccleuch. Just before his death, while his influence 
was in the ascendant, he obtained for his wife the title of 
Baroness Greenwich. Townshend selected Adam Smith 
as tutor and travelling companion for his step-son the 
young duke of Buccleuch [Smith, Adam^, having been 
first led to this choice, we are informed by a letter of Mr. 
Hume's, by his admiration of the ' Theory of Moral Senti- 
ments.' 

TOWNSHIP. This term is sometimes used to denote 
the inhabitants of a town in their collective capacity. In 
legal signification it is a vill forming part of a parish in 
cases where a parish has been divided for secular purposes 
into several vills or townships. 

TOWNSON, THOMAS, D.D., was the eldest son of the 
Rev. John Townson, rector of Much Lees, in Essex, where 
he was bom in 1715. After the usual preparatory educa- 
tion, conducted partly at home, partly at school, he was 
sent to the univereity of Oxford, where he was entered a 
commoner of Chnst Church, in March, 1733. In July, 
1735, he was elected a demy (or scholar) of Magdalen Col- 
lesfe ; in 1736 he was admitted to the degree of B.A. ; in 
1737 he was elected a Fellow of Magdalen ; and in June, 
1739, he commenced M.A. In December, 1741, he was 
ordained deacon, and in September, 1742, priest, by Dr. 
Seeker, bishop of Oxford. Immediately after this he set 
out, accompanied by Mr. Dawkins, Mr. Drake, and Mr. 
Houldsworth, on a tour through Italy, Germany, and Hol- 
land, from which he did not return till 1745. Having re- 
sumed his residence at the university, he was, in 1746. 
presented by his college to the living of Hatfield Peverell, 
in Essex, which he retained till 1749, when he resigned it 
on being presented, by Sir Walter Wagstaffe Bajjot, Bart., 
to the rectory of Blithfield in Staffordshire. This year he 
was senior proctor of the university ; soon after his quitting 
which office he was admitted to the degree of B.D. He 
resigned his fellowship in January, 1751, on being insti- 
tuted to the living of the lower mediety of Malpas, in 
P. C, No. 1565. 



Cheshire, to which he was presented by his friend Mr. 
Drake, but which he did not accept without some re- 
luctance, arising principally from his unwillingness to 
leave Oxford. 

In 1758, having received, under the will of the Rev. 
William Barcroft, rector of Fairsted and vicar of Kelvedon 
in Essex, a bequest of above 8000/., together with his 
library, he resigned Blithfield, and having now more leisure, 
he began to apply himself with greater assiduity to lite- 
rary pursuits m connection with his profession. The first 
work which he finished was an Exposition of the Apoca- 
lypse, which however was never printed. His first pub- 
lication was an anonymous pamphlet, entitled * Doubts 
concerning the Authenticity of the last Publication of the 
Confessional, addressed to (Dr. Blackburne) the author of 
that learned Work,* 8vo., 1767. This was followed, in 
1768, by * A Defence ' of the ' Doubts,' and by another 

Simphlet, entitled * A Dialogue betv^'een Izaac AValton and 
omologistes; in which the Character of Bishop San- 
deraon is defended against the author of the Confes- 
sional.' 

In 1768 he made a second tour to the Continent with 
Mr. Drake's eldest son, Mr. William Drake, of Brasenose 
College. In 1778 he published his principal work, his 
* Discourses on the Four Gospels,' 4to., which immediately 
attracted great attention ; and in testimony of the merit of 
which the university of Oxford confeiTed upon the autlior, 
in Februaiy, 1779, the degree of D.D. by diploma. A 
German translation of this work appeared at Leipzig, in 2 
vols. 8vo., in 1783. In 1780 Dr. Porteus, then bishop of 
Chester, bestowed upon Dr. Townson the archdeaconry of 
Richmond. In 1783 the divinity chair at Oxford was 
offered to him by Lord North, the chancellor, but his ad- 
vanced time of life induced him to decline accepting it. 
He died 15th April, 1792. Dr. Townson's collected works 
were published, in 2 vols. 8vo., in 1810, under the cai*e of 
Mr. (afterwaixls Archdeacon) Churton, together with a 
Memoir of the author, from which the above facts are 
extracted. In addition to the productions that have bpen 
mentioned above, this collection contains some single ser- 
mons, and a portion of a treatise on the Resurrection, en- 
titled * A Discourse on the Evangelical Histories of the 
Resurrection and Firet Appearance of our Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ,' a few copies of which, in 4to., had been 
printed by the author in 1784, and distributed among his 
friends. Dr. Townson was as highly distin^iished by the 
virtues of his private character as for his professional 
learning and ability. 

T0XIC0DENDT[10N. [Rhus.] 

TO'XODON (ro^ov, a bow ; i^oiff, a tooth— from the 
curvature of the teeth), Professor Owen's name for an 
extinct genus founded on Toxodon Platensis, a gigantic 
mammiferous animal, refenible to the order Pachyder- 
MATA, but with affinities to Uie Rodentia, Edentata, and 
Herbivorous Cetacea. 

Mr. Danvin, during his sojourn in Banda Oriental, 
having heard of some giants' bones at a fai*m-house on 
the Sarandis, a small stream entering the Rio Negro, rode 
there and purchased, for the value of eighteen pence, the 
cranium now in the museum of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons in London, and the subject of Professor Owen's 
description. The people at the farm-house told Mr. Dar- 
win tnat the remains were exposed by a flood having 
washed down part of a bank of earth. When found, the 
head was quite perfect ; but the boys knocked the teeth 
out with stones, and then set up the head as a mark to 
throw at. Mr. Darwin found a perfect tooth, which 
exactly fits one of the sockets in this skull, embedded by 
itself on the banks of the Rio Tercero, at the distance of 
about 180 miles from the farm-house. Near the Toxodon 
Mr. Darwin found what he terms the fragments of tlie 
head of an animal rather lai^r than the horee, and which 
he describes as having some points of resemblance with 
the Toxodon and otuers, perhaps with the Edentata. 
These fragments, now also in the Museum of the College, 
Professor Owen has ascertained to belong to the lower jaw 
of Toxodon. Mr. Darwin observes that the remains ap- 
peared so fresh as to render it difficult to believe that they 
had lain buried for ages underground. The bone con- 
tained so much animal matter, that when heated in the 
flame of a spirit-lamp it not only exhaled a very strong 
animal odour, but likewise burned with a slight flame. 
(Journal,) The place where the remains were found is 

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bout 120 miles north-west of Monte Video, and the cts^ 
nium was embedded in a whitish argillaceous earth form- 
ing the banks of the Sarandis. 

The first notice of this most interesting discovery appeare 
in the ' Proceedings of the Geological Society of London,' 
and the paper by Professor Owen was read on the Idth of 
April, 1837. 

The Professor premised his anatomical description by an 
abstract from Mr. Darwin's account* of the geological 
structure of the district in which the cranium was found. 
The foundation of the whole surrounding country is gra- 
nitic, but covered, often to a considerable thickness, by a 
reddish argillaceous soil containing small calcareous con- 
cretions. . 

The cranium equals that of the Hippopotamus in size, 
measuring 2 feet 4 inches in length, and 1 foot 4 inches 
in extreme breadth. The form of the skull is elongated, 
depressed, and chiefly remarkable for the strength and 
wide expanse of the zygomatic arches, and the aspect of 
the occipital foramen and occipital region of the skull, 
which slopes from below upwards and forwards. The 
maxillary jjortion of the skull is compressed laterally, nar- 
row, and with large intermaxillary bones slightly dilated 
at their extremity. 

The teeth consist of molars and incisors. The latter are 
four in number in the upper jaw, the two middle ones very 
small, the two external ones veiy large, curved, and with 
their sockets extending backwards in an arched direction 
through the intermaxillary bones to the maxillary, and ter- 
minating, without diminishing in size, immediately ante- 
rior to the grinding-teeth, where the large persistent pulps 
of these incisors were lodged. In form and relative size 
these teeth must have resembled the denies scalprarii of 
the Rodents. 

The molar teeth no less present a close approximation 
in their form and structure to the molar teeth of the her- 
bivorous rodents : they are seven in number on each side 
of the upper jaw, and, from the form of the sockets, ap- 
pear to have corresponded with each other in structure. 

After this descnption of the teeth, the form, propor- 
tions, disposition, and connections of the different bones of 
the cranium are pointed out, and the structure of the 
osseous cavities suDservient to the organs of sense is ad- 
verted to, followed by deductions that the habits of the 
Toxodon were aquatic. 

So far as the form and position of the external aperture 
of the bony nostrils, of the occipital condyles, together 
with the slope of the occipital region, are concerned, the 
same arguments, the Professor observes, might be advanced 
for referring the Toxodon to the mammiferous group con- 
taining the Dugong, as had been urged in reference to the 
DiNOTHERiuM ; but the existence of air-cells or sinuses in 
the superior parietes of the Toxodon^ a cranium show, he 
adds, that the cranial characters above alluded to are not 
conclusive as to the cetaceous nature of the animal. The 
general conclusions respecting the affinities of the Toxodon 
to existing orders of mammals are then summed up. 

In the Zoology of the Beagle (1838) the subject is treated 
by the Professor in greater detail, and richly illustrated : 
among the illustrations is a figure of the cranium, of the 
natural size. Our limits will not permit us to follow out 
these satisfactory details, which should be attentively 
perused, and we proceed to give the summary, which is 
nearly the same m substance as that at the end of the 
abstract in the ' Proceedings of the Greological Society.' 

* After summing up the different affinities, or indica- 
tions of affinity,' says Mr. Owen, » which are deducible from 
this most cunous and interesting fossil mammal, we are 
led to the conclusion, assuming it to have had extremities 
cased in hoofs, that it is referrible to the order Pachyder- 
mata. But the structure, form, and kind of teeth in the 
upper jaw, prove, indisputably, that the gigantic Toxodon 
was intimately related to the Rodent order. From the 
characters of this order, as afi'orded by the existing species, 
the Toxodon however differs in the relative position of the 
supernumerary incisors, and in the number and direction 
of the curvature of the molars. If moreover the lower jaw, 
next to be described, belong, as I believe, to the Toxodon, 
the dental character of the genus will be — 

• Mr. Darwin's paper, entitled « A Sketch of the Deposits coniaimns the 
extinct Mammalia in the neighbourhood oi' the Plata/ was read to the Societv 
on May 3, 1837. ' 



4 7-7 

* Incuores s ; pro laniariis diastema; motures f^^- 

* The Toxodon again deviates from the true Rodentia, 
and resembles the Wombat [Mahsupialia, vol. xiv., p. 
463] and the Pachyderms in the transverse direction of the 
articular cavity of the lower-jaw. It deviates from the 
Rodentia, and resembles the Pachydermata in the relative 
position of the glenoid cavities and zygomatic arches, and 
m many minor details already alluded to. 

* In tne aspect of the plane of the occipital foramen, and 
occipital region of the skull — ^in the form and position of 
the occipit^ condyles — ^in the aspect of the plane of the 
anterior bony aperture of the nostrils — and in tne thickness 
and texture of the osseous parietes of the skull, the Toxo- 
don deviates both from the Rodentia and existing Pachy- 
dermata, and manifests an affinity to the Dinotherium aod 
Cetaceous order, especially the Herbivorous section. 

* At present we possess no evidence to determine whetiier 
the extremities of the Toxodon were organized on the un- 
gulate or unguiculate type, nor can we be positive, from 
the characters which the skull affords, that the genus may 
not be referrible to the Mutica of Linnaeus, although the 
development of the nasal cavity and the presence of large 
frontal sinuses render it extremelv improbable that the 
habits of this species were so sfiictly aquatic as the total 
absence of hinder extremities would occasion. 

* Where the dentition of a mammiferous animal is stnctlj 
carnivorous, this structure is obviously incompatible with 
a foot incased in a hoof ; but where the teeth are adapted 
for triturating vegetable substances the case is different. 
If animals so characterised are of small size, and seek their 
food in trees, or if they burrow for roots or for shelter, the 
vegetable type of dentition must co-exist with unguiculue 
extremities, as in the Edentata and Rodentia generally ; 
but the largest genus [Hydhochcerus] of the Rodent 
order, whose affinity to Che Pachydermata is manifested 
in its heavy shapeless trunk, thinly scattered bristly hair, 
and many other particulars, has each of its toes inclosed 
in a miniature hoof. 




Skull of Toxodon Platcnsis, profile. 




Top view of the skull of Toxodon Plateasu. 

• The affinity above alluded to is too obvious to have es- 
caped popular notice, and the Capybara, IVom its aquatic 
habits, has obtained the name of Water-hog. It is highly 
interesting to find that the continent to which this exist- 
ing aberrant form of Rodent is peculiar should be found 



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Penultimate Molar Tooth, Upper Jaw. of Toxodon PUttnaU. 




Incisor Tooth of Low«r Jaw of n Toxodon. 




, Grinding 8ur.nee of pennltimate Upper Moliir Tooth of TozodoaPlateDiit. 
b, Orindinfi; Surfaco of a corresponding Molar Tooth of tha Lower Jaw. . 




Frupneat of aaterior part of Lower Jaw of a Toxodon, wiA teafh ia riCo. 
^ (AU from Owen.) 



to contain the remains of an extinct genus characterised 
by a dentition which closely resembles the Rodent type, 
but manifesting it on a gigantic scale, and tending to com- 
plete the chain of affinities which links the Pachydenna- 
tous with the Rodent and Cetaceous orders.' 

Professor Owen then enters upon the description of the 
lower jaw, o? rather the fragments of the one above alluded 
to, found also by Mr. Darwm at Bahia Blanca, in lat. 30°, 
on the east coast of South America. The inquiry is con- 
ducted in the most cautious and philosophical manner, 
and leaves no doubt that the fossils in question are the 
fragments of a lower jaw and teeth of a Toxodon^ belon^ng, 
if not to Toxodon Platensis, at least to an allied species. 

TOXO'STOMA, J Wagler's name for a genus of 
Thrushes. 

TRACERY, a term of uncertain origin, perhaps of 
modem invention, but exceedingly useful and almost pecu- 
liar to our own architectural vocabulary, there being no 
corresponding term in any other language to denote with 
equal orevity and clearness that species of pattern-work 
formed or traced in the head of a Gothic window by the 
mullions [Mullion] being there continued, but diverging 
into arches, curves, arud flowing lines, enriched with folia- 
tions. The term is also applied to ornamental design of 
the same character, whether for doors, panelling, or ceil- 
ings ; the only difference being that in windows the pat- 
tern or tracery is perforated, and in other cases closed, that 
is, is a mere pattern carved on the surface of a solid part ; 
except in particular instances, where the tracery on para- 
pets, battlements, turrets, spires, &c. is pierced, and then 
it is described as open-work. The latter term necessarily 
implies tracery of some kind or other, though * tracery * 
does not imply * open-work,' the latter being merely an 
exception from the usual mode. 

Much both of the beauty and character of the Gothic 
or pointed style depends upon windows and their tracery ; 
and it is one great and peculiar merit of the style, that 
such indispensable apertures for the admission of light 
are made to constitute some of its most striking features, 
and to exhibit very forcibljr the pervading principle 
of the entire system. This is so strongly marked, tnat 
it is incomprehensible how in making any attempt at 
Gothic the veriest bungler could fail to perceive how 
essential mullions and tracery are to the character of the 
style, and that to omit them in what professes by the 
general form of the aperture to be a Gothic window, is 
lust like omitting the capital of a Corinthian column. 
Neither is it sufficient that the mere general outline and 
pattern of tracery and mullions be followed, for that may 
be done, and nevertheless the character be lost — at least 
greatly impoverished, and rendered mean, meagre, and 
wiry, as is generally the case more or less in modern 
Gothic windows and tracery. 

On referring to Gothic Architecture, p. 323, it will be 
seen that Tracery does not occur in the simple lancet style 
or earliest form of Gothic, for there the windows consist 
merely of so many single apertures, placed side by side, 
and united only by their external mouldings, instead of 
being included within a larger arch. The first principle 
followed was therefore rather of addition than of conwi- 
nation ; but as soon as the latter idea was adopted, it 
necessarily led to the continuation of the window oy per- 
forating the tympanum^ or space between the smaller 
arches and the larger one over them. At first this was 
usually done by filling up the head of the window with a 
single circle cut into foils, and with the open spandrels or 
smaller triangular spaces so produced. Of such windows 
an example from Westminster Abbey is shown at the page 
above referred to, and on the following one are other 
instances where tracery of the same character becomes 
more elaborate and complicated, either by the circle being 
repeated, as in the example from York, or subdivided into 
smaller ornamental compartments, as in that from Exeter. 
This species of tracery is distinguished by the name of 
Geometrical, while that which succeeded it is tenmed 
Flowing from its being composed throughout of curbed 
lines interwoven with each other, after the manner of the 
example from Kirton, 'which is shown along with the 
others above mentioned. In Perpendictdar traceiy, on 
the contrary, the lines of the mullions are continued m the 
head of the window, and divide it into panels, which are in 
turn subdivided into smaller ones. The annexed is a spe- 
cimen of such window, from St. Mary's Church, Oxfori 



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What is called Flamboyant tracery is a species of the 
Ffmcing peculiar to French Gothic, and is remarkable not 
only for its richness and intricacy, but for its irregularity, 
tlie pattern of the separate compartments not being per- 
fectly symmetrical, althouu:h one half of the window cor- 
responds with the other. To the above-mentioned varieties 
may be added another peculiar to Germany, but not very 
common there ; this has obtained the name of Stump tra- 
cery, in consequence of some of the mouldings appearing 
to be broken off, and leaving only short ends or stumps 
where they intersect other lines. 

Tracery of the same character admits of very great 
diversity of design, and that not only in different build- 
ings, but in the same building, although such source of va- 
riety is rarely turned to account by modern architects. It has 
however been done by Mr. Pugin in the Catholic church 
now building in St. George's Fields, London, in which 
edifice all the windows exhibit different patterns of 
tracery. 

TRACHELI'PODA (rpax»?^<'c, trachelos, a neck ; and 
irouf, pous, gen. podos, a foot), Lamarck's name for his 
third order of the class Mollusca. 

Lamarck divides the order into two sections: — 
1st section. PJiytiphaga. Plant-eaters. 
Div. L Air-breathers. 

Families : — Colimaceans {Helix, &c.), Limneans {Lim- 
neea, &c.). 

Div. 2. Water-breathers. 

Families : — Melanians, Peristomians, Neritaceans, Jan- 
thinians, Macrostomians, Plicacians, Scalarians, Turbina- 
cians. 

2nd section. Zoophaga. Flesh-eaters, Water-breathers, 
and all marine. 

Families : — Canalifera, Alatae, Purpurifera, Columellaria, 
Convolutae. ^Animaux sans Verteores,) 

Fossil Carnivorous Trachelipods. 

Professor Buckland, in his Bridgeicater Treatise, remarks 
that most collectors have seen upon the sea-shore numbers 
of dead shells in which small circular holes have been 
bored by the predaceous tribes for the purpose of feeding 
upon the bodies of the animals contamed within them : 
similar holes, he observes, occur in many fossil shells of 
the Tertiary strata, wherein the shells of carnivorous Tra- 
chelipods also abound ; but perforations of this kind are 
extremely rare in the fossil shells of any older formation. 
In the green-sand and oolite, he adds, they have been 
noticed only in those few cases where they are accom- 
panied by the shells of equally rare carnivorous mollusks ; 
and in the lias and strata below it there are neither per- 
forations nor any shells having the notched mouth of per- 
forating carnivorous species. 

* It should seem from these facts,' contmues the Pro- 
fessor, ' that in the economy of submarine life the great 
family of carnivorous trachelipods performed the same 
necessary office during the tertiarv period which is allotted 
to them in the present ocean. We have further evidence 
to show that in times anterior to and during the deposi- 



tion of the chalk the same important functions were con- 
signed to other carnivorous mollusks, viz. the Testaceous 
Cephalopods, consisting of the chambered shells of Nautili 
and Ammonites, and many kindred extinct g